Selasa, 30 April 2013

Parts of a Disc Brake

Parts of a Disc Brake

By learning the parts and functions of an automatic braking system, car owners are better prepared to deal with brake problems. Gaining a better understanding of brake functions also helps the owner better explain problems to mechanics. A typical auto brake system has disc brakes in the front and either disc brakes or drum brakes in the rear. Each wheel has brake lines linked to the master cylinder. The master cylinder is the brain of the system, and it tells the brakes to stop by pushing hydraulic fluid through the system to the independent brakes at each wheel.

Brake Caliper

    Brake calipers house the brake piston and the brake pads. The master cylinder delivers fluid to the brake calipers, and the fluid pushes on the piston. The piston presses against the pads, and the brake pads press against the rotor. The friction between the pads and the rotor stops the car. Calipers need periodic maintenance, because the boot on the piston can tear, the piston can wear out, and the brake line to the caliper can develop cracks or leaks.

Brake Pads

    The stopping power of disc brake systems relies on friction. The brake pads assist in providing the friction in a brake system by rubbing against a steel rotor. The brake pads are the first components in the system to show wear. Pads are classified by two types of friction. Abrasive friction involves an organic pad, which breaks the molecular bond in the steel rotor. Organic pads wear out faster and do not resist high temperature glazing. On the other hand, adherent friction depends on a transfer film being deposited on the surface of the rotor. This is done by semi-metallic pads. The friction comes from breaking the molecular bond of the two like materials on the rotor surface. These types of pads wear more slowly and resist high temperatures better. High-performance pads have a semi-metallic base with tiny amounts of organic material and are combined with other materials such as carbon fiber to form more efficient pads.

Brake Rotors

    The brake rotors are attached firmly to the wheel hubs. Brake pads rub against the rotors, and the friction between the rotor and the pad stops the car. Rotors do not need replacing as often as the pads. Rotors vary, but their thickness is measured during inspection, and mechanics determine whether replacement is necessary. Rotors can also be turned, a process that involves grinding the rotor to remove deep grooves and scratches. Deep grooves cause the pads to wear unevenly and more quickly. A brake rotor is composed of various metals, including carbide-forming metals such as vanadium and titanium, iron and even copper. For some rotors, a measurement of just 0.10 inches can require replacement of that rotor.

How to Fix Brake Pads in a Kia Sportage

How to Fix Brake Pads in a Kia Sportage

Brake pads are a component of disc braking systems. These alloy-made pieces are compressed against a rotor to cause the vehicle's wheels to stop spinning. Due to the mechanical pressure and heat, brake pads always wear out eventually, and fixing them in the interim is occasionally necessary to retain proper braking function. While full replacement is generally recommended, you can also repair certain braking problems on your Kia Sportage if you have a bit of mechanical knowledge.

Instructions

    1

    Place the wheel blocks opposite of the end that the vehicle needs to be lifted. Loosen the wheel lugs on the wheel that needs to be removed to access the brake pads using the 1/2-inch ratchet wrench and lug socket. Raise the vehicle using the hydraulic lift and place the jack stands at structure points for extra security.

    2

    Remove the lugs from the wheel and slide the wheel underneath the vehicle. Remove the metal caliper clip using a slotted screwdriver and pull the caliper off the rotor assembly. Use a rubber mallet to gently tap the caliper if it is stuck in place. Remove the brake pads using a slotted screwdriver, prying them away from the piston seats.

    3

    Apply dime-sized amounts of brake pad glue to the back of both brake pads for brakes that rattle while the brake pedal is not applied. The glue will prevent the pads from rattling away from the piston seats. Firmly seat the pads back into the piston seats and allow them to sit for approximately five minutes before reassembling the caliper.

    4

    Run your hand over the brake pad surface for pads that are noisy or squeak while the brake pedal is applied. Feel for any rough or high spots on the pad. Use a piece of 200-grit sandpaper to scrub the pad. Continue to rub the pad until the high spot is gone. Place the pads into the caliper piston seats and reassemble.

How do I Replace a Lexus LS430 Passenger Window?

A broken passenger window may not reduce the driving visibility in your Lexus LS430 but it can still affect the overall appearance of your vehicle. In addition, it can also put the Lexus at risk of being broken into or damaged further. To avoid this scenario you need to replace the damaged window with a completely new pane of glass. You can pick up a replacement pane from your local auto store.

Instructions

    1

    Open up the door of your Lexus which contains the damaged passenger window. Use a phillips-head screwdriver to remove the mounting screws which fix the door panel to the inside of the door. Remove the door panel from the door.

    2

    Take the screws out of the door handle and the door handle trim. Pull them both away from the Lexus. Use your hands to pull away the water deflector from the door. Just keep pulling it towards you until it comes away from the door.

    3

    Use a hex wrench to remove the bolts which connect the damaged passenger window to the window regulator.

    4

    Put on a pair of safety gloves and begin lifting the damaged pieces of glass from the window frame. Take care not to cut your hands.

    5

    Place the new glass pane in to the door frame. Line up the bolt holes on the regulator with those on the glass and secure in place with the hex wrench. Reattach the door by following the removal steps in reverse.

How to Change the Brake Pads on a 2006 Toyota 4Runner

How to Change the Brake Pads on a 2006 Toyota 4Runner

The 2006 Toyota 4Runner uses disc brakes on all four wheels. The calipers and pads on the wheels vary, however. The front wheels have fixed calipers that can't be removed from the brake discs, while the rear wheels use floating calipers that are much more like those used on many other vehicles. Changing the brake pads varies depending on whether you're changing the front or rear ones.

Instructions

Accessing the Calipers (Both Ends)

    1

    Siphon two-thirds of the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir; use a previously unused turkey baster or syringe.

    2

    Raise the front or rear end of the vehicle--whichever end you are replacing the brakes on--and support that end on jack stands. Remove both wheels at that end using the tire iron.

    3

    Clean the brake assembly with an aerosol brake cleaner and catch any residue with a drip pan under the assembly; never use compressed air on a brake assembly.

Front Fixed Calipers

    4

    Work on one side of the 4runner at a time, so you always have a completed brake assembly for a visual reference. Pull out the small clips for the upper and lower retaining pins and the anti rattle spring on the brake pad plate with needle-nose pliers. Remove the pins from the caliper.

    5

    Compress the caliper pistons into their bores using vise-grip pliers on the ends of the outer brake pad. Remove the outer pad and then compress the pistons the rest of the way with covered pliers handles or tape-wrapped screwdrivers.

    6

    Coat the replacement outer brake pad's backing plate sparingly with high-temperature grease, install a new anti-squeal shim to the pad and install the pad into the caliper.

    7

    Repeat the two previous steps for the inner brake pad.

    8

    Install the anti-rattle spring and then the lower and upper retaining pins back on the caliper. Connect the pins' clips using the needle-nose pliers; make sure the clips' handle ends point away from the caliper.

Rear Floating Calipers

    9

    Compress the single piston on the floating caliper back into its bore using a C-clamp. Watch the fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir and see that it doesn't overflow.

    10

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts with a wrench and lift the caliper off the mounting bracket. Hang the caliper someplace on the car body using a coat hanger or other strong wire. Do not allow it to hang from the brake line hose.

    11

    Pull the outer brake pad out of the caliper mounting bracket and then the inner pad.

    12

    Remove the brake pad support plates from the bracket and make sure they aren't worn out and they fit tightly. Clean the mounting bracket with a small brush and reinstall the support plates.

    13

    Sparingly lubricate the back of the replacement brake pads with high-temperature brake grease, install clean anti-squeal shims onto them and connect the wear indicator to the inner pad's bottom end. Install the inner and outer pads into the caliper.

    14

    Place the brake caliper onto the mounting bracket and secure it with the mounting bolts.

Post-Installation (Both Ends)

    15

    Reinstall the wheels and lower the vehicle after changing the brakes on both sides.

    16

    Turn on the engine and press the brake pedal several times to seat the brake pads.

    17

    Fill the brake master cylinder reservoir with fresh brake fluid as needed.

Car-Door Window Installation

Car-Door Window Installation

To install a car-door window, you will have to remove the door panel and its equipment to get to the door window. Although every door panel and window is different in style and position, there are some basic commonalities. Once you remove the parts needed to get to the inner part of your door panel, installing a door window is quite simple. It's important to make sure that you have your repair manual handy before getting started.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the inner door panel. Remove the door handle and other inner parts by removing screws using your Phillips screwdriver. Pry the inner door panel away from the door using a door panel remover, a screwdriver or your hand. Make sure that you don't break any clips holding the panel to the door. When removing the door, you may see some wires attached to the door panel and door. Simply unsnap the wires from the door panel.

    2

    Remove the weather barrier from the door by working around the edges underneath. Use a box cutter to work around the edges. Do not remove the weather barrier completely. When you feel like it's lifted enough, tape it back. Since every car door is a little different, you will need to refer to your repair manual. Place the door handle back on so that you can see the two bolts that you need to remove. Remove those bolts using your ratchet tool.

    3

    Place the door's glass inside the window from the outside of the door in a slanted position. Engage the window into the track by pushing forward gently. Make sure the window is lined up with the inside channels on the inside of the window. Once you have the window in, line the glass bolt holes with the bolt holes where you took them off. Screw the bolts back in using your ratchet tool. If you need to remove a glass window, lift the glass up and out into a slanted position, removing the glass on the outside of the door.

    4

    Roll your window up and down to see if it's working property. Replace the weather barrier, the door panel and the other door equipment. Once you do this, you're done.

Ford Festiva Rotor Removal

Ford Festiva Rotor Removal

The procedure for removing brake rotors on a Ford Festiva does not differ at all from removing them on other Ford economy cars. With some basic tools and skills, you should have little trouble removing your own rotors--which in turn will lower your cars maintenance costs.

Preparation

    Park your car on a flat surface, and apply the parking brake to ensure the car will not move. Use a Ford jack to lift up the appropriate wheel for the rotor you wish to remove. If you have jack stands, insert them underneath the axle for additional safety. Remove the four lug nuts using a Ford lug wrench, and take off the tire to expose the braking hub. If you are removing a rotor on one of the front wheels, it helps to turn the steering wheel--which will expose the brake caliper, thus making it more accessible.

Removal

    Locate the two spring clamps on top of the brake caliper that secure the brake pads, and compress them with your hand and slide them out. Use a 17 mm wrench to remove the two bolts holding the caliper bracket to the spindle, and carefully remove the entire caliper bracket. Slide the caliper off the wheel hub and set it out of the way, being careful not to stretch or damage the brake line. A plastic tie can be helpful to temporarily attach the caliper to the spindle, which will hold it out of the way. Another option is to rest the caliper on a small box, which also prevents ground contact and brake line damage.

    There are two screws securing the rotor in place that are located inside the rotor close to the axles. It is possible that these two screws have become seized up and difficult to remove. If you cannot turn them with a Phillips-head screwdriver, set an impact driver to counterclockwise to remove the screws. Then the rotor will easily slide off the spindle. Repeat this process for the remaining rotors on your Festiva.

Senin, 29 April 2013

How to Install Auto Sunroofs

Installing an automobile sunroof can be a do-it-yourself job. It is important that you invest in the specific sunroof kit designated for your car's make and model. You can buy a kit online or at a local auto parts retailer. Most kits will come equipped with the frame, the glass, the inserts, a set of screws and possibly a roll of weather stripping and caulk. Once you have your kit, refer to its set instructions to avoid costly mistakes and to make the installation process as efficient as possible.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle on level ground away from traffic. Turn off the engine and disconnect the battery. Lay tarp or protective covering over the car's interior seats.

    2

    Mark the area where the sunroof will be positioned with a non-permanent fine point marker. To find the right position, rearrange the front seats to their rear-most position on their tracks. Align the rear-most edge of the sunroof with the seat's back.

    3

    Tape the paper template found in the sunroof kit atop the roof of your vehicle. Center the template between the sides of the car's roof, making sure that the rear frame is aligned with the seat's backs. Mark over the template's installation lines with the marker.

    4

    Select the appropriate bits to use on the electric hand drill. Use the drill to start a hole in the rear edge of the sunroof so that it is in line with your markings.

    5

    Use an electric hand saw with a sheet metal cutting blade to cut along the template's installation markings starting from the drill hole. Use slow and precise strokes to reduce error as you cut. Remove and discard of the cut-out metal.

    6

    Use a razor blade or utility knife to cut out the headliner along the installation line markings. Refrain from cutting through all of the headliner at once. According to Guide 365, "the inner frame will cover the cut edge once the sunroof is installed."

    7

    Install the sunroof frames from the kit. Test fit them first -- both inner and outer -- so that they position in the hole properly. Adjust the hole by sawing out more metal until the frame sits squarely and flat inside the opening.

    8

    Apply the gasket seal around the border of the opening as directed in the kit instructions.

    9

    Test-install the sunroof's outer glass so that its border is positioned snugly around the gasket seal. If you notice a gap, fill it in with weatherstripping caulk. Remove the glass and frame.

    10

    Fill all large gaps with weatherstripping and caulking, and then reinstall the frame and glass. Insert and secure all screws that came with the kit. Clean away all caulk residue with a rag and mild soap.

How to Replace a Caliper in a Plymouth Voyager

If you need to replace parts like a brake caliper in a Plymouth Voyager, you might need to check parts for the Chrysler minivan under the same name. Make sure any replacement parts come from a reputable source and they will work on your Plymouth machine.

Instructions

Remove the Old Caliper

    1

    Lift the front end of the van securely on a jack stand and remove the wheels. The Plymouth Voyager only has calipers on the front brakes, since it uses drum brakes on the rear axle.

    2

    Unscrew the attaching bolt on the brake hose to disconnect it from the caliper. Plug up the line with a small piece of rubber. Toss out the copper washers, as you will need to use new ones upon assembly.

    3

    Disconnect the caliper guide pin bolts securing the caliper to the steering knuckle. Slide the caliper slowly away from the knuckle. Slide the caliper's opposite end out from under the knuckle's machined abutment.

    4

    Clean the abutment surfaces and lubricate them multipurpose lubricant. Run a mist of water over the surface and use a damp rag to clean them. Never dry clean brake parts because of asbestos risk.

Install the Replacement Caliper

    5

    Place the replacement caliper over the brake pads and rotor. Make sure you don't damage the caliper seals or guide pin bushings from the steering knuckle bosses.

    6

    Install the guide pin bolts and the brake hose to the caliper. Use new washers with the brake hose's fitting bolt.

    7

    Fill the brake master cylinder with fluid. Connect the brake bleeder valve to a container of fluid with a rubber hose and have another person remove air from the system by using the brake pedal.

    8

    Install the wheels back on the van. Attach the lug nuts to half their full torque before lowering the van, then finish tightening them.

    9

    Set the brake pads. Pump the pedal until it feels firm. Test the brakes out on the road.

How to Remove the Windows in a 2003 Suburban

How to Remove the Windows in a 2003 Suburban

The Chevy Suburban has multiple windows both for the doors and the rear compartment. Fixed glass windows should be handled by a professional, but you can remove the adjustable windows within the main doors. These windows consist of the glass itself controlled by the two-track regulator. You can remove the glass by itself if that's all you need to do, but you must remove the glass first if you need to remove the regulator. Either way, you have to get into the door itself.

Instructions

    1

    Disconnect the vehicle's battery at the negative cable if the Suburban is equipped with power windows.

    2

    Unhook and remove the manual window crank with a hooked tool (or rub a rag behind it to dislodge the clip), or pry out the power switch controls with a trim stick and disconnect the electrical connector.

    3

    Remove all other trim bezels and armrest assemblies with the trim stick, including the bezel around the door handle and the triangular panel covering the rearview mirror mount.

    4

    Unscrew all of the mounting screws with your screwdriver, then pull the door up and out at the same time and disconnect the electrical connectors behind it to remove the panel. Peel away the plastic shield on the door.

    5

    Reconnect the window controls with either the electrical connector or handle clip, then raise/lower the window until you can see the bolts for the glass tracks in the door openings.

    6

    Remove the single bolt for the window's front channel with your wrench and move the channel away from the glass.Loosen the bolts fastening the window regulator track.

    7

    Lift the window glass up off the regulator and slide it out through the opening at the top of the door.

    8

    Remove the regulator's bolts at the top and bottom ends of the regulator's two guide tracks. Push the tracks together and remove it through the door opening.

How to Make Parking Brake Adjustments in a Lincoln Navigator

Your Lincoln Navigator has an automatic adjuster for the parking brakes, meaning the parking adjust automatically when you press in on the parking brake pedal with your foot. Making a simple adjustment to your parking brake makes your vehicle a lot safer. Doing the adjustment at home saves you time and money spent on a mechanic. You need to make the adjustment when your Lincoln Navigator starts to slip down the slope in park.

Instructions

    1

    Press in on your parking brake pedal with your foot to automatically engage the adjusting mechanism for the parking brake. This maneuver adjusts the parking brake cables to both the rear and front wheels. It also adjusts the parking brake shoes underneath the vehicle and in the wheel wells.

    2

    Test out the parking brake adjustment by pushing in on the pedal with your foot and parking your Lincoln Navigator on a hill. Take your foot off the pedal and the parking brake should hold in the downward position. Apply pressure to the parking brake with your foot if your vehicle starts to roll.

    3

    Repeat Step 1 and Step 2 when your Lincoln Navigator continues to slip down the hill when parked on a slope.

Minggu, 28 April 2013

How to Replace a Rotor on a 4X4 Dodge

How to Replace a Rotor on a 4X4 Dodge

You would typically change the rotors on a 4X4 Dodge truck when you change the brake pads. Reasons why you would need to change the rotors include warping, grooves from bad brake pads, cracking, or they may just be too thin. It does not take long to replace the rotors. You can expect each wheel to take about 30 minutes to complete, and you can do the job in your driveway.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Dodge on a level surface, and turn the key off. Place a set of wheel chocks behind the rear wheels. Raise the truck with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under it near the jacking point, and raise it to the frame. Remove the lug nuts with the lug wrench, and take the wheel off the truck.

    2

    Loosen the caliper bolts with the socket and ratchet. Pull the caliper from the mounting bracket. Secure the caliper to the strut using a wire tie. Remove the retaining clips from the wheel lugs using the pliers. Pull the rotor away from the wheel assembly.

    3

    Place the new rotor on the wheel assembly. Push the retainer clips on the wheel lugs with the pliers. Cut the wire tie holding the caliper to the strut using the pliers. Place the caliper on the mounting bracket and tighten the bolts with the socket and ratchet.

    4

    Put the wheel on the Dodge, and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the truck. Lower the vehicle to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel.

How to Remove a Frozen Brake Rotor

How to Remove a Frozen Brake Rotor

The word "frozen" is used often in the automotive repair industry and is often misunderstood. For example, depending on where you live, it is not uncommon to have rotors frozen to the hub of the vehicle. It doesn't mean that all it needs is to thaw out. It means that rust, corrosion, and oxidation have fused the rotor to the hub. Before you try to remove "frozen" rotors, prepare for the job, or else you will almost certainly damage the rotor. The following steps show how to remove a rotor correctly and reuse it, and to remove and replace it.

Instructions

Remove and Reuse a Frozen Brake Rotor

    1

    Put on the safety glasses since you're trying to remove something stuck on a vehicle by rust. With the vehicle on the lift, or on jack stands, and the wheels and calipers removed, make sure there are no retaining rings on the lug studs of the rotor, or retaining screws holding the rotor to the hub.

    2

    Spray a liberal amount of lubricant on the hub of the rotor where it seats around the hub bearing. Check to see of there are small bolts holes on the hub face of the rotor. If there are, you can try to thread in bolts (usually 2), but the width and thread pitch of the bolts will vary. Once you've found the correct bolt(s), thread them in until they bottom out against the hub. Tighten the bolts alternately about three times each then switch to the other using the ratchet and a socket, and as the bolt tightens, it will pull the rotor away from the hub. If the rotor is "frozen" badly, chances are it will strip out the bolt or bolt hole threads and you'll have to try another method.

    3

    Spray more lubricant onto the rotor and hub bearing seam. Strike the rotor with a large rubber mallet. Strike it on the plate of the fin from behind and from the front alternating strikes. You can light the torch and heat the seam and hub face of the rotor and the edge of the hub of the rotor and continue to strike it with the mallet. The hotter the rotor gets, the lesser the chances are of saving it.

    4

    Use the slide hammer with a rotor removal adapter. This is an L-shaped adapter that screws onto the end of the slide hammer and sits down behind the rear fin plate of the rotor. Slam the slide hammer and move it often to shock the rotor from the hub and eventually remove it.

    5

    Since the rotor was "frozen" to the hub, clean the face of the hub and the edges where the replacement rotor will sit. Use a medium-grade sandpaper, or better yet, a pneumatic die grinder and a coarse sanding disk. Clean it thoroughly. Apply a light coat of a high temperature anti-seize lubricant on the seam of the hub bearing where the hub of the rotor will sit over and along the edge of the hub bearing which will be seated against the inside hub plate of the rotor. This is where the rust and fusion generally occur, and this lubricant will help future extractions of the rotor so such measures will not have to take place.

Remove and Replace a Frozen Brake Rotor

    6

    Spray the hub of the rotor where it seams to the hub bearing and strike the plate fin of the rotor with a 2-pound sledge hammer. Strike it from behind and from the front and move the rotor by turning it to hit a different spot. This usually works as long as you're hitting it with enough force to shock it from the hub.

    7

    Light the torch and heat up the hub face, around the lug studs, and on the side of the hub of the rotor and get it very hot. Once it's heated up, turn off the torch quickly and continue to strike it with the sledge hammer. This is in some extreme cases, but continuing to do this usually works. You may have to heat the hub of the rotor a few times and continue to strike it with the hammer.

    8

    Plug in the pneumatic impact hammer with a stud removal bit to start if you still have not been able to remove the rotor. You can alter the bits around as you begin to work the rotor off. Start by impacting the flat of the hub of the rotor where it seats against the hub bearing. This will help vibrate the rust fusion apart. Next position the impact hammer so that it's contacting the inside plate fin of the rotor and pushing it outward. Again, turn the rotor to alternate the position. This is the last straw kind of step, but will work as long as you remain diligent. Caution needs to be applied on this procedure so you do not incur damage to the hub bearing beneath the rotor.

    9

    Since the rotor was "frozen" to the hub, clean the face of the hub and the edges where the replacement rotor will sit. Use a medium-grade sandpaper, or better yet, a pneumatic die grinder and a coarse sanding disk. Clean it thoroughly. Apply a light coat of a high temperature anti-seize lubricant on the seam of the hub bearing where the hub of the rotor will sit over and along the edge of the hub bearing which will be seated against the inside hub plate of the rotor. This is where the rust and fusion generally occur, and this lubricant will help future extractions of the rotor so such measures will not have to take place.

How to Install Rear Glass on a 1968 Mustang

If the rear glass on your 1968 Mustang becomes damaged, it can not only reduce visibility when looking out of your back window, but also put your vehicle at risk of being stolen. Replacing your rear window is a relatively simple process which will take between one and two hours to complete. You can buy the replacement glass, parts and the tools you will need for the job from your local auto parts store.

Instructions

    1

    Use a sharp blade to remove the weatherstripping trim from around the edge of the Mustang rear window. Make an initial slit in the bottom of the trim and work your way around the edge cutting away the rest of the trim. Discard the trim in the trash.

    2

    Carefully press the rear windshield away from the frame of your Mustang. Wear work gloves to protect your hands from broken glass. Have someone stand outside the vehicle to help you lift the windshield from the frame.

    3

    Use a cloth to wipe away all of the excess caulk left on the frame of the window. Install new weatherstripping into the window frame.

    4

    Apply a layer of windshield urethane caulk around the edge of the new glass panel using a caulk gun. Lift the windshield into the weatherstripping and frame. Press the edges against the frame so that a seal sets in place.

    5

    Wait a few hours to allow the seal to firmly set in place. Clean the rear window glass with a cloth to ensure full visibility.

Sabtu, 27 April 2013

How to Change the Brake Rotors on a 1990 Honda Accord

How to Change the Brake Rotors on a 1990 Honda Accord

The anti-lock braking system on the 1990 Honda Accord uses three main components, in conjunction, to work effectively. The brake pads and calipers are responsible for squeezing against the brake rotor when the brake pedal is depressed. A rotor that is severely scored or warped will not perform as the driver expects. While it is possible to have scratched rotors resurfaced, any deep gouging of the rotor surface or warping will require immediate replacement.

Instructions

    1

    Jack up the Honda and support the vehicle on jack stands.

    2

    Remove the lug nuts with the lug wrench and pull the wheel of the corresponding rotor(s) to be replaced from the wheel bolts.

    3

    Remove the caliper bolts with a 13-mm wrench and pull the caliper from its mount around the rotor. Place the caliper on top of the steering arm or on an idle jack stand to prevent the weight of the caliper from damaging the attached brake line.

    4

    Remove the two screws on the top hat surface of the rotor with a Phillips-head screwdriver. The top hat section of the rotor is the raised center surface on the outside of the rotor.

    5

    Pull the rotor straight from the wheel bolts (outward). Spray the rotor with chain lubricant if it is stuck to the wheel bolts or steering knuckle (the component directly behind the rotor when installed).

    6

    Spray the new rotor with brake cleaner and wipe excess cleaner packing oil from the rotor with a towel.

    7

    Place the new rotor onto the wheel bolts, with the top hat section facing outward. Replace the two screws on the outer surface with the Phillips-head screwdriver.

    8

    Return the caliper onto the rotor and replace the caliper bolts with the wrench.

    9

    Place the wheels onto the wheel bolts and screw on the lug nuts. Remove the jack stands from beneath the Honda and lower the vehicle to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

Jumat, 26 April 2013

How to Replace a 2008 Scion Xb Windshield

How to Replace a 2008 Scion Xb Windshield

You must keep the windshield on your 2008 Scion Xb in the best possible condition if you want to maintain good visibility and avoid peril when your vehicle is on the road. If your windshield becomes damaged, replace it as soon as possible. The process is fairly simple and you can do it quickly, but you should have a friend on hand to help with lifting the windshield. You can pick up a replacement windshield from your local auto store.

Instructions

    1

    Use a screwdriver to remove one of the two base screws underneath the plastic housing for the mirror. The wing mirrors are on either side of the vehicle, slightly in from of the front side windows. Pull the trim around the edge of the wing mirror away from the vehicle. Carefully slide the wing mirror off its base and place it in a safe place for reattachment later. Take care not to damage the mirror or casing when you remove it.

    2

    Lift up the windshield wipers so that they are at a 90 degree angle. Feel on the back of the wiper to find a plastic tab. Press the tab in and slide the wiper away from its metal frame. Removing the windshield wipers and wing mirrors will give you optimal access to the windshield.

    3

    Cut away the rubber seal around the the windshield with a sharp blade. The rubber trim is black and around the edges of the windshield. Make an incision in the trim at the top and then carefully cut the rest of the trim away, working your way around the windshield in a clockwise direction. You need to cut all of the rubber trim away from the windshield. Pull the seal completely away from the windshield with your hand and discard it in the trash.

    4

    Enter the driver's seat of the vehicle and carefully press the windshield out and away from the frame. Press from the center of the windshield to ensure the pressure doesn't apply to the edges. As you push outwards the windshield will begin to come away from the frame. Have another person present to help take the weight of the windshield. Place a thin layer of windshield sealant around the edges of the new windshield. Attach a new gasket to the bottom on the windshield so that the heavy part is on the inside and the slit is on the outside. Align the joints on the gasket so that they are dead center at the bottom of the windshield. Press the gasket against the windshield sealant. Hold it there for a few minutes to allow it to set in place.

    5

    Tie a nylon cord around the outer groove at the edge of the windshield. With the help of your partner, lift the windshield in to place it within the frame. Have your partner press the windshield down against the frame for a few minutes to allow the seal to set in place. Enter the vehicle and pull the nylon cord across the windshield, so that it goes across the top edge of the dashboard at the point where the windshield and dash intersect. This will allow the rubber lip to set in place which will help securely fix the windshield. Clean the windshield and dashboard to prevent any debris getting into the vehicle's vents.

How to Repair Subaru Brakes

How to Repair Subaru Brakes

Repairing Subaru brakes is a task that has many avenues of approach. There are several components to a braking system that may need to be repaired. The brake pads and braking rotors are the fundamental components of the braking system. The calipers and the brake lines are also key components that may be in need of repair or replacement. It is essential that the Subaru owner inspects all of the components of the braking system when making repairs or replacements to any other component, to ensure that any brake work will solve the problem completely.

Instructions

Replace the Brake Pads and Rotor

    1

    Park the Subaru in a location that allows you to work on both sides of the vehicle. Loosen the lug nuts on the wheels with the tire iron. Place the lifting jack beneath a frame of the vehicle. Lift the Subaru and place jack stands under the frame. Leave ample clearance between the tires and the road surface.

    2

    Remove the lug nuts and the wheels from the Subaru. Turn the steering wheel to the side of the vehicle opposite the brake you are repairing. Remove the caliper bolts on the side of the caliper closest to the vehicle's frame, with a 13 millimeter wrench. Pull the caliper from the rotor.

    3

    Slide the brake pads from the two sides of the caliper. Open the bleed valve on the caliper with the 10 millimeter wrench. Place the drip pan beneath the brake. Place the C-clamp over the caliper pistons and the side of the caliper. Screw the C-clamp so that the pistons are forced against the side of the caliper. The excess brake fluid will drip from the bleed valve into the drip pan below.

    4

    Close the bleed valve with the 10 millimeter wrench. Slide the new brake pads onto the walls of the caliper.

    5

    Pull the rotor from the wheel bolts. If the rotor is stuck to the wheel bolts, use a hammer and tap the rotor until it is free.

    6

    Remove the new rotor from the packaging. Spray the entire rotor with brake cleaner. Wipe the rotor clean with a towel. Place the new rotor onto the wheel bolts.

    7

    Replace the caliper onto the rotor. Screw in the caliper bolts of the 13 millimeter wrench.

Bleed the Brake Lines

    8

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels with the tire iron.

    9

    Place the lifting jack beneath the frame at the rear of the Subaru. Lift the vehicle and place jack stands under the frame. Lower the vehicle onto the jack stands.

    10

    Open the hood of the Subaru. Remove the cap on the master cylinder (the master cylinder is located near the windshield on the driver's side of the vehicle). Position the spare tire on the top of the engine. Make sure the air filler nozzle is near the master cylinder. Connect the master cylinder cap from the bleed kit to the master cylinder container. Connect the tubing from the bleed kit cap to the air fill nozzle of the spare tire. This will provide the pressure needed to belled the brake line.

    11

    Remove the lug nuts by hand and pull the wheels from the wheel bolts. Place the tube from the pressure bleeding kit onto the bleed valve of the right rear brake. Place the 10 millimeter wrench onto the bleed valve. Place the drip pan beneath the brake.

    12

    Open the bleed valve with the wrench and watch the flow of brake fluid through the tube. When there are no air bubbles in the fluid stream, close the bleed valve with the wrench.

    13

    Remove the bleed kit tube from the bleed valve and place it on the bleed valve of the left rear brake. Repeat the steps for bleeding before moving to the front right brake, and ending on the front left brake.

    14

    Replace the wheels onto the wheel bolts and screw on the lug nuts. Lift the vehicle to remove the jack stands and then return the vehicle to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts with the tire iron.

    15

    Remove the bleed kit master cylinder cap from the container. Fill the master cylinder with DOT-3 brake fluid and replace the master cylinder cap. Disconnect the bleed kit tube from the spare tire and stow the tire. Close the hood.

    16

    Press the brake pedal slowly to restore the brake fluid to the calipers.

How to Replace Rear Disc Brakes in a Ford Taurus

To replace the rear disc brakes on a Ford Taurus, you must first purchase the special tool, Rear Caliper Piston Adjuster T87P-2588-A, from your local Ford dealership. Unlike many vehicles, you can't retreat the piston with needle nose pliers or a C-clamp, as you risk damaging it. Using this tool, however, you can replace the rear disc brakes in your Taurus with ease.

Instructions

    1

    Drain half the brake fluid from the Ford Taurus' master cylinder reservoir using a syringe or suction gun. Pour the used brake fluid in an approved container and discard properly.

    2

    Raise the vehicle from the ground with a jack. Support the vehicle on all sides with jack stands. Use a torque wrench to loosen the lug nuts and remove the wheels.

    3

    Unscrew the brake hose bracket from the frame side rail. Take off the retaining clips connecting the cable of the parking brake to the disc brake caliper. Separate the end of the cable from the parking brake lever.

    4

    Take out the disc brake caliper locating pin from the support bracket and rotate the caliper, so it isn't blocking the rotor. Take out the disc brake pads. Inspect the rotor for wear and replace, if necessary.

    5

    Rotate the piston clockwise with the special tool, rear caliper piston adjuster, T87P-2588-A, until properly seated. Position one of the piston slots so it engages the brake pad's fastener.

    6

    Replace the disc brake pads with the new ones. Lay the caliper assembly in position on the disc brake pads. Lubricate the brake pin retainer bolt with threadlock sealer, install and torque to 24 ft-lb.

    7

    Secure the end of the cable back on the parking brake lever and put the retaining clip for the cable on the caliper assembly. Attach the bracket and brake flex hose to the side rail and torque to 11 ft-lb.

    8

    Put the wheels back on, remove the jack stands and lower the Ford Taurus to the ground. Bleed your brakes to remove any air from the lines. If your brakes feel "spongy" when you test them, then there's probably still air in the lines and the brakes require further bleeding.

Kamis, 25 April 2013

How to Replace the Rear Window in a Mercury Mountaineer

How to Replace the Rear Window in a Mercury Mountaineer

The Mercury Mountaineer has multiple types of rear windows. The fixed-glass panels at the very back require special tools; these panels are typically handled by trained professionals. It is possible for the vehicle owner to replace the glass in the rear doors. This procedure is very similar to replacing glass in the front doors, but varies depending on the exact year of the vehicle. The biggest variable involves how the glass is mounted within the regulator.

Instructions

Removal

    1

    Open the Mountaineer's rear door. Pull off the weather strips in the window slot at the top of the door

    2

    Pry out the bezel surrounding the inner-door handle using a trim stick. Pry out the control plate in the armrest from its front end, disconnecting its electrical connectors.

    3

    Remove all of the door trim-panel's screws -- the ones in the openings from the removed bezels and the ones along the lower edge -- and then detach the panel from the door. Pull off the plastic water-shield.

    4

    Reconnect the window controls and adjust the window's position until the bolts or rivets are accessible through the access holes.

    5

    Unscrew the track bolts with a wrench. Drill out the rivet heads if the window glass uses rivets. Push the remainders through the glass.

    6

    Tilt the glass forward and lift it out the door. Wear gloves and use caution when dealing with cracked or broken glass.

Installation

    7

    Lower and slide the replacement glass into the door, fitting it within the glass tracks and window regulator. Fasten it in place with the old bolts or new rivets.

    8

    Paste the water shield in place, and then reconnect the door trim-panel with its screws. Reconnect the control plate and handle bezel.

    9

    Lower the window all the way down. Reinstall the weather strips.

How to Replace Brakelines

How to Replace Brakelines

Brake lines can be made of several materials, but the most common is rubber, which can become worn or broken over time. Broken brake lines should be replaced immediately, as they will prevent the automobile's braking system from functioning. The brake system is powered by hydraulic pressure that travels to each tire. The brake lines transport this power when pressure is applied by the driver to the brake pedal. Replacing brake lines requires some background knowledge in auto repair.

Instructions

    1

    Determine the location of the connection points between the brake lines and the braking system. One end of each line will be behind the brake disc of each wheel. The other end of each brake's connection will be at a steel line on the underside of your auto's frame. Consult your auto owner's manual for the exact location of the connections.

    2

    Detach the brake lines from each connection point. Turn the bolts clockwise with an adjustable wrench at each connection point. Place a bucket under the connection on which you are working. This will be needed to catch the brake fluid.

    3

    Attach appropriately sized new brake lines to the connection points from which you removed the old brake lines. Secure them in place by turning the bolt at each connection point clockwise using the adjustable wrench.

    4

    Replace the lost brake fluid in the brake fluid reservoir. This is located near the firewall under the hood of your automobile. Pour new brake fluid into the brake fluid reservoir until it reaches the fill line.

    5

    Bleed all of the air from the brake system that entered during the replacement process. Have an assistant apply pressure to the brake pedal inside the automobile. Open the bleed valve located on each wheel while this pressure is applied to the brake pedal. Do one wheel at a time. Turn the valve counterclockwise with your hand to open it. Close the valve by turning it clockwise with your hand. Start with the wheel that is furthest from the brake fluid reservoir, working your way from the back of the automobile toward the front. Too much air in a brake system can cause the brakes to fail.

Rabu, 24 April 2013

How to Replace the Driver Side Window on a Toyota Corolla

If the window glass in your Toyota Corolla's driver side door is even slightly cracked or damaged, you need to replace it immediately. A cracked window becomes more fragile and has a higher risk of shattering; this poses a greater danger for the driver's side door. In order to remove and replace the window glass, you need to get inside the door by removing the inner trim panel.

Instructions

Removing the Door Panel

    1

    Disconnect the negative cable from the Corolla's battery. This is needed if the door uses any electronics; since you are dealing with the driver's side door, this is very likely.

    2

    Disconnect the window controls from the door. For power controls, pry the control switch up with a trim stick and disconnect its electrical connector. For a window crank, insert a rag behind the handle and rub it back and forth to disengage the handle's clip.

    3

    Detach the trim cover for the door's mirror by unscrewing and removing the control handle and prying the cover's retainers loose with a screwdriver.

    4

    Pry off the trim panels covering the door panel's mounting screws with the trim stick and remove the screws; this includes the door handle's trim piece and the armrest panel.

    5

    Insert the trim tool behind the door's trim panel and work it around the outer edge to disengage the clips. You can now pull the panel up and off the door and disconnect all electrical connectors behind it.

Removing the Glass

    6

    Peel back the plastic watershield covering the door and remove the black plate covering the hole in the door by removing its screws. Pry the weatherstripping out of the top of the door.

    7

    Remove the mounting bolts attaching the window glass to the window regulator. These bolts should require a hex wrench.

    8

    Pull the glass up and out of the door. Use caution if the glass is damaged in any way.

    9

    Lower the replacement glass down into the door. Make sure it is correctly placed within the regulator and secure it with the mounting bolts.

    10

    Reconnect all parts and trim panels in the reverse order that you removed them.

How to Replace the Windshield on a Mitsubishi

How to Replace the Windshield on a Mitsubishi

Mitsubishi is a community of independent companies. Over the years, Mitsubishi has grown to include high-quality model cars mostly known for their powerful motors. If it should happen that the windshield becomes cracked or damaged beyond repair, the owner should contact his local Mitsubishi manufacturer to order replacement glass for his particular model. Do-it-yourself windshield replacement can save the owner money. With a few tools and an assistant, glass windshield replacement can be done without seeing a body mechanic.

Instructions

    1

    Contact Mitsubishi to order a replacement windshield that fits the vehicle's model. Locate a parts dealer or a Mitsubishi dealer in your area.

    2

    Put on safety glasses as well as utility gloves to protect yourself from broken glass and hazardous chemicals.

    3

    Dismount the mirror from inside the vehicle's windshield. Use a small Phillips screwdriver to remove the screws that secure the mirror to the glass. Slide a flathead screwdriver underneath the mirror's base. Pry the base up to dislodge it from the glass. If it is difficult to remove, slide a thin razor blade underneath the base so that it will cut at the adhesive. Set the mirror aside.

    4

    From outside the Mitsubishi, use a carpet knife to slice around the window's inside molding adhesive. Conduct the cutting smoothly, slicing around the perimeter at a steady pace.

    5

    Have an assistant go inside the vehicle to push up on the glass with pressure. Use both hands to push on the glass so that it dislodges itself from the adhesive seal holding the windshield to the frame. Catch the glass from the outside so it does not fall and break.

    6

    Add mild soap and water to a thick sponge to clean away gunk and sticky adhesive buildup from the frame.

    7

    Before replacing the glass windshield, apply a bead of urethane caulk on the inside of the window frame. Have your helper set the glass in place by gently inserting the new glass into the threshold. Once again, apply pressure on the outside of windshield by pressing all your weight on it so that it makes an airtight seal.

    8

    Allow the urethane caulk to cure for 24 to 48 hours. Remount the mirror with a rearview mirror adhesive, which can be purchased from an auto parts store.

How to Change the Rotors on a 2007 Pontiac G6

How to Change the Rotors on a 2007 Pontiac G6

The Pontiac G6 was introduced in 2005, and it replaced the Pontiac Grand Am. The 2007 Pontiac G6 was equipped with a 2.4-liter, in-line four-cylinder in the base model. The 2007 G6 GT was available with a 217-horsepower, 3.5-liter V-6, and an optional 227-horsepower, 3.9-liter V-6. The 2007 G6 GTP was equipped with a 252-horsepower, 3.6-liter V-6. The 2007 G6 rotors are responsible for creating the friction on the brake pads, to bring the car to a stop. If the rotors are warped or too thin, they cannot perform their braking functions effectively.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the hood of the G6 and check the fluid level in the brake fluid reservoir. Remove brake fluid with a turkey baster or bottle pump siphon, until the brake fluid as about 1/2-inch below the "Full" mark on the reservoir. Install and tighten the reservoir lid.

    2

    Loosen the front wheel lug nuts with a tire iron. Raise the front of the G6 with a jack. Set jack stands beneath the front sub-frame rails, on either side of the engine. Lower the car onto the stands. Remove the front wheel lug nuts, then remove the front wheels from the car.

    3

    Remove the caliper bolts from the rear of the caliper, with a ratchet and socket. Remove the caliper from the brake assembly, using a small pry bar, if needed. Hang the caliper from the front strut coil spring with a metal clothes hanger or rod. Remove the brake pads from the caliper bracket, on the outboard and inboard sides of the rotor. Place one of the brake pads against the caliper piston inside the rear of the caliper.

    4

    Wrap a C-clamp around the brake pad and the back of the caliper housing. Tighten the C-clamp to compress the piston completely. Throw the old brake pads away. Remove the brake pad retainer clips from the caliper bracket, by hand. Remove the caliper bracket bolts from the rear of the steering knuckle, using a ratchet and socket. Remove the old brake rotor, by hand.

    5

    Install a new brake rotor onto the G6, and finger-tighten a single lug nut against the face of the new rotor. Spray the entire surface of the rotor with aerosol brake spray to thoroughly clean both sides of the rotor. Install the caliper bracket onto the car, then tighten the mounting bolts with your ratchet and a socket. Clean the channels on the caliper bracket where the pads are to be placed, using a wire brush. Install a thin layer of caliper grease on the outward-facing lips of the bracket.

    6

    Install the brake pad retainer clips onto the caliper bracket, by hand. Install new brake pads onto the caliper bracket, making sure the "L"-shaped metal protrusion is only positioned on the inboard side of the rotor. The "L"-shaped metal piece is the brake wear indicator, and should be situated at the top end of the inboard brake pad when it is installed on the car.

    7

    Remove the caliper slide pins from the rubber boots on the back of the caliper. Dip the slide pins into your tub of caliper grease, or thoroughly coat them with fresh grease. Insert the pins back into the rubber boots when they are properly lubricated. Remove the caliper from the coil spring and install it over the new pads and rotor. Tighten the caliper mounting bolts to 26 foot-pounds with a 1/2-inch-drive torque wrench and socket.

    8

    Repeat steps 2 through 8 to complete the rotor and pad replacement on the other side of the G6. Remove the lug nuts from the faces of both rotors, by hand.

    9

    Install the front wheels onto the G6 and tighten the lug nuts snug with a tire iron. Raise the car off the jack stands, then remove the stands from beneath the car. Lower the G6 to the ground and tighten the front wheel lug nuts to 100 foot-pounds with your torque wrench and a wheel nut socket.

    10

    Sit in the driver's seat of the G6. Depress the brake pedal about two-thirds of the way down, then release the pedal for 15 seconds. Depress the brake pedal two-thirds of the way down again to finish stiffening the pedal and to seat the new pads and rotors together.

    11

    Check the brake fluid level in the reservoir. Add fluid up to the "Full" mark on the reservoir, if necessary. Install and hand-tighten the reservoir cap.

How to Diagnose Pulling Brakes

When you press on your brakes, you expect to stop in a straight line. However, sometimes when you press your brakes, your call pulls to one side. During bad weather, it can be blamed on road conditions. Sometimes though, it happens during a perfectly nice day. You brake and suddenly the car is pulling left or right, and you're not sure why. You need to diagnose the problem quickly.

Instructions

    1

    Check the pressure in each of your tires. Each tire should be at the level specified by the illustration on your driver's side door. If the pressure is uneven, it can cause the car to pull when the brakes are applied. Add air if needed.

    2

    Rule out alignment and steering as your culprits. Drive down a straight road, and take your hands off the steering wheel for a half second. Determine if it drifts to the right or left without hitting the brake. If so, the brakes are not your problem.

    3

    Jack up the car to examine the calipers. If brakes are your problem, this is the most likely culprit. Take off your tire and wheel. Replace your calipers if there are cracks or pieces missing.

    4

    Take off the calipers if they seem to be fine. Rarely a defective brake pad or disk can also cause this problem. Replace them if the calipers check out okay.

How to Change Rear Brake Pads on a 2005 Accord

How to Change Rear Brake Pads on a 2005 Accord

The 2005 Honda Accord featured either rear drum brakes with shoes or rear disc brakes with pads. The rear pads are smaller than the front brake pads but only provide about 30 percent braking capacity for the sedan import. Because of this, replacing them will be less often than the front brake pads. And unlike the front brake calipers, the rear calipers require a special tool to compress the piston in order to provide the room required for the thicker replacement pads.

Instructions

    1

    Remove 1/2 of the brake fluid from the master cylinder in the engine compartment (near the driver's side firewall) using a brake fluid suction tool. Be sure the tool is clean and has never been used on petroleum-based products before, or you'll contaminate the hydraulic braking system. Discard the fluid according to EPA specifications in your community.

    2

    Place a wheel wedge in front of one of the front tires and make sure the parking brake is not engaged on the vehicle. Applying the parking brake will prevent removal of the rear calipers to access the pads.

    3

    Loosen the wheel nuts using a wheel nut wrench in a counterclockwise motion just enough to separate them from the rear wheels.

    4

    Lift the Accord with a car jack then place it onto a jack stand (one side at a time) positioned under the rear frame or the rocker panel lift point.

    5

    Finish removing the wheel nuts then remove the tires.

    6

    Remove the two caliper bolts from the caliper bracket using a metric closed-end wrench. Set them aside.

    7

    Remove the caliper from the caliper bracket, brake pad and rotor assembly. Set it on top of the backing plate covering the rotor so it does not hang from the hydraulic brake hose.

    8

    Use the caliper reset tool kit to twist the caliper piston inwards clockwise until fully seated in the piston bore. Be sure to align the grooves of the rear caliper to match the tabs on the replacement inboard pad that contacts the piston when the time comes to install the pad.

    9

    Inspect the rotor for scores, grooves or rust pits, then inspect the caliper slides (push them in and out by hand) to ensure they're moving back and forth easily (if not, pull them out and lubricate them with the anti-seize compound).

    10

    Remove the old pads from the caliper bracket.

    11

    Apply a light coat of anti-seize compound to the pad hardware clips on the caliper bridge.

    12

    Install the replacement pads into the caliper bracket.

    13

    Replace the caliper over the pads, making sure the inboard pad tabs align correctly into the grooves on the face of the piston bore. Replace the caliper bolts and tighten them.

    14

    Replace the wheels and wheel nuts after both sides are complete, then raise the Accord up high enough to remove the jacks. Tighten the wheel nuts to 80 foot-pounds with a torque wrench in a crisscross pattern.

    15

    Check that the master cylinder cover is secure then pump the brake pedal several times until it feels firm. Check the master cylinder brake fluid level and top off with brake fluid if necessary.

Selasa, 23 April 2013

How to Replace the Windshield Trim on a Mazda Miata

The Miata is a small, lightweight roadster produced by Mazda. It is a rear-drive car popular in autocrossing and road racing due to its near 50/50 weight distribution characteristics. The standard Miata comes with a five-speed manual transmission, though, for an additional cost, you can purchase an automatic transmission. Like most roadsters, the Miata has a convertible top. Over time, especially if the exterior trim is not taken care of, the exterior trim molding around the windshield can---and will---fade and crack. This can be an eyesore, but it can also compromise the seal around the end of the windshield allowing water, dirt and debris to get behind the molding. To prevent this from happening, replace the windshield trim if it is damaged.

Instructions

    1

    Clean the windshield with Windex before starting. You do not want dirt or debris to get lodged into the pinchweld area or underneath the new molding.

    2

    Fold the windshield wiper arm up away from the windshield until it locks into a vertical position.

    3

    Remove the nuts holding the wiper arms in place and pull the wiper arms off.

    4

    Slide the tip of the trim removal tool between the trim and the windshield. Work the tool all around the outer edge of the windshield until the trim comes off.

    5

    Install the new trim. The new trim is installed in the opposite way the old trim was removed. Orient the trim so that it fits tightly between the frame and the windshield. You may need to use the removal tool to align and adjust the trim as you move along the perimeter of the glass. Force the trim into place with your hand.

DIY Windshield Installation on a 1969 Dodge Dart

DIY Windshield Installation on a 1969 Dodge Dart

When it comes to replacing the windshield on your 1969 Dodge Dart, even if you have purchased all the parts needed yourself, professional installation can be quite expensive. Installing a windshield yourself is something which can be easily done, and will save you a lot of money in the process.

Instructions

    1

    Locate the two mounting screws on on the base of the rear-view wing mirror. Remove one of the screws with a Phillips-head screwdriver. This will allow you to slide the wing mirror away from the base. Repeat this one the second wing mirror. This will give you better access to the windshield.

    2

    Use a sharp blade to cut away the rubber trim from around the edges of the windshield. Make an initial incision in the trim and cut away the rest of the trim in a clockwise direction. All of the trim must be removed.

    3

    Enter the vehicle and press the center of the windshield so that it begins to come away from the windshield frame. Have someone to help you standing outside the Dart. They can be used to help take the weight of the windshield to help remove and install it. This also helps prevent any unnecessary damage to the hood when removing the windshield.

    4

    Apply a layer of windshield sealant around the edges of the new windshield. Attach the new gasket to the bottom of the windshield. The gasket should be dead center and also have the heavy part of the gasket on the inside and the slit on the outside. Fix a nylon cord around the outer groove of the windshield.

    5

    Lift the windshield in to the windshield frame with the help of another person. Have the other person press the windshield against the frame for a few minutes to allow the seal to set in place. Enter the vehicle and pull the nylon cord around the bottom of the windshield. This will allow the rubber lip to set in place. Reattach the wing mirrors by sliding them back on to their bases and fixing in place with the base screw.

Senin, 22 April 2013

How to Fix a Window in a Dodge Dakota Truck

How to Fix a Window in a Dodge Dakota Truck

Any time you ride through the dirt and hills in your Dodge Dakota truck, you risk damaging your car windows. Rocks and other objects can fly up from the ground, smacking into your car, and causing cracks along your windows if they get hit. For the best repair, purchase the necessary materials that will allow you to get the job done yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Wash the damaged window. Mix the soap and water until sudsy enough to clean the window, and use soft cloths to scrub and dry it.

    2

    Attach the stabilizer tot eh window correctly. Make sure the suction cup on the bottom of the unit is placed over and surrounds the cracks along the window.

    3

    Put the tube filled with liquid resin into the injector piece, and then place the injector into the stabilizer unit. There will be an opening for the injector on top or on the side of the unit.

    4

    Remove the injector, and watch the resin release from the tube and fill the damage along the window.

    5

    Wait 30 minutes or so and then carefully remove the stabilizer from the window. Lift it straight up and off so you do not touch the resin while it is still wet.

    6

    Measure the length of the repair and cut the curing strips to the correct size. Place the strips over the resin until it has dried after a few hours.

How to Replace a F-150 Side Window

The side window on your Ford F-150 can be expensive to replace, although replacing the side window on your truck is an easier job than replacing the passenger windows. In order to reduce your costs, you can carry out the replacement work yourself. You can order a replacement side window for your truck from your local parts store. The entire job will take you around an hour to complete correctly.

Instructions

    1

    Use a small screwdriver to remove the screws which hold the trim around the side window. Slide a trim stick in to the trim around the window and pull it away from the truck.

    2

    Use a Phillips screwdriver to remove the screws which fix the door panel in place. Lift the door panel away from the door. Remove the screws on the door handle and pull it from the door. Unhook the two linkage arms which connect the door handle to the door lock.

    3

    Use a socket wrench to remove the window mounting tabs from the window regulator. Lift the glass pane out of the side door frame.

    4

    Place the new window in to the side door frame of your F-150. Reconnect the window mounting tabs to connect the window to the regulator.

    5

    Reconnect the two linkage arms to the door lock. Place the door handle back onto the other end of the linkage arms and secure it to the door.

    6

    Place the door panel back onto the door and reattach the screws with a Phillips screwdriver to fix it in place.

How to Fix a Windscreen Chip

How to Fix a Windscreen Chip

A chipped windscreen, or windshield, can be more than an annoyance. If not promptly repaired, the chip can widen into a crack that threatens the structural integrity of your windshield. If the damage impairs your view of the road, it can even be illegal to drive that car until the windshield is fixed. Some chips can be repaired at home, but others are best addressed by a professional.

Instructions

    1

    Check to see if windshield repair is covered by your auto insurance policy. It's cheaper to have a damaged windshield repaired than to replace it entirely, so insurers are therefore more likely to cover repairs.

    2

    Buy a do-it-yourself injection kit from an auto supply shop. An injection kit has a tube of clear resin and a syringe; you clean all glass fragments from the chip, inject the resin into the chip with the syringe, and let the sun dry and harden the resin, which is formulated to be undetectable when dry. This kind of repair works best on small chips, not cracks.

    3

    Buy a bridge-style repair kit if you have many chips to repair, or anticipate future repairs. These kits differ from the syringe kits in that syringe kits are single-use, and the sturdier bridge kits can be refilled and reused. These are the kits preferred by professionals, though they can be somewhat more expensive than single-use kits.

    4

    Admit the truth if your windshield is too far gone for home repair. If the chip has widened into a large crack, has branched out into "spider legs" or is otherwise growing, take it to the shop.

How to Replace the Front Brake Rotor on a 94 Ford Exp.4x4

The braking system on the Ford Explorer 4X4 makes use of hydraulics to slow and stop the vehicle. When you push the brake pedal with your foot, the master cylinder is activated, and it pushes fluid through the brake lines to the calipers. The brake calipers then squeeze the rotors between them and the friction causes the Explorer to slow down and stop. The friction causes the brakes and rotors to wear and when the rotors reach the minimum thickness of 0.810 inches, you must discard and replace them.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Ford Explorer on a level surface and turn off the key. Put the wheel chocks behind the rear tires of the vehicle. Lift the Explorer with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under it close to the jacking point and raise it to the frame.

    2

    Remove the lug nuts from the wheel with the lug wrench and pull the tire from the Ford. Loosen the caliper bolts with a socket and ratchet. Pull the caliper from the mounting bracket and secure it to the strut with a wire tie. If you allow the caliper to hang, it will damage the brake hose.

    3

    Carefully pry the grease cap from the wheel hub using the screwdriver. Remove the cotter pin from the shaft using the pliers. Remove the locking nut using a wrench. Remove the adjusting nut using the wrench and then pull the flat washer from the shaft.

    4

    Remove the outer bearing cone and roller assembly from the hub. Be careful not to drop the bearings. Remove the hub and rotor assembly from the spindle.

    5

    Install the new rotor along with the hub assembly. Insert the roller assembly and the bearing cone. Pack the bearings with wheel grease. Slide the flat washer on the shaft. Install the adjusting nut and tighten it with a wrench. Install the lock nut and tighten it with a wrench. Install a new cotter pin and spread it open with the pliers.

    6

    Place some wheel grease over the assembly and carefully tap the grease cap into place with the rubber mallet. Cut the wire tie holding the caliper to the strut with the pliers. Place the caliper into the mounting cradle and tighten the locking pins with the socket and ratchet. Install the wheel on the Explorer and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

    7

    Remove the jack stand from under the Explorer and lower the vehicle to the ground. Repeat the procedure on the other wheel. Pump the brake several times when the project is complete to be sure that the brake pads bare resting on the rotors.

Minggu, 21 April 2013

How to Bleed the Brakes on a Toyota Corolla

How to Bleed the Brakes on a Toyota Corolla

Air inside a braking system is a potentially disastrous problem. The loss of brake pressure caused by air in the system leads to reduced stopping power and will cause your brakes to perform poorly, which can lead to accidents. Bleeding out the brakes will restore brake pressure and greatly increase the stopping power of your car. Bleeding your brake lines should always be done alongside changing the brake fluid, which will be included in this guide.

Instructions

    1

    Use a jack to raise the car onto 4 jack stands.

    2

    Use a tire iron to remove the bolts on each wheel and then remove the wheels.

    3

    Loosen the bleeder bolts on each wheel with a box wrench, being careful not to open the bleeders yet. If the bleeders are very difficult to open, you may need to place some penetrating oil on them and leave them to sit for a few hours or even overnight.

    4

    Open the hood of the car and open the brake master cylinder reservoir.

    5

    Use a turkey baster to remove as much of the oil in the reservoir as possible.

    6

    Clean the inside of the reservoir with a clean rag.

    7

    Fill the reservoir with new brake fluid and close it.

    8

    Place a piece of clear plastic tubing around the bleed valve of a wheel, starting with the right-rear wheel.

    9

    Place the other end of the tubing into a clear plastic bottle that is 1/4th full of clean brake fluid. Make sure the tubing is submerged and stays submerged in the fluid.

    10

    Have someone apply pressure onto the brake pedal while you open the bleeder bolt slightly.

    11

    Have them press the brake down about 3/4ths of the way and hold it, in the meantime the old brake fluid will be flowing down the plastic tubing.

    12

    Close the bleeder bolt with the wrench as soon as the flow of fluid stops, then have your helper release the brake pedal.

    13

    Continue doing this until clean fluid flows from the bleeder valve, making sure to refill the master cylinder reservoir every 3 times you complete the process of Steps 10 through 12.

    14

    Repeat Steps 8 through 13 for every wheel, starting from the right-rear wheel, then going to the left-rear wheel, the right-front wheel and finally the left-front wheel.

    15

    Top off the master cylinder reservoir.

    16

    Bolt the wheels back into the place.

    17

    Lower the car off of the jack stands.

Types of Brake Systems

Types of Brake Systems

The automotive brake system is designed to decrease the speed of a fast-moving vehicle. Most of today's cars have hydraulic brake systems, which consist of disk brakes in the front and either disk or drum brakes at the rear wheels. A system of tubes and hoses link the brake at each wheel to the master cylinder. Parking brakes, power brake boosters and antilock-systems are other brake systems incorporated in most vehicles today.

Single-circuit Hydraulic Brake System

    The single-circuit hydraulic system consists of a system of plungers, reservoirs and hydraulic fluid. Three basic components of the single-circuit hydraulic system are the master cylinder, slave cylinder and the reservoir, which are joined together with hydraulic hose and filled with non-compressible hydraulic fluid, i.e., brake fluid. When you step on the brakes, you actually compress a small piston assembly in the master cylinder. As brake fluid does not compress, the pressure is instantly transferred to the slave cylinder where it travels through another piston assembly to activate the brakes. Heat from the brakes is transferred back into the brake fluid.

Dual-circuit Hydraulic Brake System

    Dual-circuit hydraulic systems are usually incorporated on high-end luxury vehicles and newer motorcycles, in particular BMW bikes. The dual-circuit system consists of two separate circuits: the command circuit, which activates when you press the brakes, and a separate circuit which is controlled by an onboard computer. The first circuit sends a signal to the computer as soon as you press the brake. The computer then calculates the applied force, and applies the same force to a hydraulic pump system to activate the brakes. The computer however also calculates the car speed and other factors to determine the optimal brake pressure to help you maintain control over the vehicle.

Brake-by-wire

    Brake-by-wire is an advanced electronic braking system. It is very similar to the dual-circuit hydraulic system, but instead of a hydraulic command circuit, this system uses electronic wires to communicate with the computer. The brake pedal is connected to a device that measures the electrical resistance and sends an electrical signal to the brake computer. From there on, it functions exactly like the dual-circuit hydraulic system. Most brake-by-wire systems have some built-in resistance to combat any driver complaints of lack of feel.

Antilock Braking System

    Many modern cars have an antilock braking system consisting of an electronic control unit, a hydraulic actuator and wheel speed sensors at each wheel. When you slam on the brakes in an emergency stop, the wheels will lock up if there is no antilock braking system. Locked wheels prevent you from stopping the car as quickly, and can cause you to lose all steering control, often resulting in an accidents. Antilock braking systems prevent wheels from locking by rapidly pumping the brakes as soon as it detects a wheel locking up. A computer monitors the speed of each wheel, so in most cases, only the wheel that is locked will be pumped, while the full braking pressure is still available on the other wheels.

Power Brake Booster

    A power brake booster system is used to amplify the available foot pressure applied to the brake pedal to help you stop even the largest vehicle. This booster uses vacuum power from the engine, which is a by-product of normal operation. Valves are used to direct air into the booster, which applies extra pressure when you brake. If the engine shuts down while you are driving, a small reserve of power boost will still be available, but after a while it will become harder to brake.

Parking Brakes

    Parking brakes--also called the hand brake or emergency brake--is a system consisting of steel cables that control the rear brakes. This system is completely mechanical, bypassing the hydraulic system, making it possible to bring the vehicle to a stop even if the normal brakes fail.

Air Brake Systems

    Air brake systems are used in buses, trailers, trucks and semi-trailers. Many trucks use compressed air brake systems, in which a standard disc or drum brake is activated by air instead of hydraulic fluid.

How to Change Brake Rotors in a Falcon

There are no new Ford Falcons rolling off the assembly line, so if you're a fan of this make, you've got to treat yours with the utmost care. An important part of maintenance involves checking the brake rotors periodically for pitting or cracking. When the rotors start looking worse for wear, it's time for replacement. Fortunately, this is a relatively fast and easy process that requires only the most basic tools.

Instructions

    1

    Park your Falcon on a level surface and put it in park, but do not apply the parking brake. Make sure the steering column is not locked.

    2

    Slide wheel chocks behind each of the two front tires.

    3

    Slide a floor jack under the rear end of the car, directly beneath a solid part of the frame. Pump the jack handle until the rear end of the car is up high enough for you to be able to put two jack stands underneath.

    4

    Put a jack stand under each side of the rear end of the car, making sure they're positioned beneath solid sections of the frame. When the stands are in place, gently release the pressure on the jack until the car comes to rest on the stands. Pull the jack out from under the car.

    5

    Use a tire iron to remove all of the lug nuts from each of the two rear wheels, then pull the wheels off and set them aside.

    6

    Locate the two large bolts on the back side of each rear brake caliper. Use a socket wrench to remove these bolts, but do not pull the calipers off of the caliper mounts immediately.

    7

    Get some twine, wire, twist ties or some other binding material. One at a time, lift each caliper off of the caliper mount and temporarily attach it to an exposed part of the undercarriage using your binding material. This is just to make sure that the caliper does not dangle by the brake line, which can cause brake line damage and subsequent failure.

    8

    Pull both brake pads out of each of the two rear caliper mounts.

    9

    Use a socket wrench to remove the two bolts holding each of the rear caliper mounts to the rear rotors. Set these bolts and the caliper mounts aside.

    10

    Pull both of the old rotors off of the wheel spindles.

    11

    Slide the new rotors onto the rear wheel spindles.

    12

    Reattach the brake caliper mounts to the new rotors using the original bolts. Install them in the same approximate location where they were installed on the old rotors.

    13

    Slide the brake pads back into the slots on both rear caliper mounts. If you're switching to new pads at this time, use the new ones instead.

    14

    Untie each dangling caliper one at a time and place it over the caliper mount, then install and tighten the two bolts on the back side.

    15

    Reinstall both rear wheels by sliding them onto the wheel spindles and tightening down all of the original lug nuts with a tire iron.

    16

    Slide the floor jack back under a solid part of the rear frame and jack it up to about one inch above the jack stands. Reach under the car to pull out the jack stands, then carefully lower the Falcon all the way to the ground.

    17

    Move the wheel chocks to the rear tires and repeat this entire process on the front end of the car.

Sabtu, 20 April 2013

How to Replace the Rear Glass on a Jeep Wrangler

How to Replace the Rear Glass on a Jeep Wrangler

You can replace the rear liftgate on your Jeep Wrangler in a few steps. If the rear glass is broken, removal may be as simple as pulling the hinges off the hard top and transferring them to the new glass. If the glass is intact, you must transfer the wiper motor, hinges and ball studs from the old glass to the new glass. The glass is durable, so breaking it is not a concern unless you drop it or over-tighten the components as you transfer them. You can get a replacement liftgate from a salvage yard, glass company or Jeep dealership.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the wiring harness connectors from the rear defroster and the rear wiper motor from inside the Jeep. Both connectors pull off by hand; leave them hanging for now.

    2

    Open the liftgate glass and tailgate of the Jeep. Remove the support pistons from the glass. You will see a clip on each end of the support where it meets the ball stud. Remove the clips with a flat-head screwdriver, and pull the pistons off.

    3

    Remove the four bolts that attach the liftgate hinges to the hardtop, using a socket and ratchet. Remove the glass from the Jeep, and set it somewhere soft and flat to transfer the hardware from it to the new glass.

    4

    Remove the rear wiper arm from the wiper motor by removing the nut securing the arm to the wiper motor with a socket and ratchet. Slide the arm straight off the motor and set it aside.

    5

    Remove the large nut on the wiper motor shaft with a wrench. The wiper motor shaft runs through the glass. Slide the motor off the glass and remove the two rubber grommets from the inside and outside of the glass. Place the grommets in the hole on the new glass and slide the wiper motor shaft into the hole. Replace the retaining nut and tighten it with a wrench until it is snug.

    6

    Transfer the hinges from the old glass to the new glass. Remove the nuts from the hinges, move the hinges over and reinstall the nut. Torque them to 62 inch-pounds with a torque wrench.

    7

    Remove the ball studs, using a socket and ratchet, and transfer them to the new glass. Tighten them to 112 inch-pounds with a torque wrench.

    8

    Install the glass on the hardtop by installing the four mounting bolts through the hinges and into the top. Tighten the bolts to 95 inch-pounds with a torque wrench.

    9

    Reinstall the support rods, sliding them onto the ball studs on the body and glass, then install the retaining clips. The clips just push into position and will snap in when fully seated.

    10

    Reconnect the wiring harness connectors for the wiper motor and the rear window defroster. They both just push onto the connectors of the respective parts. Close the tailgate and liftgate, then install the wiper arm back onto the wiper motor shaft. Install the retaining nut and tighten with a socket and ratchet.

How to Strip Window Tinting

How to Strip Window Tinting

Window tinting, or window film, is applied to the interior of glass surfaces to protect from ultraviolet radiation produced by the sun. Over time, window tinting deteriorates and requires removal before applying a new layer of tinting. Stripping window tinting is difficult if approached incorrectly, but if handled correctly, it only requires a few hours of time and some common cleaning supplies.

Instructions

    1

    Cut two black trash bags in a shape roughly the same as the tinted window.

    2

    Mix 2 tbsp. of dish soap in a spray bottle full of warm water.

    3

    Spray the outside of the window and cover it with one of the cut trash bags. Run your hands over the bag to smooth away wrinkles and remove air bubbles. Most window tinting consists of multiple layers --- the black trash bag absorbs heat from the sun and helps multiple layers peel off as one.

    4

    Cover all surrounding surfaces, such as the floor or interior of your vehicle, with black trash bags to protect them.

    5

    Spray undiluted ammonia onto the window tinting in an even layer.

    6

    Cover the ammonia-coated window with the second cut trash bag, smoothing it out as you did the first.

    7

    Leave the window to sit in full sunlight for an hour. Alternatively, if it is not a sunny day, use a hairdryer on the outside of the window for 30 minutes. This heats the entire surface, producing the same effect as heat from the sun.

    8

    Remove the black trash bag from the interior of the window.

    9

    Lift the corner of the window tinting with a razor blade and peel it off with your fingers. Spray the tint with ammonia to keep it moist as you strip the window. Scrap away any remaining tint with the razor blade.

    10

    Spray the stripped window with ammonia and scrub with fine steel wool to remove any residual tint adhesive.

    11

    Remove the black trash bag from the outer window.

    12

    Wash both the inner and outer sides of the window with glass cleaner and paper towels to remove residual ammonia or dish soap.

How to Remove the Rear Drum Brakes on a Chrysler PT Cruiser

Whether you're replacing the rear brake shoes on your PT Cruiser or you just want to clean and adjust the rear drum brakes, you'll need to remove them. The PT Cruiser uses a sealed drum which covers the backing plate trapping brake dust inside. The brake dust can often get caught in between the contact surface of the shoes and drum and produce a pronounced squeal when applying the brake pedal. Removing the drum and shoes will temporarily alleviate the problem until more dust builds up.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the rear hub caps and loosen the lug nuts of both rear tires with the lug wrench.

    2

    Place a wheel chock in front of one of the front tires and raise the rear of the PT cruiser in a safe and secure manner. Support the PT Cruiser onto the jack stands.

    3

    Locate and remove the rubber plug covering the adjustment porthole on the back side of the backing plate. Using the brake adjustment spoon, engage the teeth of the adjuster wheel and turn it in a forward motion to back off the shoe adjustment and allow the drum to be removed easily. Remove the drum and discard the brake dust appropriately.

    4

    Remove the automatic adjusting spring using the drum brake pliers. Disconnect the spring from the lever.

    5

    Apply pressure to pin of the hold-down clips using the needle nosed pliers with a finger on the rear of the backing plate. Turn the clip until the hole in the clip matches the flat end of the pin to release the clip.

    6

    Use needle nose pliers to remove the parking brake cable from the actuating lever.

    7

    Use the drum brake pliers or the needle nose pliers to remove the upper shoe spring.

    8

    Tip one of the shoes downward to relieve tension on the lower show spring and remove the spring by hand. Clean the rear brakes as desired and to replace, reverse the procedure and adjust the shoes to the drum.

Normal Brake Squeaks

Normal Brake Squeaks

Car brake repair is one of the largest components of the auto repair industry. Not every squeak you hear is a problem, however. Learn to identify what the sounds mean and you may save yourself some money.

Dust Accumulation

    In normal operation, auto brakes produce dust from the grinding and pressure associated with the braking process. Over time, this dust can build up and cause spacing between the brake rotor and pads resulting in a squeaking sound when the brakes are applied. Typically, the most dust accumulates on the front wheels as they tend to take the bulk of the car's weight when stopping.

Normal Rust

    You may notice after your car has been sitting for a while, after being washed or a rain shower, the brakes squeak during the first few applications. This is due to a thin layer of rust which can form in as little as a few hours on the brake rotors. You will find the noise stops after the rust has been worn off by normal braking.

Warning Squeaks

    Small metallic elements are added to the edge of the brake pad material during the manufacturing process. When most of the pad has worn away, these elements are exposed and begin to rub on the rotor, producing a loud shrieking sound which is hard to ignore. These cause no damage to the car or brakes but should be heeded as a notice to change the pads as soon as possible.

Vibration

    Brakes experience a lot of vibration in the stopping process. When installing new pads, mechanics are supposed to apply a vibration absorbing solution. The solution is usually successful in preventing any vibration squeak noises but on occasion, it is applied incorrectly or forgotten altogether, or even wears out. This is easily fixed by applying more solution to rear of the pads where they meet the piston and the guard plate.

How to Replace a Caliper in a Hyundai Santa Fe

Replacing brake calipers on a Hyundai Santa Fe SUV is no small task. It's even more complex than most vehicles because the Santa Fe comes with an anti-lock braking system. Because of this, bleeding the braking system after replacement is much more explicit.

Instructions

Replacing the Caliper

    1

    Remove the wheel from the vehicle after lifting it onto the jack. Remember to use the "five star" pattern on the lug nuts, removing the one across from the one you previously removed.

    2

    Detach the brake hose from the caliper. Throw away the washers used with the fitting bolt and plug the brake line with a piece of rubber.

    3

    Disconnect the caliper mounting bolts and remove the caliper. It should rotate upward on the boot pin and then slide off.

    4

    Install the new caliper, sliding it into the pin boot carefully and pivoting it down onto the bracket or rotor. Tighten the caliper bolts to 58 foot pounds to 73 foot pounds for a front caliper and 37 foot pounds to 44 foot pounds on a rear caliper.

    5

    Reconnect the brake hose, using new washers with the fitting bolt. Tighten the bolt to 18 foot pounds to 22 foot pounds.

    6

    Bleed the anti-lock brake system. You must use a Hi-Scan Pro device for Hyundai vehicles to do this.

    7

    Place the wheel back on and lower the vehicle. Test the brakes, first by pumping them for firmness while stopped and then while driving.

Bleeding the Brake System

    8

    Connect a clear plastic tube to the wheel cylinder's bleeder plug with the other end in a half-filled clear plastic bottle. Connect a Hi-Scan Pro device to the data link connector under the dash panel.

    9

    Select Hyundai vehicle diagnosis" on the Hi-Scan device, then the vehicle name, "Anti-Lock Brake system" and "air bleeding mode." Press "yes" for operating the motor pump and solenoid valve.

    10

    Wait one minute until you operate the air bleeding. Pump the brake pedal several times until fluid runs out without bubbles when you loosen the bleeder screw.

How to Replace Drum Shoes on a 1993 Nissan Pathfinder

Of all the features on the 1993 Nissan Pathfinder, the brakes are probably the most important. The materials used to make the pads and shoes for the disc and drum brakes are very durable, so changing the brakes frequently is unnecessary. However, even the best materials wear out over time, and eventually you'll have to replace your Pathfinder's rear drum brake shoes. It isn't a complicated job, but working on drum brakes can be tedious. Allow at least two hours to complete the task.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels, and raise the rear of the vehicle with an auto jack. Support both sides with a jack stand. Remove the lug nuts and both rear wheels.

    2

    Pull the brake drum from the lugs. Inspect the inside of the drum to ensure there are no grooves cut into the line. If grooves are present, first either replace the drum or take it to a machine shop for repair.

    3

    Place a drip pan under the brake components. Flush the parts with brake cleaner to remove dangerous dust particles. Allow the parts to air dry.

    4

    Place a brake tool over the shoe hold-down anti-rattle spring retainer and rotate it clockwise to unlock the spring. Remove the retainers, springs, spring seats and pins. Repeat for the spring on the other brake shoe.

    5

    Remove the upper and lower brake return springs using needle-nose pliers. These are the long springs that run parallel to the ground.

    6

    Remove the brake shoes from the backing plate. The parking brake cable is still attached to the secondary shoe. Use pliers to remove the clevis pin and disconnect it from the shoe.

    7

    Remove the rubber boot located behind the backing plate, which allows you to remove the adjuster shim, lockplate and adjuster springs.

    8

    Discard the brake shoes and clean all other components with brake cleaner.

    9

    Apply high-temperature grease to the adjuster, adjuster wheel, backing plate springs and any place that moving parts contact the backing plate.

    10

    Rotate the adjuster screw so it is at the shortest possible setting. Reconnect the secondary brake shoe to the parking brake toggle lever and replace the clevis pin.

    11

    Replace the adjuster shim, lockplate and adjuster springs. If you can't remember exactly how they fit, refer to the opposite brake assembly.

    12

    Place the shoes onto the backing plate. Reconnect the upper and lower brake return springs, ensuring the springs are securely seated in the holes.

    13

    Use the brake tool to reassemble the anti-rattle retainers, springs, spring seats and pins. Fit the parts together, place them into position and press the spring down while rotating it 90 degrees to lock it into place.

    14

    Use a flat screwdriver to rotate the wheel on the adjuster until the diameter of the brake shoes is 0.0098-0.0157 less than the inside diameter of the drum. Compare the brake assembly to the one you have not yet disassembled to ensure the components are properly installed. Repeat the procedure on the remaining assembly.

    15

    Replace the wheels and lug nuts, and spin the wheels to ensure they turn freely. If not, use the adjuster to decrease the diameter of the brake shoes. Lower the vehicle and tighten the lug nuts. Operate the parking brake several times to adjust it correctly.

    16

    Locate a safe driving area where you can perform several rapid braking maneuvers. Drive the vehicle in reverse a few feet and then quickly stop it. Drive forward and do the same. Repeat back-and-forth braking several times to seat the shoes and ensure the self-adjuster is working correctly.