Minggu, 31 Maret 2013

How to Change the Brakes on a 1997 Honda Civic DX

How to Change the Brakes on a 1997 Honda Civic DX

The Honda Civic DX coupe has a 1,590cc, 1.6-liter engine, and great fuel economy. With an engine of 106 horsepower and 4 cylinders, this zippy little car is a great middle ground between a stylish and powerful sports car and safe and practical sedan. On every car, no made how well made, over time the brake pads wear out and need replacing. This can cost hundreds of dollars at the local auto shop, but the good news is that just about anyone can change their own brakes on a Civic.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the wheel. To do this, use your tire wrench and turn the lugs 45 degrees counter-clockwise.

    2

    Jack up the vehicle. To do this, find a support strut. You can use your manual to find the appropriate strut. Lower the car onto the jack stands.

    3

    Remove all the lug nuts (be sure the car is secure on the jack stands), then pull the wheel off of the wheel hub and set it aside.

    4

    Remove the caliper mounting bracket. To do this, use your socket wrench to remove the two bolts. Then, after it is removed, tie it to the wheel well with twine to keep it from putting strain on the brake line.

    5

    Remove the brake pads. Loosen them and pull them free.

    6

    Compress the caliper. Use your C-clamp to do this.

    7

    Insert the new brake pads into the caliper assembly, and reinstall the caliper mounting bracket.

    8

    Put the wheel back onto the hub and tighten the lug nuts with the tire wrench. Lower the car with the jack and finish turning the lug nuts to 100 ft. lbs.

How to Choose the Correct Size of Brake Line

How to Choose the Correct Size of Brake Line

A car's brake line is an external part and can receive a large amount of wear and tear over time. Extreme weather conditions can cause the line to dry out or crack. Gravel and other objects on the road can hit the line at high speeds and cause damage, as well. When you need to replace your brake line, check with an auto repair manual, your local auto parts store or your car dealership to find out what size line you need.

Instructions

    1

    Purchase a repair manual for car's make, model and year. Chilton, Haynes and All Data are three companies who produce comprehensive repair manuals for a wide range of cars. Use the table of contents to find brake parts. The guide will indicate which specific brake line size you need for your vehicle.

    2

    Inquire in person at an auto parts retailer. Auto parts stores have extensive computer databases of car parts. Tell an employee who specializes in sales your make, model and year car and he will use hs database to look up the correct brake line size for your vehicle.

    3

    Call the dealership for your make of car. Check your local listings for the dealership nearest you that services your make of car. Call the dealership and ask for the repair or service department. Tell the technician in the repair department the model and year of your car and she can look up the correct brake line size for your vehicle.

Jumat, 29 Maret 2013

How to Replace Mazda 2002 Protege Front Brake Pads

How to Replace Mazda 2002 Protege Front Brake Pads

The 2002 Mazda Protege employs front disc brake pads and either rear drum brakes with shoes or rear disc brakes with pads. No matter the style of the rear brakes, the front brakes account for up to 75 percent of the import vehicle's stopping capacity. Because of this, the Protege's front brake pads will require replacing more often then the rear brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Protege on a level, hard surface, and apply the parking brake. Release the primary hood latch from inside the vehicle.

    2

    Release the secondary hood release, open the hood, then remove 1/3 of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using a brake fluid siphon. Dispose of the fluid appropriately.

    3

    Remove the hubcaps (if applicable), then crack the front lug nuts 1/4 turn counterclockwise with the lug wrench.

    4

    Use the jack to lift one front quarter panel at a time, then lower the vehicle onto carefully placed jack stands set underneath the front frame rails.

    5

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts with a metric hand wrench.

    6

    Pry the caliper off the pads and rotor assembly, then use a length of mechanics wire to hang the caliper from the front coil spring to avoid letting it dangle from the rubber brake hose.

    7

    Remove one of the old pads from the caliper mount, then use the pad as an anchor against the caliper piston in conjunction with the 4-inch C-clamp to compress the caliper piston inward.

    8

    Remove the remaining pad from the caliper mount, then inspect the rotor for any surface damage such as rust pits, scoring or grooves. If necessary, replace the rotor(s).

    9

    Apply a light coat of silicone brake lubricant to the upper and lower mounting surfaces of the brake hardware in the caliper mount.

    10

    Install the new pads (if required, place the stick-on shims supplied in the pads' container first).

    11

    Remove the mechanics wire from the caliper, then align it over the pads and rotor assembly.

    12

    Replace the caliper mounting bolts and tighten them to 30 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and a metric socket.

    13

    Perform the same pad replacement procedure for the other side, then replace both wheels and lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts snugly to the wheel hub.

    14

    Raise the Protege with the car jack enough to remove the jack stands (one at a time), then torque the front lug nuts in a crisscross pattern to 80 foot-pounds with the torque wrench and a metric socket.

    15

    Ensure the cap is secure on the master cylinder, then pump the brake pedal several times until the pedal feels firm. Recheck the brake fluid level in the master cylinder and add brake fluid as needed.

    16

    Release the parking brake, remove the tire block, then test drive the Protege.

Kamis, 28 Maret 2013

DIY Replacement of Windshield Glass

If you need to replace the windshield glass in your vehicle, this will take at least two people. Also, the exact shape and size of the glass you need will vary, and some precise steps in the replacement procedure can also differ. Check with an auto-glass expert for details on your particular model.

Removal

    If you're replacing the front windshield, you need to remove the rearview mirror from inside the car and the wipers from the outside; some rear windshields also have a wiper that needs removing. All these items are usually screwed on, and you'll need to rock the wipers to loosen them after removing the screws. If the windshield has a trim panel around it, remove its screws and then use a trim-removal tool, which slips under the trim to catch and remove the clips. If the rubber gasket around the glass is in good condition, just break the seal around it by running a large stick across it. If this gasket is dry or cracked, however, you don't need to save it and must replace it. Cut through the gasket with a knife by inserting it down the middle and running it across the edge of the glass; you need to be careful that you don't actually hit the glass. Now you need to have you assistant sit on the hood or trunk while you enter the car. From within the car, use your foot and the large stick to push out the glass without kicking it. Your assistant needs to be ready to catch the glass. If you cut the gasket, you'll need to remove the outer part from the frame; if it's intact and in good condition, pull it off of the glass for use with the new glass.

Installation

    The windshield frame needs to be clean of rust, corrosion and other debris before installing the new glass. Leaving a new gasket in the sun or a warm room so it will soften. When attaching the gasket to the glass, its thick end goes on the inside along the glass edge. The groove on the outer side should be coated with petroleum jelly; then wrap a nylon cord around that groove so both ends of the cord meet at the bottom center of the gasket and stick out another 2 feet. As your assistant lays the glass on the frame from outside, you can pull the ends of the cord into the interior. You need to pull on one of these ends while the other person pushes on the glass to slip the gasket into position. Before you reconnect the trim, mirror and wipers, it will help to wipe away any excess petroleum jelly.

Which Products Remove Scratches From Car Windshields?

Which Products Remove Scratches From Car Windshields?

Scratches and dings in an automobile's windshield can go from a small problem to a widening crack very quickly. Abrasive elemental damage, other motorists and even animals pose a threat to glass integrity, making upkeep of a windshield very important. Products available to remove varying degrees of scratches range from simple hand-buffed gels to those requiring electric-powered brushes to resurface the glass. Spending a little money on a repair kit now can save a driver a large amount of money down the road should that little scratch become a larger problem.

Janvil Glass Restore System

    The Janvil Glass Restore System is designed as a solution to minor scrapes or scratches in auto glass surfaces. Liquid scratch remover is applied to the glass surface then hand-buffed away to reveal a blemish-free surface. Janvil's system only requires a soft cloth to buff the restoration liquid away from the glass surface and requires no special equipment, making it ideal for the consumer wishing to remove minor nicks or superficial scratches from a windshield.

Diamondite Glass Restoration

    Diamondite glass resurfacing creme is designed to handle moderate auto glass scratches. Milled abrasives in the creme act to smooth the top of scratched auto glass which, in effect, remove the scratch by creating a wider surface area. A glass "poli-shield" is then applied to the resurfaced auto glass to seal in the newly exposed portions of windshield. This ensures that no new elements, such as minerals in rain water, stones or other abrasives, rescratch the windshield. You will need an electric polisher capable of 800-1000 RPMs in order to buff the resurfacing creme away from the auto glass.

Spectrum Glass Restoration Kit

    The Spectrum Glass Restoration System is a hand-operated windshield resurfacing kit designed to tackle tough windshield scratches. Spectrum utilizes a proprietary resin injection method to fill deep scratches while removing the air from the scratch in order to create a tight fit. Spectrum's simple design and ease of use increase the likelihood that those without professional training in auto glass repair can successfully use the system to repair scratches at home.

How to Troubleshoot A Car Door Window

How to Troubleshoot A Car Door Window

There are generally two flavors of car door windows, the first being manual and the second being electric. No matter what the issue, door windows tend to have few parts and are relatively easy to fix or troubleshoot. Below are some common issues and their resolutions.

Instructions

    1

    WINDOW DOES NOT ROLL UP INTO THE WINDOW SEAL

    This is a common issue that is often caused by the window actuator arm being bent. The window actuator arm is nothing more than the tray that the window sits on and can easily be bent back or replaced.

    Sometimes the weather stripping warps and that can cause window alignment problems too. I would definitely look into the weather stripping first then look at the actuator arm.

    2

    WINDOW DOES NOT ROLL UP OR DOWN OR ROLLS UP BUT NOT DOWN

    Wow that was kind of wordy. For manual or electric windows it could be due to a misalignment with the window actuator arm. For Manual windows check the clutch actuator arm, which is the crank you use to crank up the window. The teeth might be worn or the gears inside might be worn. check both.

    For electric windows, the relay which is the switch box that sends electricity to the tiny motors that roll up or down your windows might be burnt out. Check the other windows to make sure that the problem is not wide spread and is only with the specific window. If all your windows have the same problem it might be a wiring issue.

    3

    MOTOR RUNS BUT WINDOW DOES NOT ROLL UP

    If you have an electric car door window this means that the window door mechanisms are damaged. Usually the sound of a humming motor means the switch can send the signal to the relay and then to the motor but the motor is trying to turn damaged gears. It equivalent to pedaling a bike with a damaged rear cassette, you can pedal all you want but the bike will go no where.

Rabu, 27 Maret 2013

How Long Do Brake Pads Last?

How Long Do Brake Pads Last?

Despite their diminutive size, brake pads are one of the most important parts on an automobile. These small devices are designed to stop a vehicle again and again for thousands of miles without failing or malfunctioning.

Considerations

    The life expectancy of your brake pads depends on you as a driver. Many brake pads are rated to last from 40,000 to 100,000 miles. However, the biggest influence on brake pad lifespan is individual driving habits behind the wheel.

Function

    Brake pads work by squeezing against the brake rotors to create friction. This friction slows down the vehicle, but at the same time, this wears down the pads.

Speed

    Constant hard slow-downs from high speeds can reduce the life of brake pads. It is not uncommon for aggressive drivers to need to replace the brake pads more often than cautious ones, sometimes in as little as 12,000 miles.

Quality

    The quality of a brake pad can influence its service life. Inexpensive brake pads made from inferior materials tend to wear out quickly; whereas brake pads made from quality components can last tens of thousands of miles longer.

Weight

    Heavier loads require more friction to stop, wearing out brake pads faster. Installing heavy aftermarket components such as large speakers, tires or rims add significant weight to a vehicle and can shorten the brake life by thousands of miles.

Identification

    To find out how long your brake pads are expected to last under "ideal" conditions consult your vehicle owner's manual if you are using the original equipment manufacturer recommended pads. If you are non original equipment pads, the estimated life expectancy is often written on the box containing the pads.

Car Window Installation Tips

If either of your car's windows are cracked or broken, you will need to install new glass. The window glass is contained within a regulator inside of the door that controls the window as it moves up and down. You will need to get inside of the door in order to remove the old glass and install the new, which means disconnecting and removing the door's inner trim panel.

Removing the Trim Panel

    Before disconnecting the door's inner trim panel, make sure that the window is all the way down. Disconnect the negative battery cable, especially if you have power doors and windows. If the door has manual windows, remove the window crank; insert a hooked tool or rub the edge of a cloth behind it to disconnect the retaining clip. For a door with power controls, pry off the control panel bezel with a trim removal tool and disconnect the electrical connectors. Locate and remove all of the mounting screws to the panel; some may be concealed by small trim plates, while some are within the door handle. Lift the panel upward to disengage all of its retaining clips, pulling it away from the door and disconnecting any other electrical connectors.

Removing Old Glass

    The inside of the door is protected by a water shield that you must peel away to reach the window. You will also need to pull off the weather stripping at the bottom edge of the window frame, and you might have to disconnect the speaker from the door by removing the mounting screws to reach the window. Disconnect the bolts attaching the window glass to the regulator, then push the glass up through the door until you can pull it the rest of the way out. Use extreme caution if the glass is cracked or broken.

Installing New Glass

    Insert the window glass down into the door frame until it is seated within the regulator. In some vehicles, it may be easier to push the glass upward through the window frame's bottom edge and back down through the door. Once you know that the glass is properly in place within the regulator, attach the mounting bolts. Reattach all components, like the speaker and the weather stripping, then put the water shield back in place. Reconnect the inner trim panel to the door in the reverse order of removal.

How to Stop Windshield Cracks

How to Stop Windshield Cracks

Windshield cracks often begin with a chip in the glass. This tends to occur when another vehicle kicks up a stone that flies backward and hits your windshield. If you work on this chip right away, sometimes you can stop the chip from turning into a crack, or stop a small crack from spreading further. This might only be a temporary fix, but it can buy you some time until you save up enough money to have the windshield replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Put the car in a warm garage if the weather is cold. Start with a completely dry windshield that's somewhere near room temperature. Dry the windshield if necessary with a clean cloth or hair dryer.

    2

    Buy glue that can stop the crack. Glass shops and auto parts stores sell windshield repair kits containing a specific type of glue. If you only need to fill a chip to stop a crack from beginning, you also can use a high-performance adhesive like Super Glue or Crazy Glue.

    3

    Fill in the windshield chip with glue.

    4

    Insert glue into the crack. Follow directions on the kit package. Use the syringe-type applicator that comes with the kit. Begin at one end of the crack and fill it with adhesive. Wipe away any excess glue with some rubbing alcohol applied to a clean cloth. Move slowly along the crack until you've filled the entire length with glue.

    5

    Allow the glue to dry for at least an hour and preferably for a few hours before driving any distance.

How to Seal Glass Around a Convertible Rear Window

The rear window on a convertible top will sometimes be glass. The glass seal is a "soft seal," meaning that it is not fixed to any sheet metal. Over time, the window seal may separate and begin to leak. To fix this, reseal the glass using a urethane sealer made for automotive glass. These sealers can be found in any auto parts store.

Instructions

    1

    Apply a thin bead of urethane sealer to the glass edge.

    2

    Use the applicator to spread the sealer against the glass edge and to seal the glass around the convertible's rear window.

    3

    Use a rag to clean up any excess sealer that has gotten onto the glass.

Selasa, 26 Maret 2013

How to Remove Bubble Tint From a Rear Window

How to Remove Bubble Tint From a Rear Window

Window tinting can age over time causing bubbles to form between the glass and the tinted plastic. This bubbling can make it hard to see through the rear window causing unsafe driving conditions. The tinting film or plastic must be removed from the window. The sticky side of the film must be peeled from the glass. Once the old tinting is removed the window can be re-tinted. This job can be tedious even when the right tools are available.

Instructions

    1

    Spray the outside surface of the window with soapy water.

    2

    Cover it with a black garbage bag.

    3

    Cover the upholstery of the cars interior with a painter's drop cloth just beneath the window.

    4

    Spray the inside of the rear window with pure ammonia.

    5

    Cover this ammonia with another garbage bag.

    6

    Let the car sit in the hot sun for an hour so the suns heat bakes the window and softens the tint's adhesive.

    7

    Remove the inner garbage bag.

    8

    Press the sharp edge of a razor blade scraper into one of the corners of the window.

    9

    Slide the razor blade's sharp edge beneath the tinting film on the window until the film begins to peel away from the glass.

    10

    Push the tinting repeatedly with the edge of the razor blade to keep it peeling away from the window.

    11

    Grab the corner of the tinting as soon as it's long enough to hold with your fingers.

    12

    Pull the tinting away from the window and peel it until the entire film is removed from the window.

    13

    Use the razor blade to keep the film peeling away if it decides to tear. Move slowly throughout the peeling process to reduce the possibility of tearing or ripping the tinting film.

    14

    Dip a painter's rag into some paint thinner and rub it on the areas of the window where the adhesive that separated from the tinting film stayed on the glass

    15

    Wash the window with a window cleaner and paper towels.

How to Replace the Rear Brakes on a 2000 Focus

How to Replace the Rear Brakes on a 2000 Focus

The 2000 Ford Focus uses a specially designed brake drum on the rear brakes, with the drum bolted in place over the brake assembly. The brake shoes used on the rear brakes are built for this type of brake drum, so make sure you have the correct type when replacing the shoes. The brake shoes are similar to others, however, in that they are held in place with multiple springs and levers, making disassembly and replacement a complex process.

Instructions

Accessing the Brake Shoes

    1

    Block the car's front wheels with heavy blocks or wheel chocks, raise the car's rear end with the floor jack, support it onto jack stands and remove the rear wheels. If the car uses anti-lock brakes, disconnect the ABS wiring connector from the brake assembly.

    2

    Unscrew and remove the brake drum and hub assembly with a wrench; the four bolts are located at the rear of the assembly.

    3

    Clean the brake assembly behind the drum with an aerosol brake cleaner. Place a tray or drip pan under the assembly and wait for the assembly to dry.

Removing the Brake Shoes

    4

    Depress the ends of the shoes' hold-down springs with pliers and withdraw them from the pins.

    5

    Disconnect the top ends of the brake shoes from the wheel cylinder and pull their bottom ends off the bottom anchor. Wrap an elastic band over the wheel cylinder pistons to keep them from ejecting.

    6

    Disengage the parking brake cable spring away from the operating lever on the rear shoe using pliers, then unhook the cable from the lever to completely remove the brake shoes.

    7

    Push the shoes' bottom ends together and unhook the lower return spring from them, taking note of the holes the spring is in. Pull the front shoe away from the strut and the brake shoe adjuster and unhook the upper spring.

    8

    Pull the adjustment strut off the rear brake shoe, then remove the strut's support spring.

Installing the Brake Shoes

    9

    Apply a small amount of high-temperature brake grease to the points on the cylinder backing plate where the brake shoes come in contact.

    10

    Hook the support spring onto the replacement rear brake shoe and connect the adjustment strut to the shoe. Hook both the lower and upper return springs to both of the brake shoes to connect the shoes together.

    11

    Connect the parking brake cable spring on the backing plate to the operating lever on the rear brake shoe--you may need the pliers again. Place the bottom end of the shoe assembly on the backing plate's bottom anchor, remove the elastic band connect the top ends to the upper cylinder.

    12

    Fasten the hold-down springs to the brake shoes, using the pliers to press the springs' ends onto the pins.

    13

    Reinstall the brake drum and apply the bolts in the rear. Reconnect the ABS wiring connector if equipped.

    14

    Reconnect the wheels on both sides of the car and lower it off the jack stands after changing the brakes for both wheels.

Senin, 25 Maret 2013

Problems With Brake Lines

Problems With Brake Lines

A brake system is composed of three primary elements: the master cylinder that sends fluid through the lines, the lines themselves, and the slave cylinders (brake calipers) that squeeze on the pad and stop the car. Though engineered to outlive the car by several years, lines can sometimes become rusted, damaged or dry-rotted, causing anything from a slow leak and soft pedal to a catastrophic accident.

Physical Damage

    The most common type of physical damage is chafing (scraping) of the flexible rubber portion of the line that connects the wheel cylinder to the metal chassis lines. Though these lines are generally suspended by clips from the factory, these often plastic clips work loose or break, causing the line to rub against or become pinched by suspension components.

Dry-Rotting

    Rubber brake lines are made of a vulcanized rubber very similar to a tire's, and so are subject to dry-rotting. Over time, vital chemicals are leached from the rubber, causing it to lose its elasticity and form small cracks that may eventually leak. This condition is normal for cars of a certain age, but may be accelerated if the vehicle is regularly driven over salted winter roads.

Rust

    Though brake lines are generally made of aluminized or galvanized metal, almost all will eventually rust over time. This will usually happen where the line passes through a low point in the frame, or where it is secured to the frame with a metal clip. Like dry rot, this is normal for older cars, but will happen significantly faster if the car is regularly driven over salted roads.

Artificial Corrosion

    By definition, an acid is a chemical that dissolves metal. Many batteries, especially those found in older cars, leak a certain amount of acid. Though most of this acid is diluted and causes little harm to the vehicle, it is quite possible for some of the dried chemical to land on your brake lines, eating through their protective coatings and drastically hastening the corrosion process.

Line Upgrade

    Steel-braided brake lines are the line of choice for replacing worn-out rubber, and are proven much safer. Not only will these flex lines far outlast their stock counterparts, they are also designed not to bulge as much under system pressure. This means you can expect a great deal more feel and response from a braking system with braided lines than one with stock rubber.

How Do I Remove the Brake Rotor on a 99 Mercury Cougar?

How Do I Remove the Brake Rotor on a 99 Mercury Cougar?

The brake rotors on your Cougar are the round, disk-shaped components that the brake pads mount against, located behind each of the tires. When you depress the brake pedal, the pads squeeze the inner and outer sides of the rotor in order to stop the car. When the brake rotors wear down--as they will over time--and become defective, their ability to effectively stop the car decreases. The rotors are a necessity to you safety; you should replace them if they're damaged, and you can do so right at home, with only a few tools. The job should take no more than 60 minutes to complete.

Instructions

    1

    Apply your Cougar's emergency brake. Loosen the lug nuts on the front driver's side tire a quarter turn counterclockwise, using a lug wrench.

    2

    Raise the car just behind the tire, using a hydraulic jack. Place a jack stand beneath the frame rail, on the right of the hydraulic jack, to help support the weight of the car.

    3

    Remove all of the lug nuts completely, using the lug wrench. Grasp the tire with both hands and slide it carefully off the wheel studs. Set the tire to the side of your work area along with its lug nuts.

    4

    Remove the two bolts from the rear of the anchoring plate, using the socket wrench--the anchoring plate is what your brake caliper attaches to. Do not remove the brake caliper's bolts. The anchor plate's bolts are closest to the tooth ring, just below the wheel speed sensor.

    5

    Place a 5-gallon bucket within the wheel well, next to the anchoring plate. Lift the entire assembly--anchor plate and caliper--off the rotor and set it down on the bucket. Do not disconnect the brake line, but do make sure that its not twisted or taunt.

    6

    Pull the defective rotor off the wheel studs in an outward motion and set it to the side of your work area. Install the new rotor by reversing the entire removal process. You can also use this entire method to remove the other rotors on your Cougar, as well.

How to Bleed a 2000 Blazer Master Cylinder

How to Bleed a 2000 Blazer Master Cylinder

The 2001 Chevy Blazer came equipped with a Kelsey-Hayes 4WAL (four wheel anti-lock) brake system. Unlike other Chevy vehicles, this system is non-integral to the standard brake system and the master cylinder is separate from the ABS modulator valve assembly. When replacing the master cylinder in this truck, air trapped in the master cylinder must be removed before the master cylinder is replaced; no provision is made for removing air trapped in the master cylinder by cycling the modulator valve assembly, as is the case in systems like the Delphi 6.

Instructions

    1

    Secure the new master cylinder into a bench vise by clamping the mounting flange into the vise. Position the master cylinder so that the piston in the back of the cylinder bore is facing you. Attach the plastic fittings, supplied in the bench bleeding kit that comes with the master cylinder, to the threaded line openings in the side of the master cylinder. Push the clear plastic hoses, also supplied in the bleeding kit, onto the plastic fittings and secure them so they are inside the master cylinder reservoir, and below fluid level.

    2

    Fill the master cylinder reservoir with fresh brake fluid. Slowly depress the piston in the back of the master cylinder completely into the master cylinder, using a large screwdriver. Slowly release the piston while observing the fluid in the clear plastic hoses. Repeat this process until the fluid, circulating in the clear plastic hoses, contains no large air bubbles.

    3

    Top off the fluid level in the master cylinder and install the lid on the reservoir. Remove the clear plastic hoses and place the small rubber caps, supplied in the bleeding kit, on the bleeding fittings in place of the clear plastic hoses.

    4

    Carry the master cylinder to the truck and carefully and install it in the truck. Slide the master cylinder onto the two studs that attach it to the power brake booster, and secure it with the two 15-mm retaining nuts. Remove the plastic bleeder fittings, and screw the line fittings into the side of the master cylinder in their place. Tighten the lines securely with a line wrench.

    5

    Loosen the front brake line on the master cylinder. Have a helper push the brake pedal and hold it down, while you close the line. As you so, you will notice air escaping from the line as you loosen the fitting. Repeat this process until the fluid being pushed out of the line, when the pedal is pushed down, is free of air. Perform the same procedure on the rear brake line on the master cylinder. It may take several attempts to remove all of the air from the lines. Check the level of the fluid in the master cylinder and top it off with fresh fluid as the level drops below the "Min" mark on the reservoir.

How to Change Front Brake Pads on a Mazda MPV

The Mazda Multi-Purpose Vehicle, or MPV, was a minivan manufactured with a hydraulic caliper and pad front brake design, which occasionally requires maintenance. The twin pads on either side will wear down their friction material, and they should be replaced in unison. The average backyard mechanic can replace the pads for one brake in about 30 minutes.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the MPV onto the jack stands with the floor jack, placing each stand onto the frame rails. Do not place the stands onto the engine mounts or suspension parts.

    2

    Remove the front wheels by turning the lug nuts in a counterclockwise direction. Set the wheels aside, away from the van.

    3

    Remove the caliper by turning the rear caliper mount bolts in a counterclockwise direction, then sliding the caliper off the rotor.

    4

    Pull the pads from the caliper pistons and replace them with fresh units. The pads are not secured to the caliper pistons, and the new pads should just be pressed into position.

    5

    Slide the caliper and pads back onto the rotor, then secure the rear caliper mount bolts by turning them in a clockwise direction.

    6

    Repeat steps 3 through 5 for the opposite side's brake.

    7

    Replace the wheels by turning their lug nuts in a clockwise direction, in an alternating pattern.

    8

    Lower the van from the jack stands with the floor jack.

How to Bend a Loop in Brake Tubing

How to Bend a Loop in Brake Tubing

The master cylinder is mounted to the passenger compartment of cars and the cab of trucks. The brake lines from the master cylinder run to the vehicle frame, where they proceed to the front and rear axles. A problem arises with the brake lines from the vibration between the rubber-cushioned mounted cabs and the auto frames. The problem is solved by adding longer brake lines and looping them to form a sort of coil spring that absorbs vibration.

Instructions

    1

    Measure the circumference of the primer paint can by wrapping a tape measure around the can once. If two complete loops are desired, double this measurement and add this measurement to the length of brake line needed. For example, the length of the line needed to join the master cylinder to the brake block, plus twice the circumference measurement of primer can.

    2

    Wrap the end of the brake line around the spray can twice to form two loops in the brake lines near the end of the line or wherever the loops will best fit.

    3

    Thread the brake line into the master cylinder and attach the other end of the line into the front or rear brake system that is under repair. Bleed the brakes as needed and refill the master cylinder.

Minggu, 24 Maret 2013

How to Replace a Rear Window on a Car

How to Replace a Rear Window on a Car

If your car has a broken rear window, you need to fix it to drive safely. But replacing the rear window is a costly proposition, and that puts drivers in an uncomfortable position. Fortunately, in the course of one afternoon with a little hard work, you can remove some of the financial sting by doing the job yourself.

Instructions

Instructions

    1

    Slide the razor blade along the perimeter of the rear window frame. Wear safety gloves as you cut away the caulking and weatherstripping.

    2

    Lift out the old window from the frame using a helper so that the glass doesn't break. Be sure to dispose of the old window in a safe manner.

    3

    Cut away any remaining urethane from the window frame. Remove all the leftover urethane and any debris to ensure a solid mount of the new rear window.

    4

    Apply the urethane primer that came with the window kit and allow it to dry fully.

    5

    Spread a thin bead of urethane caulk along the inside of the window frame using the caulk gun. Make the bead about the width of a pinky finger. With your helper, lift the new window into place, lining up the window's edges onto the bead of caulk.

    6

    Allow the caulk to dry in a warm, dry place for at least 24 hours.

How to Replace Ford 4WD Front Disc Brakes

How to Replace Ford 4WD Front Disc Brakes

In tough economic times, people look for different ways to save money. One of those can be making as many of the necessary repairs to your Ford 4WD yourself. This includes replacing the front disc brakes, which is a task you can do in your driveway or garage. The brakes on the front of your truck will wear much faster than those on the rear. When you start hearing a high-pitched noise coming from the front end when you apply the brakes, you'll know it's time to service them. However, never depend on that as your sole indicator; you need to inspect them periodically.

Instructions

    1

    Park the truck on a level surface and place the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels. Open the engine compartment and remove 2/3 of the brake fluid from the master cylinder into the drain pan. Jack the truck up with the automobile jack and place a jack stand underneath near the jacking point. Raise the jack stand up to the frame of the truck.

    2

    Remove the wheel using the lug wrench. Remove the brake caliper using a socket and ratchet. The retaining pins are on the back side of the caliper.

    3

    Retract the brake caliper piston back inside the caliper by attaching the C-clamp to the caliper and using the old brake pad as a contact surface. Tighten the C-clamp until the caliper piston seats itself into the caliper.

    4

    Inspect the brake rotor for visible signs of damage. If the rotor has grooves worn into it from bad brake pads, then it will have to be machined smooth or you need to replace it if the damage is too bad.

    5

    Place the new brake pads into the caliper, clipping them in place with the clips attached to the pads. Place the caliper back on the axle and tighten the retaining pins with the socket and ratchet.

    6

    Put the wheel back on the truck and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand and lower the truck back to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel.

    7

    Once you finish both sides, pump the brakes several times until the brake pedal is firm when you depress it. This allows the brake pads to settle evenly onto the brake rotors. Check the fluid level in the master brake cylinder and replace it as necessary.

Sabtu, 23 Maret 2013

How to Replace a Broken Side View Mirror

How to Replace a Broken Side View Mirror

There you are walking to your car, parked on the side of the street, when you notice that your side-view mirror is inexplicably cracked. Your insurance may or may not cover the damages, but in the end replacing the mirror yourself may save you money over taking your car to a repair shop. You may want to consult a mechanic before attempting anything, or at the very least, acquaint yourself with the owner's manual. First, determine if you have an electric or manual mirror. The latter is usually easier to replace, since you don't have to deal with any wiring.

Instructions

    1

    Order an aftermarket replacement from a reputable online vendor, making sure the it matches the factory paint color code of your broken mirror. You will likely save a considerable amount by buying an aftermarket mirror, as opposed to paying the dealer price. Also check at a local salvage yard as those usually have a surplus of replacements, particularly manual mirrors.

    2

    If you have an electric mirror, turn off the engine and detach the battery's negative cable. Take the mirror trim panel off with a door panel remover tool, to get to the mirror's electrical connector. If you have a manual mirror all you have to do is take off the mirror trim panel and remove the retaining screws. Then, carefully remove any shards of glass and clear out any other broken fragments or adhesives before you install new mirror glass. Apply permanent, water- and heat-proof adhesive to the new mirror before you attach it.

    3

    For an electric mirror, remove the door trim panel, being sure to account for all the fasteners. These trim panel screws are often concealed behind decorative vanity caps (DVC). Pry the DVCs off with a hooked pick to reveal the screw underneath. DVCs, which often resemble relatively innocuous round covers, can be found under the armrest or behind the speaker grills.

    4

    Remove the fasteners (which are shaped like Christmas trees), by popping them out of their holes using the trim panel removal tool. Feel around for the fasteners along the edge of the trim panel. Next lower the window and remove the trim panel.

    5

    Unscrew the three mirror-mounting screws on the side of the door and follow the cable leading to the electrical connector, which you must detach from the mirror. Attach the new mirror and reconnect to electrical connector.

    6

    Test the mirror to see if it is working correctly before putting the screw back, reinserting the trim panel fasteners using a rubber mallet or your fist to push them in. Then finish reassembling the door trim panel.

How to Replace Discs on a Ford Escape

How to Replace Discs on a Ford Escape

The brake discs on a Ford Escape are just one component in the braking system, but one of the most important. It's the brake disc which turns with the wheel, and is also the object that is clamped onto by the brake pads to slow the vehicle. When you change the brake pads, you also want to change or turn the brake discs (also known as rotors) so that you can maximize the contact points. In this case, the project vehicle is a 2005 Ford Escape, but the process is similar for other vehicles as well.

Instructions

    1

    Use the jack to lift up the front of the vehicle, then set it on the jack stands. Be sure that the vehicle is completely and solidly on the stands prior to working on the vehicle. Take off the front wheels using the tire iron and set them out of the workspace.

    2

    Unbolt the brake caliper anchor plate from the front suspension using the ratchet, then lift the caliper and anchor plate off of the front suspension. Support the caliper on a spare jack stand or any other solid object, as long as it isn't hanging from the brake line, which could damage the line.

    3

    Use the wire cutters to remove the brake disc retaining clips located on the wheel lugs. These do not need to be reinstalled, so its OK if you cut them completely off of the disc and discard them. Slide the brake disc off of the hub.

    4

    Slide the replacement brake disc onto the hub. Then attach the brake caliper anchor plate to the front suspension using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket.

    5

    Reinstall the wheels and tires using the tire iron, then lower the SUV off of the stands using the jack.

Jumat, 22 Maret 2013

How to Replace a Window on a 1998 Nissan Sentra

How to Replace a Window on a 1998 Nissan Sentra

A broken or damaged window poses both an esthetic and safety problem. If the window of your 1998 Nissan Sentra has been damaged, you should replace it as soon as possible. Paying a professional or a dealership to do the work can be both costly and time consuming. You can replace the window yourself. First purchase a replacement window from an auto-supply store or a Nissan dealership, then set about the task.

Instructions

    1

    Remove any loose or broken glass. Roll what's left of the window down. Disengage the clips that secure the power window and locks. Remove the screws that secure the arm rest using a screwdriver.

    2

    Pry and pull the panel loose from the door, using a putty knife. Pull the plastic clips from around the panel until the panel is completely off. Place the panel aside.

    3

    Pull the plastic clips from the door with pliers. Be careful not to cut or damage the clips. Carefully peel back the plastic film on the door. Pull the weather strip from the bottom of the window.

    4

    Clean any broken glass out of the door with a vacuum.

    5

    Remove the two bolts that hold the glass run channel with a socket wrench. Move the run channel forward. Disconnect the glass channel from the regulator arm and remove any remaining glass.

    6

    Slide the new glass down the door channel. Set the glass within the run channel.

    7

    Fasten the nuts of the glass channel to the regulator arm and install the two bolts in the channel.

    8

    Replace the weather strip. Test the window. It should go up and down smoothly.

    9

    Adjust the front channel position by loosening the bolts of the window tracks until the window moves properly. Tighten all the bolts and nuts to secure the window.

    10

    Replace and secure the plastic door film, trim panel and all of the switches you first removed.

How to Install Brake Drums in a Chevy

Braking systems consist of many tiny pieces of equipment resting inside a brake drum on the wheel assembly. The brake drum keeps the brake shoes and pads in the proper position to slow down the tire when the brakes are activated by the driver. Cracked brake drums can reduce the braking ability of a vehicle and must be replaced quickly. Servicing the brake drum on your Chevy vehicle is a project that can take about three hours, depending on your mechanic skills.

Instructions

    1

    Release the parking brake in your Chevy vehicle before drum brake installation.

    2

    Raise the Chevy so that you can work comfortably underneath the axle receiving the new brake drum. Begin at the end of the car adjacent to the corner. Place the jack closer to the corner that must be raised. Operate the hydraulic jack to raise the car's end to about a foot. Raise a jack stand next to the jack to support the car. Repeat this on the corner's opposite side. Continue to raise the car in this fashion until you can comfortably work underneath the corner. Secure jack stands before removing the jack.

    3

    Lay down newspaper on the ground throughout the area you will be working in. Keep some shop towels nearby in case of any spills.

    4

    Remove the tire and wheel assembly. Use a socket wrench to loosen the appropriate bolts on the hub cap. Reference your model-specific Chevy user's manual to find out the proper wheel removal procedures.

    5

    Remove the previous brake drum from your Chevy vehicle prior to installation of the new brake drum. Place the brake drum through the hub bearing on the axle.

    6

    Thread the new brake drum through the hub bearing on the axle. Position the new brake drum so that the wheel cylinder will be located at the top of the brake drum.

    7

    Install the wheel cylinder onto the brake drum. Position the wheel cylinder in its proper space and tighten the brake line with a line wrench to secure the wheel cylinder. Tighten any bolts with your socket wrench.

    8

    Install the return springs into your drum brake with brake spring pliers.

    9

    Install brake shoes onto the brake drum. Secure the brake shoes with retaining clips. Tighten retaining clips with the retaining clip tool.

    10

    Install the parking brake struts and springs between the brake shoes in your brake drum. Use the brake spring pliers to secure the strut springs.

    11

    Attach the parking brake cable to the appropriate position on your brake drum.

    12

    Thread the tire and wheel assembly over the drum brake on your hub bearing. Use a socket wrench to tighten all bolts securing the hubcap to the hub.

    13

    Carefully decrease the height of your car. Support one side with the hydraulic jack. Lower the jack stand about one foot, and then lower the car slowly with the hydraulic jack. Repeat this on the corner's opposite side. Continue until the car returns to ground level.

Kamis, 21 Maret 2013

How to Fix Windows in a Pontiac Montana

How to Fix Windows in a Pontiac Montana

For optimum visibility while driving your Pontiac Montana, you will need all of your car windows to be in perfect condition. A crack or chip in a window can easily grow and cause further damage to the glass. For the most economical repair, you can do the job yourself using a few materials that can be purchased at a local auto supply store.

Instructions

    1

    Scrub the damaged window with a mild detergent and water solution using a cloth. Rinse and dry it with another cloth.

    2

    Put on safety goggles and carefully extract any loose glass shards from the crack.

    3

    Insert the liquid resin tube supplied with the stabilizer unit into the injector cartridge. Put the injector cartridge into the suction cup stabilizer unit. There is a dedicated opening for this; refer to the product instructions if necessary.

    4

    Gently place the stabilizer on the window. Make sure the damaged areas are directly under the suction cup at the base of the stabilizer. Push down on the stabilizer to create suction that will hold it in place.

    5

    Remove the injector from its port inside the stabilizer. At this point, the resin will flow from the resin tube into the crack.

    6

    Remove the stabilizer from the window once the resin tube is empty.

    7

    Measure the length of the resin repair and cut the adhesive strips to fit. Place the strips over the resin for several hours, then remove and discard the strips.

How to Install a Windshield in a 1966 Mustang

How to Install a Windshield in a 1966 Mustang

The Ford Mustang was introduced in April of 1964 as a 1965 model. The car proved very popular, with over 500,000 sold, so Ford did not change a good thing and made only minor trim changes to it in 1966. The 1965 and 1966 Mustangs are still popular today, with several owner's clubs available. If your vintage Mustang still has its original windshield, chances are it may be cracked and pitted and will need replacement. Fortunately, Ford still makes windshields to the original specifications for your Mustang; the windshield can be installed in approximately half a day.

Instructions

    1

    Clean any weather strip adhesive or residue from the windshield frame using solvent and a rag. Avoid using scrapers, as this will mar or scratch the paint finish around the windshield.

    2

    Apply windshield sealer around the windshield molding clips that are mounted around the perimeter of the windshield frame. Wipe up any excess sealer with a rag from outside of the windshield frame, so that the windshield will not be exposed once it is installed.

    3

    Press a new windshield rubber gasket into place along the perimeter of the windshield. Apply windshield sealer at the inside and outside corners of the gasket. Press the bottom stainless steel windshield molding into place over the molding clips until it snaps into place.

    4

    Clean the new windshield inside and out with window cleaner and paper towels. Use a helper and lift the windshield into place, making sure the bottom edge of the windshield is inserted into the groove in the weather stripping. Let the windshield lay back against the windshield frame.

    5

    Insert a plastic windshield installation tool under the lip of the gasket, on the sides and top of the windshield. Slide the tool along the edge of the windshield until the lip of the gasket covers the the windshield around its circumference.

    6

    Run a small bead of windshield sealer in-between the gasket and the windshield, around its entire perimeter. Firmly press the windshield into the frame with your hands to compress the gasket and sealer. Wipe up any sealer that may have squeezed out with a clean rag.

    7

    Press the remaining side and top stainless steel windshield moldings into place with the heal of your hand until they snap into place.

DIY Tips for Mechanical Drum Brakes

DIY Tips for Mechanical Drum Brakes

Mechanical drum brakes are a common alternative to disc brakes on many cars, trucks and SUVs. Drum brakes are typically found on the rear wheels, especially on older vehicles. They operate differently from disc brakes, but drivers can still inspect and even service drum brakes by following a few simple tips.

Removing the Drum

    Removing the drum from the brake assembly can be one of the most difficult and frustrating parts of servicing drum brakes. To make this task easier, spray the bolt that secures the drum, along with the exposed lugs and any other exposed hardware, with a lubricant such as WD-40. Wait for the lubricant to dissolve some of the rust around the drum, making it easier to remove. Spraying the other hardware will make those pieces easier to remove as well when the time comes. If the drum is still stubborn, use a rubber mallet to break up the rusty seal all the way around the rim of the drum. This can also help loosen a drum that is rusted in place. Once the drum is off, you can clean it with a lubricant to remove rust and make it easier to replace at the end of the repair or to remove in the future.

Checking Shoes

    Even if you aren't planning to replace the drum brake's shoes, any time that the drum is off is a good time to inspect them. Check to ensure that the surfaces of both shoes inside each brake are smooth and clean. Some drum brake shoes come with warning strips that will show through when there is very little material left. Make sure that the indicator strip, or the rivets in the case of riveted shoes, doesn't show. Also check the inside of the drum for smoothness and warping, which can occur due to excessive heat and interfere with braking performance.

Disassembly

    A drum brake includes many small springs and other parts, so disassemble the brake with care. If you don't have access to a service manual with clear photographs or diagrams of the brake assembly, you will want to create your own diagram. Indicate the order in which you remove the parts since reassembly will be done in the opposite sequence. To actually disassemble the brake, use vise grips to grasp the retainer springs. To loosen the brake lines, use a flare wrench rather than an open-end wrench.

Keeping Clean

    Brake jobs are notoriously messy work. Gloves are the only real way to keep your hands clean, but they may hinder the precision work involved in servicing drum brakes. To keep your garage floor clean, place a pan beneath the brake. This will catch any rust or brake dust, along with brake fluid should you discover a leak in the brake line or a blown wheel cylinder. Take special care when handling brake fluid, which can easily damage auto paint.

Rabu, 20 Maret 2013

How to Repair Dodge Truck Door Glass

If the window glass in your Dodge truck's door is cracked or broken, it needs to be replaced. The glass itself is held in place within the door panel, so you need to remove the inner trim panel to reach it. Use caution when removing damaged glass, no matter how extensive the damage.

Instructions

    1

    Lower the window all the way down. You may need to break away any parts of the glass that could break off within the door. Use caution when doing this, and use a pick-like tool.

    2

    Disconnect the negative battery cable from under the hood. Loosen the clamp for the black cable and set the cable aside so it can't come into contact with its terminal. This is a good precaution, but only needed if the truck has power doors or windows.

    3

    Remove the door's inner trim panel. Remove the window crank by using a towel or a hooked tool to disengage the clip, or pry off the power console with a trim panel and unplug its connector. Remove the door handle by lifting it and removing its retaining screw. Remove the four retaining screws for the panel, lift the door off its clips and disconnect all electrical connectors.

    4

    Peel back the watershield from the door. Pry the weatherstripping out of the top of the door.

    5

    Remove the bolts securing the glass' front run channel; these bolts are close to the door's inner edge. Raise the window so you can reach the glass retaining nuts through the holes in the door and remove them. Tilt the window forward and remove it from the door.

    6

    Slide the new glass into the door through the top slot. Bolt the glass in place, starting with the retaining nuts along the outside and then the channel bolts near the inner edge.

    7

    Replace the weatherstripping and the watershield; you may need to apply fresh adhesive to the watershield for it to stick. Install the inner trim panel in reverse order of removal. Remember to reconnect the battery cable if disconnected.

How to Repair the Disc Brakes on a Honda Element

How to Repair the Disc Brakes on a Honda Element

The Honda Element is a compact crossover SUV that entered the U.S. market in 2002. Like most vehicles, the Element uses disc brakes on the front wheels. This is a type of braking system in which the brake pads are attached to a caliper that pushes the pad against the rotor to slow the vehicle down. Your brake pads wear down over time, becoming less effective at slowing your vehicle. In extreme cases, worn-out brake pads can cause your brakes to fail, so replacing them when needed is an important responsibility.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Element on flat ground and turn off the engine. Make sure it is in "Park" and engage the emergency brake.

    2

    Loosen, but do not remove, the lug nuts on the front tires.

    3

    Jack up the front of the car. Place a jack stand underneath the outer frame on each side, and slowly lower the Element onto the jack stands.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts from the front tires, and take the tires off the car.

    5

    Remove the two bolts that hold the brake caliper in place. Lift the caliper off the wheel assembly, taking care not to pull or twist the brake line.

    6

    Remove the two pad springs that tie the brake pads together.

    7

    Grab the brake pads and slide them out of the wheel assembly. If you cannot get a grip on them, use a screwdriver to pull them out enough so you can grab them with your fingers.

    8

    Press the piston back into the rotor. You can use a clamp to do this, or a flat piece of metal such as a screwdriver or pry bar. Do not tear the rubber boot around the piston.

    9

    Apply brake grease to the anti-squeal plates and place them on the brake pads. The smaller plate goes on the pad with the wear indicator, which is the metal plate that sticks up on one end of the pad.

    10

    Install the pads onto the wheel assembly in the same position as the old pads you removed. Put the pad with the wear indicator on the back side of the rotor.

    11

    Install the pad springs by sliding them into the holes on top of the brake pads.

    12

    Place the brake caliper into position on the wheel hub and secure it with the bolts.

How Is Auto Glass Installed?

    To install auto glass, the frame must be cleaned of all extraneous material including all old window adhesive. A scraper and auto paint reducer or something similar is the best way to remove the remaining window sealer. The window frame must be extremely clean in order to give a good adhesive seal. Once this is done make sure that the window supporting blocks are in place at the bottom of the window. These are small 1-inch rubber blocks used to support the window so that the total weight of the window is not supported strictly by the window-sealer bead.

    If the window blocks were removed with the old window, new blocks should come with the new window sealer ribbon. If not, purchase new blocks since they are essential when installing a window. Without them the window will sag or slide down over time and create leaks. Once the blocks are installed make sure that all the molding clips are in place if the vehicle uses a molding around the window.

    It is difficult in most cases to replace these when the window is installed, due to the window adhesive bead. Once this is all accomplished a windshield installation primer must be installed around the window frame. The primer creates a very sticky base for the window-sealer bead and promotes long-lasting adhesion. Once this is on, the window-seal bead should be installed as soon as possible to protect the primer from dust.

    The window-sealer ribbon bead is very sticky. It comes in a roll covered with a tape in between to keep the sealer from adhering to itself. Use this tape to touch the sealer so your hands do not get stuck. It is really easy to ruin the window sealer if caution and patience are not exercised. Carefully unwind some of the seal. Start at the bottom corner of the window frame. Be careful to place the seal in the right spot because once the seal touches the primer it is done. It is not coming off in one piece. Do it right the first time.

    Unravel small amounts at a time and make the seal as straight as possible. Use your thumb to push down lightly on the seal. Cut the remaining bead off and overlap a small amount of the sealer. Once this is done, slide your finger on top of the tape around the sealer bead to make sure it is in place.

    To install the windshield it is advisable to use two people. The window is big and it is a little hard to judge exactly where the opposite end is located when lining it up. Remember that once the window touches the sealer bead it won't move or come loose. Once the window is laying on the sealer bead, lightly push down with the palm of your hand all the way around the windshield.

Selasa, 19 Maret 2013

Mustang Brake Problems

The brake system on your Ford Mustang requires periodic inspection and maintenance. Unfortunately, it is not until we notice strange smells, noises or mechanical changes coming from a brake component that we start to pay attention to the system. For the most part, lack of maintenance is the main cause of most brake system troubles, which makes diagnosing and solving the problem much easier. However, neglect the symptoms, and you are asking for serious trouble on the road.

Checking the Hydraulic System

    First, check for the most obvious cause of brake problems. Make sure the brake fluid level on the brake master cylinder is correct. The master cylinder is located inside the engine compartment, in front of the steering wheel and mounted on a cylindrical unit called the brake booster. Add the brake fluid recommended on your car owner's manual, if necessary.

    Check the brake booster and the vacuum hose attached to it for signs of wear or damage. Problems on the booster housing or hose may cause vacuum to leak, and leave your brakes extremely difficult to operate.

    Then check for possible leaks around the master cylinder and the brake lines that connect to it. Make sure the connections are tight. James E. Duffy, on Modern Automotive Technology, recommends running your fingers along the lines to check for hard to detect leaks. Inspect the brake hoses that join the lines to the brake assemblies on each wheel. Remove the tires, and use a flashlight to look for wet spots around the hoses and the back of the wheel assemblies. If necessary, replace the brake hoses.

Inspecting Wheel Brake Assemblies

    Once you remove the tires, check the brake pads, shoes, rotors and drums for wear, damage and wet spots that might indicate fluid leaks or grease contamination. As a rule of thumb, the linings on the pads and shoes should be thicker than the back plate on which they are mounted. Closely examine the rotors and drum braking surfaces for heat checks, scores and cracks. If necessary, take your rotors and drums to the auto repair shop for resurfacing.

    When removing the drums on the back wheels, inspect the wheel cylinder. This is a small cylinder mounted on the upper section of the back plate. Pull back the rubber boots on each side of the cylinder to check for brake fluid leaks. A leaking cylinder can be rebuilt or replaced. Inspect the drum brake mechanism like springs; hold down the springs and adjuster star wheel to check for missing or binding parts.

    If your Ford Mustang model is equipped with an anti-lock brake system (ABS), and the system light flashes on your dashboard as you drive, your vehicle computer has detected a malfunction. You can use a scan tool to retrieve any trouble codes stored in the computer memory to diagnose the malfunction, or have the auto shop look at the problem.

    For help locating brake system components or required maintenance intervals for your specific Mustang model, you may consult your car owner's or vehicle service manual. Most auto parts stores carry service manuals, and your local public library might have several of these manuals for reference.

How to Repair a Windshield Leak

How to Repair a Windshield Leak

For a number of years the only acceptable way to repair a windshield water leak was complete removal and reinstallation of the glass. The concern was potential rust development around the windshield frame, especially since the front and rear glass are structural components of the roof and add rigidity to an otherwise weak area. It was later discovered that water leaks are the result of a poor bond between the glass and the urethane, not the urethane to the frame. Consequently, in the early '90s General Motors issued a Technical Service Bulletin recommending that water leaks be repaired from inside the car.

Instructions

    1

    Sit inside the car and carefully fold the front headliner back in the general area where the water leak is located. Have an assistant slowly pour water over the windshield.

    2

    Shine a flashlight onto the area where water starts to drip. Catch the water drips with a shop towel and continue to watch until the water stops. Thoroughly dry the area.

    3

    Apply a small amount of silicone sealer to the exact point where the water is leaking. Use only enough to cover the area. Press the silicone into the hole with a wiping motion. Wipe several times across the area and apply another small amount of sealer. Do not apply excessive amounts of sealer.

    4

    Test the repair after allowing the sealer to dry for two hours. Use a flashlight to verify that the leak has been fixed by having an assistant pour water over the windshield.

What Is Brake Balance?

What Is Brake Balance?

A brake balancer keeps the ratio of braking power equal between the front and rear ends of the vehicle. This system assists larger vehicles that may have weight unevenly distributed.

Significance

    For a large vehicle, such as a commercial truck, the brake balance pressurizes the brakes on each wheel at the same rate and time. This keeps vehicles from losing control and having rear or front ends turning in the opposite direction from braking quickly.

Example

    If the brake balance is uneven on a van, the front or rear difference in braking may cause the vehicle to spin out of control. This is more apparent with 18-wheel trucks. If 18-wheel trucks are not properly balanced, the cargo trailer may twist in the opposite direction from the front brakes.

Benefits

    A working brake balance is also used for race car drivers. The brake balance on many racing cars is kept up-to-date and well maintained so the driver can control braking at fast speeds. If the brake balance is not well maintained, the driver may spin out of control around turns on a racetrack.

How to Change Front Brakes on an 1998 Audi A6

Audi's history stretches back to 1899 when August Horch established his first automobile company, A. Horch & Cie., which released its first car in 1901. A. Horch & Cie. would later join forces with Audi, DKW and Wanderer -- all auto manufacturers -- to develop what buyers now know as Audi AG. The A6 arrived in 1995 after Audi eliminated the 100 sedan after the 1994 model year. The 1998 A6 came fitted with a 200-horsepower, 2.8-liter V-6 engine and optional all-wheel drive. Replacing the front brake pads on this mid-sized luxury sedan is more straightforward than you may expect.

Instructions

    1

    Open the brake master cylinder reservoir's cap, and siphon out about half of the brake fluid in the master cylinder reservoir, using a clean turkey baster. Transfer this fluid to a small container.

    2

    Loosen, but don't remove, the front lug bolts. Raise the front of the A6, using a floor jack, and position jack stands under the vehicle's subframe. Lower the Audi onto the jack stands. Remove the lug bolts, and pull the front wheels off the Audi.

    3

    Pry the protective rubber caps off the caliper pins, using a flat-head screwdriver. Note the position of the outer brake pad retaining spring -- the thin wire spring -- securing the outer brake pad. Pry the retaining spring from the caliper, using a flat-head screwdriver.

    4

    Find the brake pad sensor wire -- the thin wire running from the inner brake pad. Trace the wire upward until you locate where its wiring harness connects to the Audi's wiring harness. Press the locking button on the Audi's wiring harness and unplug the brake pad's wiring harness from the Audi's wiring harness.

    5

    Remove the two caliper pins using a ratchet and a hex-bit socket. Pull the caliper up and off the caliper bracket, and hang it from a nearby suspension component, using a bungee strap. Pull the outer brake pad from the caliper bracket.

    6

    Position an 8-inch C-clamp over the caliper so the fixed part contacts the rear of the caliper and the screw part contacts the old inner pad. Tighten the C-clamp until it stops moving. Remove the C-clamp from the caliper. Insert the blade of a flat-head screwdriver under the inner brake pad and pry it upward slightly, then pull it from the caliper -- notice metal "fingers" on the rear of the pad insert into the caliper piston.

    7

    Loosen the two caliper bracket-retaining bolts, and pull the caliper bracket off the steering knuckle. Grab the brake rotor and pull it off the front hub. If the rotor does not pull off easily, lightly tap the rear of it with a rubber mallet to free it.

    8

    Inspect the brake rotor for any defects, including: cracks, hot spots, grind marks or deep grooves. Replace the rotor with a new one if defects are present. Set the rotor back on the hub, lining up the lug bolt holes on the rotor with those on the hub.

    9

    Set the caliper bracket back on the steering knuckle, and hand-thread the caliper bracket-retaining bolts. Tighten the caliper bracket-retaining bolts to 96 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and socket.

    10

    Slide a new outer brake pad into the caliper bracket. Line up the fingers on the rear of the new inner brake pad up with the cavity in the caliper piston. Press the pad onto the caliper piston until the fingers are inserted fully into the cavity.

    11

    Remove the brake caliper from the bungee strap, and set it on the caliper bracket. Hand-tighten the caliper pins, then torque them to 18 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and hex-bit socket.

    12

    Slide the outer brake pad-retaining spring back into its position. Compress the retaining springs hooks with your fingers and insert the hooks into the two holes in the caliper. Release the hooks to lock the spring in place. Plug the brake pad sensor wiring harness into the A6's wiring harness.

    13

    Repeat Steps 3 through 12 to replace the pads on the other side of the A6.

    14

    Reinstall the front wheels onto the A6's front hubs, and hand-tighten the lug bolts. Raise the Audi off the jack stands, using a floor jack, and remove the jack stands. Lower the Audi to the ground and tighten the lug bolts -- in a crisscrossing pattern -- to 90 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and socket.

    15

    Press and release the brake pedal until it feels firm. Check the brake fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir, and add DOT 4 brake fluid until the level reaches the "Max" line on the reservoir.

Senin, 18 Maret 2013

How to Remove a Car Windshield

A car's windshield takes a beating from various debris encountered on the road. Chips can become cracks, which reduce visibility as well as the effectiveness of the safety features within the glass. Minor chips can be repaired without removing the windshield, but substantial damage requires replacement of the damaged windshield. The first step in the replacement process is, of course, to remove the existing windshield. Thankfully, doing so is a relatively straightforward task that can save you money by avoiding the cost of labor associated with professional removal.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the windshield wipers, if applicable. Many cars have windshield wipers that rest against the surface of the windshield when not in use. Other cars have windshield wipers that come to rest below the windshield in the cowl. Windshield wipers that rest against the windshield must be removed before the windshield can be removed. Windshield wiper removal tools are available at most auto parts retailers. The tip of the tool slides underneath the wiper and is then used to pry the wiper off of the wiper's post. Other wipers are attached to the vehicle with clips or screws, which must first be removed before the wiper can be pulled away from its post.

    2

    Remove the chrome trim that surrounds the windshield, if applicable. Chrome windshield trim typically appears on vehicles manufactured before the early 1980s. A trim removal tool is necessary here. The tip of the tool slides between the trim and the edges of the windshield. The tool is then pushed away from the windshield, which in turn pushes the trim away from the trim's retaining posts.

    3

    Use a razor blade to cut through the weatherstripping that surrounds the outside edges of the windshield. The weatherstripping must be cut away until the edges of the glass can be seen.

    4

    Push on one side of the windshield from the interior of the car until the windshield breaks free from only that side of the car. If the windshield will not break free, check to ensure that the weatherstripping has been cut enough to expose the entire circumference of the windshield.

    5

    Push the opposite side of the windshield from the interior of the car until the windshield breaks free.

    6

    Lift the windshield away from the vehicle to complete the removal process.

How to Fix My Car Brakes

How to Fix My Car Brakes

There are several components to a vehicle's braking system that may be in need of repair. The brake pads are the parts that make contact with the brake rotors during braking. The pads could be worn or otherwise damaged and require replacement. The brake rotors need to be smooth and flat. If they are scored by the brake pad wear indicators, the should be resurfaced or replaced. If the rotors are warped, then they will need to be replaced. The brake pads, the rotors, and the brake caliper itself are the most most common brake parts that will require repair during the life of your vehicle.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle on a flat surface, away from the curb and passing traffic. Loosen the lug nuts on all of the wheels with the tire iron.

    2

    Put the jack under the chassis of the vehicle and lift the car, truck or SUV. Lower the vehicle onto jack stands to support the vehicle during your work.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and the wheels from the vehicle. Remove the two caliper bolts on each caliper. The caliper bolts are on the side of the caliper closest to the frame of the vehicle and can be removed using a 13-millimeter wrench.

    4

    Pull the rotor from the wheel bolts. The rotor should slide freely from the bolts; however if there's rust binding the rotor to the steering knuckle, use a hammer to tap on the rotor until the bond from the rust is broken.

    5

    Use a 10-millimeter wrench to disconnect the brake line from the caliper. Place a drip pan beneath the brake line to catch any fluid that may leak from the line. Use a wire brush to clean any rust from the wheel bolts.

    6

    Connect the brake line to the new caliper. Place the brake line over the intake nozzle near the bottom caliper bolt. Tighten the brake line with the 10 millimeter wrench. Slide the brake pads onto the walls of the new caliper. The brake pads will be facing each other, and the curve will mirror the curve of the caliper when installed properly.

    7

    Take the new rotor from its packaging. Spray the entire rotor with brake cleaner. Wipe the rotor with a clean towel until dry. Slide the rotor onto the wheel bolts. Make sure that the top hat section of the rotor is facing outward (the top hat section is the convex area in the middle of the rotor).

    8

    Place the new caliper with the new brake pads back onto the rotor. Screw in the caliper bolts with the 13-millimeter wrench.

    9

    Place the wheels back onto the wheel bolts and screw on the lug nuts by hand. Lift the vehicle with the lifting jack, remove the jack stands, and lower the vehicle to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts with the tire iron.

    10

    Press the brake pedal three times, holding it down on the third depression. After 10 seconds, release the brake pedal.

    11

    Open the hood of the vehicle and locate the master cylinder. Open the cap and fill the container with brake fluid.

Minggu, 17 Maret 2013

How to Change the Rear Brake Shoes on a Lincoln Mark V

How to Change the Rear Brake Shoes on a Lincoln Mark V

Changing the rear brake shoes on a Lincoln Mark V requires time, concentration and patience. Though the process itself is not overly complicated, the steps required must be followed precisely or you could damage your brake system or even injure yourself if the system fails while you're operating your car. Consequently it is not recommended that you change the brake shoes on your Lincoln without first consulting a knowledgeable mechanic.

Instructions

    1

    Crack the lug nuts on the rear wheel of your Lincoln before lifting onto a jack. This will enable you to use the pressure of the tire on the ground under the weight of the car for leverage as you try to loosen the nut.

    2

    Lift your Lincoln with a 5 ton jack and support its rear end with two jack stands.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts from the rear wheel you're working on first and then remove the tire from the brake drum.

    4

    Spray the brake drum with penetrating oil. Penetrating oil is a low-viscosity lubricant that allows you to unscrew rusted or otherwise stuck bolts and nuts. It can be purchased at a local car parts store.

    5

    Remove the return spring from the brake drum using the speciality return spring tool. The return spring tool looks like a pair of pliers and can be purchased at a car parts store.

    6

    Remove the spring retainer clips using the clips speciality tool by holding the rear of the retaining pin down and inserting the specialty tool over top the front of the clip and turning the tool counter clockwise. The retainer clip specialty tool looks like a screwdriver and can be purchased at a car parts store.

    7

    Hook up a line wrench onto the brake line connected to the rear drum and loosen the fitting to remove the line.

    8

    Unscrew the bolts mounting the wheel cylinder so you can remove the wheel cylinder itself.

    9

    Remove the wheel cylinder so you can remove the old brake shoes.

    10

    Replace both the brake shoes and the wheel cylinder.

    11

    Reattach the brake lines.

    12

    Reassemble the rear wheel brake drum system in reverse order.

    13

    Adjust and test your new rear brakes. The new brake shoes should lightly contact the brake drum.

    14

    Bleed the brake system to ensure that it is free of air and leaks.

Sabtu, 16 Maret 2013

How to Temporarily Repair a Broken Automobile Car Window

How to Temporarily Repair a Broken Automobile Car Window

Though small chips in an car's windshield may seem like a minor inconvenience, they can grow into larger cracks and should be dealt as early as possible. Depending on the nature of the chip, it may be possible to temporarily fill it, allowing car owners to put off the need to completely replace the windshield. The method is recommended for small chips commonly caused by pebble strikes, not for large cracks or deep surface damage.

Instructions

    1

    Clean the chip and the surrounding area with acetone and allow to dry completely.

    2

    Remove the adhesive backing from the syringe adapter and apply it to the windshield, centered over the crack.

    3

    Open the syringe and attach the syringe to the syringe adapter, orienting the syringe as vertically as possible.

    4

    Pull the syringe handle out as far as possible. This creates a vacuum that removes air from the chip. Hold the handle in this position for about one minute, allowing the air bubbles to finish percolating up through the adhesive.

    5

    Release the syringe handle, allowing the suction to draw the adhesive down into the chip.

    6

    Repeat steps four and five until the chip is completely filled with adhesive.

    7

    Remove the syringe and the syringe adapter and allow the adhesive to cure for several hours.

    8

    Use a razor blade to remove any excess adhesive from the windshield.

Jumat, 15 Maret 2013

How to Remove & Place a Windshield

How to Remove & Place a Windshield

Slight windshield damage can usually be fixed with a window epoxy that fills in small dings and cracks. If you have a large crack or broken windshield, you will need to replace the entire windshield. In many states, you can get a ticket for driving with a cracked windshield. Many people simply call professional windshield companies for removal and placement, but a good do-it-yourself auto technician should be able to perform the task himself with a few basic tools.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the windshield wipers by removing the trim, then unscrewing the bolts that hold the wipers to your car.

    2

    Pry the metal trim loose from around the windshield using a pry tool or a clean putty knife. If you plan to reuse the trim, you will have to be careful not to bend and break the metal.

    3

    Find the place where the two ends of the rubber gasket around the windshield meet. Pry the joint loose, then slowly peel the gasket away from the windshield.

    4

    Scrape all of the adhesive away from the interior and exterior of the windshield channel using a windshield scraping tool or razor blade. Failure to remove all the old adhesive will prevent your new windshield from bonding properly.

    5

    Grip the windshield firmly with two large suction cups and lift it slowly off of the car. You should have a second person help you lift the windshield or push it out from the inside of the car.

    6

    Clean the new windshield with window cleaner and clean paper towels. This removes all the dirt to make sure the adhesive forms a good bond between the windshield and the windshield channel.

    7

    Apply windshield primer to the outside edges of the windshield to increase the efficacy of the adhesive. Next, apply a bead of urethane adhesive to the edges of the windshield.

    8

    Lift the new windshield with suction cups and lower into place on the vehicle then replace the gasket, trim and windshield wiper assembly. Make sure the gasket fits snugly along the windshield edges.

Problems With Bleeding a Car's Brakes

Problems With Bleeding a Car's Brakes

Brake bleeding sometimes in necessary when brakes are repaired. The purpose is to remove all air from the system. Air in the system will not allow the brakes to work. Unfortunately, brake bleeding is one of the harder jobs in brake servicing. Unlike most vehicle repairs, brake bleeding usually requires two people if you do not have the specialized tools for the job. Bleeding brakes is almost impossible to do without a helper or a brake vacuum pump, so you really need one or the other.

Bleeder Breaks Off

    One major problem is the bleeder nipple breaking off in the caliper or the cylinder. You place a wrench on the nipple and turn. Because it hasn't been opened in years, its frozen shut. You attempt to open it, and it breaks off internally, below the surface of the caliper. To avoid this, use a penetrating oil on the nipple, and tap gently with an aluminum or soft faced mallet. If you apply pressure on your wrench but it doesn't open, apply more oil and keep tapping gently. You may have to repeat this until it loosens up. Popular Mechanics Magazine recommends using the box end of the wrench on the bleeder, so the wrench doesn't round off the hexagon part.

Brake Fluid and Paint

    Brake fluid will "eat" and dissolve car paint. Be very careful when filling the reservoir on the master cylinder. Clean up any spills immediately with a dry towel.

Ground Clearance

    Ground clearance is a problem. If you are working on a truck, there is plenty of room for you to crawl underneath. On a car, this is a different story. Some cars make it very difficult to crawl underneath to reach the bleeder nipples. You will have to raise the car. The solution is to rent some car ramps at a local tool rental facility or buy some. You and helpers must push the car up the ramps slowly, since you have no brakes to stop the car if driven onto the ramps. The car and ramps must be on hard, level ground. After the car is up on ramps, place it in park, set the parking brake firmly and use wheel chocks.

Kamis, 14 Maret 2013

GMC 2500 Rear Disc Brake Removal

The rear disc brakes found on a GMC 2500 truck act as a parking brake as well as do some of the daily braking. Over time, these brakes wear down, and the rotors will need to be removed to either get them turned or for a full replacement. Although it's a straightforward task, it is different than removing front brake rotors, as it involves a bit of an extra step.

Instructions

    1

    Make sure the parking brake is off. Lift up the rear axle on the truck using the jack and set the axle on the jack stands so that the wheels are off the ground.

    2

    Unbolt the rear brake caliper from the axle using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket. Lift it off of the rotor, then suspend it from the frame using the bungee cord, making sure the brake line is still slack.

    3

    Grip the rotor with both hands. Twist the rotor slowly while simultaneously pulling it towards you, until it pops off of the axle.

Cracked Windshield Dangers

Cracked Windshield Dangers

The windshield of your car protects you from the elements. If keeps you from being exposed to rain, heat, snow and wind. The windshield acts as a shield against debris and bugs and can even support the framework of your car. Damage to the windshield may present a danger to you and your passengers.

Causes

    The most common cause of a cracked windshield is a flying piece of gravel or stone kicked up by a passing car. The driver does not usually see the debris coming, or realize what has happened, until the crack appears. If left unrepaired, a small nick, or ding, can turn into a much larger crack in the cold weather.

Safety

    The car windshield is considered a safety feature of a car. In the case of an accident, the windshield can prevent the driver and passengers from being ejected from the automobile. In many cars it also supports the front passenger side airbag system. In the case of a rollover, your windshield helps maintain the structural integrity of your car and prevents the roof from collapsing. If the occupant of a car is thrown forward, during a crash, the windshield will cushion the blow.

Dangers

    The most obvious danger of a cracked windshield is the potential reduction in driver visibility.

    A cracked or damaged windshield may be weakened and less able to withstand the stress of a crash. Any damage larger than the size of a U.S. quarter may have damaged the structural integrity of the windshield.

    A cracked windshield may not properly support the passenger airbag system. This can cause the airbag to not deploy correctly.

Repair

    It can be possible to repair small chips and cracks. More significant damage will require windshield replacement, especially if the damage is in the driver's sight line.

    Windshield repair, instead of replacement, maintains the integrity of the glass factory seal.

    Consult a competent auto glass specialist if there is any damage to your windshield to appropriately assess the need to replace or repair the glass.

Maintenance

    It is important to perform a regular safety check of your windshield and address any damage as soon as possible. Sometimes the damage is small and may not be easily noticed without careful inspection. Include an inspection of the window seals in your review; damage to the seal may weaken the strength of the windshield. Windshield wipers should be replaced on a regular basis to ensure they do not scratch or otherwise damage the windshield.

Rabu, 13 Maret 2013

How to Replace the Pads in the 2006 S40

How to Replace the Pads in the 2006 S40

Volvo introduced the S40 in 1995. The 2006 Volvo S40 was available in both two-wheel and all-wheel drive. Both versions of the 2006 S40 had four-wheel disc brakes available. The disc brake system incorporated the calipers, pads and rotors as the main brake parts for the car. The front disc brake calipers have a piston that compresses by simply pushing it inward. The rear brake calipers have rotating or splined pistons, which need to be rotated while compressing the piston to fit the new brake pads. Replacing all of the pads on all four wheels takes about three to four hours.

Instructions

2006 Volvo S40: Front Brake Pad Replacement Procedures

    1

    Remove the torque from the wheel lug stems on one front wheel, using a 1/2-inch breaker bar and wheel socket set. Turn the lug stems until they are lightly broken loose from the wheel. The 2006 S40 has lug stems that turn into the wheel hub like bolts, rather than the usual wheel stem with a wheel nut that spins onto it. This inverted version of what most people are used to can be a bit tricky to work with. Lift the Volvo up, one side at a time, with a 2-ton jack or a jack with greater capacity. Place a jack stand underneath the lifted side of the vehicle, beneath the front frame rail. Take off one set of wheel lug stems, then repeat this step on the second front wheel of the car. Remove both front wheels completely from the car.

    2

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts on the rear of one of the brake calipers. The brake caliper is the large metal object wrapped around the metal disc or brake rotor. Remove the brake caliper halfway from the brake assembly, using a small pry bar to assist you. Do not pull the caliper completely off the brake assembly at this time. Insert the small pry bar into the hole on the caliper, placing the tip of the pry bar between the rear brake pad and the brake rotor. Push the handle of the pry bar away from the wheel well, in order to compress the brake caliper piston. Remove the brake caliper when the caliper piston is completely compressed or you can push it in no further.

    3

    Set the caliper onto the lower control arm, directly behind the brake rotor. Do not let the caliper hang freely, or you will damage the brittle rubber hose between the back of the caliper and the frame of the S40. Remove the old brake pads from the caliper mounting bracket, using a small pry bar to pull them loose if necessary. Install the new brake pads onto the caliper mounting bracket. Lubricate the back side of each brake pad (the metal shim side) using a tub of caliper grease. Proper lubrication is crucial to the performance of any automotive brake system.

    4

    Reinstall the brake caliper over the new pads and the brake rotor. Let the caliper sit on the brake assembly. Remove the two metal tubes from the rear of the caliper, which are set inside the little black rubber boots on the rear of the caliper. These tubes are known as the caliper slide tubes. Remove the tubes by pushing them out of one end of each rubber boot. Dip both slide tubes directly into the tub of caliper grease, then reinstall them into their rubber boot housing. Install the caliper mounting bolts back onto the caliper and tighten the mounting bolts between 60 and 70 foot-pounds of torque with a certified torque wrench and socket. Spray the entire brake assembly using a can of aerosol brake parts cleaner, to remove excess grease and greasy fingerprints.

    5

    Repeat Steps 2 through 4 on the other side of the S40 to complete the front pad replacement process. Lift the front side of the Volvo up using a 2-ton jack and remove the jack stand from beneath that side. Reinstall the front wheel and install the lug stems into the wheel hub. Tighten the front wheel to a snug position before dropping that side of the vehicle. Repeat this process on the other side of the Volvo to install the second front wheel. Make sure both sets of wheel lug stems are snug prior to dropping the car to the ground. Tighten the front wheel lug stems to 80 foot-pounds of torque using a certified torque wrench and wheel socket.

2006 Volvo S40: Rear Brake Pad Replacement Procedures

    6

    Remove the torque from the wheel lug stems on one rear wheel, using a 1/2-inch breaker bar and wheel socket set. Turn the lug stems until they are lightly broken loose from the wheel. Lift the Volvo up, one side at a time, with a 2-ton jack or a jack with greater capacity. Place a jack stand underneath the lifted side of the vehicle, beneath the rear axle beam. Take off one set of wheel lug stems, then repeat this step on the second rear wheel of the car. Remove both rear wheels completely from the car.

    7

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts on the rear of one of the rear brake calipers. The brake caliper is the large metal object wrapped around the metal disc or brake rotor. Remove the brake caliper completely from the brake assembly, using a small pry bar to assist you if necessary. Compress the rear caliper, using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and 6-inch extension, with a caliper piston tool at the end of the extension. Push the caliper tool against the face of the piston and turn the caliper clockwise with the tool while simultaneously adding pressure to push the piston in. Repeat the compression procedure until the rear caliper piston is completely compressed.

    8

    Set the caliper onto the lower control arm, directly behind the brake rotor. Do not let the caliper hang freely or you will damage the brittle rubber hose between the back of the caliper and the frame of the S40. Remove the old brake pads from the caliper mounting bracket, using a small pry bar to pull them loose if necessary. Install the new brake pads onto the caliper mounting bracket. Lubricate the back side of each brake pad (the metal shim side) using a tub of caliper grease. Proper lubrication is crucial to the performance of any automotive brake system.

    9

    Reinstall the brake caliper over the new pads and the brake rotor. Let the caliper sit on the brake assembly. Remove the two metal tubes from the rear of the caliper, which are set inside the little black rubber boots on the rear of the caliper. These tubes are known as the caliper slide tubes. Remove the tubes by pushing them out of one end of each rubber boot. Dip both slide tubes directly into the tub of caliper grease, then reinstall them into their rubber boot housing. Install the caliper mounting bolts back onto the caliper and tighten the mounting bolts between 60 and 70 foot-pounds of torque with a certified torque wrench and socket. Spray the entire brake assembly using a can of aerosol brake parts cleaner, to remove excess grease and greasy fingerprints.

    10

    Repeat Steps 2 through 4 on the other side of the S40 to complete the front pad replacement process. Lift one rear side of the Volvo up using a 2-ton jack and remove the jack stand from beneath that side. Reinstall the rear wheel and install the lug stems into the wheel hub. Tighten the rear wheel to a snug position before dropping that side of the vehicle. Repeat this process on the second side of the Volvo to install the second rear wheel. Make sure both sets of wheel lug stems are snug prior to dropping the car to the ground. Tighten the rear wheel lug stems to 80 foot-pounds of torque using a certified torque wrench and wheel socket.