Kamis, 31 Mei 2012

How to Install Brake Pads on a 2004 Jeep Cherokee

The Jeep Cherokee braking system consists of a disc brake and rear drum brake setup. The Cherokee used this configuration for the duration of the production run. Like all disc brakes, the Cherokee's disc brakes use a set of replaceable pads on the front end. The abrasive materials in the brake pads can vary by brand and there are several grades of pads available to fill your needs. With different driving styles, one may work better than another for you. Talk to an associate at an auto-parts store for help in making a choice.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the front lug nuts on your Jeep with a lug wrench but do not remove them yet. Raise the front of the Jeep with a jack and support it with a set of jack stands under the axle housing. Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels off the Jeep.

    2

    Install one lug nut on one wheel stud by hand to hold the rotor in place when you remove the brake caliper. Locate the two slide pins on the brake caliper. They thread in from the rear of the caliper. Remove them with a socket and ratchet and set them aside.

    3

    Lift the brake caliper off the rotor and turn it so the open end is facing you. Support the caliper and do not let it hang against the rubber brake hose or damage will occur to the hose. Pull the outboard pad out of the caliper and discard it. Push the inboard pad toward the center of the caliper, snapping the retaining springs out of the caliper piston and then lift it out of the caliper.

    4

    Place a large C-Clamp on the caliper with the fixed portion of the clamp on the caliper body and the screw end in the caliper piston. Carefully turn the C-clamp, forcing the piston into the bore. When the piston is flush with the body of the caliper, remove the clamp.

    5

    Place the new inboard pad into the caliper with the springs on the back of it facing the caliper piston. Push the pad back and snap it into the piston. Drop the new outboard pad into the front of the caliper, sliding the spring clips over the two milled surfaces on the caliper body.

    6

    Turn the caliper over and set it in place on the rotor and caliper mounting bracket. Insert the two slide pins from the rear of the caliper and tighten them with a socket and ratchet. Tighten them until they are snug; do not over-tighten them or you will never get them out next time you need to replace the pads.

    7

    Move to the opposite side of the Jeep and repeat the steps to replace the pads on that side. Remove the lug nut that is holding the rotor on, then install the wheels and lug nuts on the Jeep. Tighten the lug nuts with a lug wrench as much as possible for now.

    8

    Raise the front of the Jeep off the jack stands with a jack, remove the stands from under the Jeep, then lower the Jeep to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts now that the weight is on the wheels, then slowly pump the brake pedal to seat the brake pads to the rotor.

How to Change the Brake Fluid on a New 2005 VW Beetle

You need to change th brake fluid in your Volkswagen New Beetle at 30,000 miles or after two years. The fluid gets moisture and other contaminants in it over time, reducing its effectiveness. Brake fluid can't be drained like engine oil; you have to siphon it out directly from its cylinder and reservoir in the engine. Changing this fluid will cause air to enter the brake system, meaning you'll need to bleed this air out of the system.

Instructions

    1

    Open the cap on the brake fluid reservoir,which is located at the engine firewall below the air duct.

    2

    Siphon out the brake fluid using a hand suction pump or a similar device. Transfer the fluid into a disposeable container and make sure you know all your local laws for disposing of this fluid.

    3

    Pour new DOT 4 brake fluid into the master cylinder reservoir up to the reservoir's indicator line.

    4

    Raise the car, support it on jack stands and remove all four wheels.

    5

    Loosen the bleeder valve on the right rear wheel and connect a thin, clear tube to the valve, submerging the tube's other end in a small plastic bottle partially filled with brake fluid.

    6

    Open the valve with your wrench as another person presses on the brake pedal; look for air and old fluid to come out the tube. Tighten the valve and release the pedal, then repeat until a steady stream of clean fluid comes out.

    7

    Repeat the bleeding process at the left rear, right front and left front wheels; check the fluid level in the reservoir each time and add extra fluid if needed.

    8

    Reconnect the wheels, lower the car and top off the reservoir after bleeding all four wheels.

How to Bleed the Brakes on 1997 Pontiac Grand Prix

How to Bleed the Brakes on 1997 Pontiac Grand Prix

One of the most important maintenance tasks you have for your Pontiac Grand Prix is maintaining your brakes. Over time, your brake pads wear down, becoming less effective at stopping your car. If the pads wear down enough, they can fail completely, causing serious injury or worse to you and others. After you replace your brakes, you need to bleed the brake system. This removes any air bubbles trapped inside the brake lines which can block the lines and make the brake pedal feel spongy. It also allows you to replace the brake fluid in the lines.

Instructions

    1

    Empty the brake fluid from the reservoir with a turkey baster.

    2

    Fill the reservoir with new brake fluid.

    3

    Put a clear tube over the nipple on the bleeder screw and place the other end into an empty plastic water bottle.

    4

    Tell your assistant to pump the brake pedal a few times.

    5

    Have your assistant press down on the pedal hard and hold it. Loosen the brake fluid bleeder screw and close it right before the brake pedal hits the floor. Repeat this about 5 times and refill the reservoir.

    6

    Tell your assistant to pump the brake pedal 10 times and open the bleeder screw. Continue doing this until you no longer see air bubbles in the brake fluid.

    7

    Repeat this process on the other three brakes.

Brake Grease Alternatives

Brake Grease Alternatives

Brake noise is a common problem in automobiles. Although it is usually harmless, it is often unpleasant to listen to. Squealing in the brakes is caused by normal vibrations between the brake pad and calipers. While brake grease is the most commonly used lubricant to prevent noise, other products are available that can work just as effectively. When applying any product to your vehicle's brakes, remember to use them only on the backs of the brake pads so they do not interfere with the braking power.

Anti-Seize

    High quality anti-seize is comprised of metal that can withstand higher temperatures than brake grease. Nickel anti-seize can withstand temperatures up to 2,600 degrees Fahrenheit, whereas most brands of brake grease are rated to withstand temperatures of 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit. Anti-seize is a thicker consistency than grease, which helps it remain on the pads without burning or washing off as quickly.

Brake Pad Shims

    Brake pad shims help reduce the noise of brake pad vibration. Shims are inserted onto the brake pads, which enable them to absorb and reduce the noise caused during braking. Shims are often made of durable rubber or metal. They are easy to install and can prolong the life of the your brake pads.

Silicone Grease

    Silicone grease can work just as efficiently as brake grease for all components of the braking system. Silicone is a great lubricant and preservative, especially on plastic and rubber surfaces. It can be found at home improvement stores and auto parts stores.

Rabu, 30 Mei 2012

How to Change Semi-Truck Brakes

How to Change Semi-Truck Brakes

Most all semi-truck models come equipped with an air brake system. The air brake system consists of the brake chambers, slack adjusters, s-cams, brake shoes and the brake drums. When the air is applied to the brakes, the brake shoes are compressed to the inside of the brake drums. When the air is released from the brakes, the brake shoes will retract to the proper distance from the inside surface of the brake drums. Over time, the brake shoes will wear down. Change the brake shoes before the shoe thickness reaches one eighth to one quarter of an inch.

Instructions

    1

    Pull the semi-truck onto a flat surface and apply the air brakes by pulling out on the air brake knob. Turn the engine off.

    2

    Place the wheel chocks around the front and back of both front wheels to prevent the semi-truck from rolling when the rear end is jacked up. Move back to the inside of the truck and release the air to the brakes by pushing the air brake knob back in.

    3

    Jack the rear end of the semi-truck up with a hydraulic floor jack. Place the jack stands under the rear axle about 12 to 16 inches from the back side of the rear driver side wheel hub assembly and the rear passenger side wheel hub assembly. This will allow the weight of the truck rear end to be equally distributed onto both jack stands. Lower the rear end onto the jack stands and leave the jack in the upright position as a extra safety precaution.

    4

    Loosen and remove the lug nuts from both rear tandem wheels with the air wrench and a socket. Pull the wheels off of the drums by using a pry bar to pry the wheel back and forth as you are pulling out on the wheel at the same time. Lay the wheels flat down near each work area.

    5

    Slide under the rear of the semi-truck and locate the slack adjusters on both rear axles. Two slack adjusters are on the driver side of the rear axles, and two slack adjusters are on the passenger side of the rear axles. Turn the adjustment bolt on the back of the slack adjuster counterclockwise with a ratchet and a socket until the adjustment bolt stops turning. Once the adjustment bolt stops turning, this will mean that the brake shoes are completely free of the brake drum. Move to the other three slack adjusters and repeat the same process for retracting the brake shoes from the brake drums. Begin the brake shoe replacement process on the rear driver side axle.

    6

    Pull the brake drum off of the rear driver side axle with your hands. If the drum is stuck, use the hand-held sledge hammer to tap the rear of the brake drum until it is loose. Pull the brake drum completely off of the brake shoes by grasping the drum with both hands. Lay the drum on the surface near the working area.

    7

    Remove the top return springs and the bottom hold-down spring from each brake shoe with a brake spring removal tool. Pull the brake pads off of the hub assembly backing plate. Tap the spring retainers that are located about halfway down the side of each brake shoe, with the sledge hammer until the retainers are out of the brake shoes. Tap the new retainers into the sides of both new brake shoes with the sledge hammer until the retainers are completely inside of the shoes.

    8

    Slide the top return springs onto the top of the new brake shoes with the spring removal tool. Position the new brake shoes onto the backing plate. Make sure that the bottom of each brake shoe is positioned against the end of the s-cam. Slide the hold-down spring to the retainer clips inside of each brake shoe with the spring removal tool. Slide the brake drum over the new brake shoes until the front of the brake drum is flush with the brake shoes. Slide the wheel back onto the drum by using the pry bar to pry the tire up onto the drum. Screw the lug nuts onto the stud. Tighten the lug nuts with the air wrench and the socket.

    9

    Repeat the same exact steps as outlined above to replace the brake shoes on the other three rear wheels. Finish replacing the brake shoes on the rear axle before moving to the secondary rear axle. Once all of the brake shoes have been replaced and the wheels have been tightened by the lug nuts with the air wrench, adjust the brake shoes to the proper distance from the inside of the brake drums.

    10

    Slide back under the back of the semi-truck and adjust the brake shoes to properly fit the brake drums on both rear axles. Turn the adjustment bolt on the back of each slack adjuster clockwise until the adjustment bolt stops turning. This will mean that the new brake shoes are fully compressed to the inside surface of the brake drums. Turn the adjustment bolt one quarter to one half of a turn counterclockwise to position the new brake shoes to the proper distance from the drum. Use a flashlight if necessary to watch the brake shoes through the back side of the wheel hub assembly. Move to the other three slack adjusters and repeat the same process.

    11

    Jack the rear of the semi-truck back up and remove the jack stands. Lower the truck to the ground and remove the jack. Crank the engine and wait for the air pressure to build back up to 120 psi. Then, reapply the air to the brakes by pulling out on the air brake knob.

    12

    Remove the wheel chocks from the front wheels and drive the semi-truck in a safe location to test the operation of the new brake shoes. Park the truck.

Selasa, 29 Mei 2012

How to Change Rear Drum Brakes on a Ford Taurus

How to Change Rear Drum Brakes on a Ford Taurus

One of the most important safety features on your car is the braking system. As time goes on and the miles add up, you add to the amount of wear on your brakes. When the brakes wear down, this can lead to reduced performance or even complete failure. Therefore, it's important to keep your brakes well-maintained, whether it's as simple as replacing the brake shoes or a more complicated repair, such as replacing the brake drums.

Instructions

Removal

    1

    Put the car in park and raise the rear with a jack. Wedge a brick or sturdy piece of wood in the front and back of the front tires to help prevent the car from rolling while it's jacked up.

    2

    Use the 12 mm open-end wrench and pliers to disconnect the parking brake cable at the adjuster.

    3

    Remove one of the tires from the car.

    4

    Take the drum off of the brake cylinder. You may need to use a small sledgehammer to knock it off.

    5

    Inspect the brake cylinder for the following: leaks, torn boots and heat discoloration on the springs. If any of these need to be replaced, replace them.

    6

    Use brake cleaner to spray the assembly and use a rag to wipe it off. Do not blow the dust off the brake assembly or touch it with your bare hands, as the dust might contain asbestos.

    7

    Remove the upper spring, brake adjuster lever, adjuster screw, front brake shoe hold-down spring, brake shoe and retracting spring, and the rear brake shoe hold-down spring.

    8

    Use the pliers to pull the cable out about a half-inch.

    9

    Take the rear brake shoe off the parking brake cable.

    10

    Remove the parking brake lever clip, then take the parking brake lever off the brake shoe.

    11

    Clean all the parts with brake cleaner, and replace the parts that need to be replaced due to wear.

Installation

    12

    Put the parking brake lever back on the brake shoe, then put the parking brake lever clip back on.

    13

    Reconnect the rear brake shoe and the parking brake cable.

    14

    Replace the rear brake shoe hold-down spring, brake shoe and retracting spring, front brake shoe-hold down spring, adjuster screw, the brake adjuster lever and the upper spring.

    15

    Put the new drum on the brake assembly.

    16

    Put the tire back on the car, making sure that you secure it properly.

    17

    Reconnect the parking brake cable.

    18

    Slowly lower the car back onto the ground.

    19

    Repeat this process for the brake on the other side.

Proper Way to Flush a Brake System

Your car's brake system needs to be flushed every one to two years. Over time, the brake fluid absorbs moisture, which lowers its boiling point and can cause corrosion from the inside. You need to completely replace the brake fluid in the system and make sure all of the old fluid is removed.

Replacing the Fluid

    The old brake fluid is siphoned out through the master cylinder reservoir. The surface of the cylinder must be clean before you open it to prevent any dirt or contamination from entering the system. Use an aerosol cleaner on the reservoir with a clean rag or paper towels and make sure you clean every inch of the surface. Once the cylinder is clean, you can remove the cap on the cylinder to siphon out the fluid. A simple turkey baster can be used for this, but make sure it has never been used before and won't be used for anything else. Deposit the fluid into an approved container and make sure it doesn't drip anywhere onto the car; brake fluid will damage car paint. You should need a pint to a quart of fresh brake fluid to refill the cylinder, depending on the size of your car. You should be able to use either DOT 3 or DOT 4 fluid, but never use DOT 5--it's silicone based and can cause faster wear of the seals, allowing more water to enter.

Bleeding the System

    Once you've filled the master cylinder with fresh fluid, you need to bleed any more old fluid from the system. This requires you to open all four of the car's bleeder screws; you'll need to raise the car on jack stands at all four ends and remove all four wheels to reach them. the bleeder screws are located on the brake calipers or the wheel cylinders. Have an assistant press down on the brake pedal for about 10 seconds as you loosen one bleeder screw to bleed the old fluid out, then close the screw and slowly retract the brake pedal back to its normal position to draw fresh fluid back into the system. You don't want the pedal fully depressed; placing a wood block behind it will help. Repeat this procedure with the next bleeder screw; it is usually best to start at the left rear wheel, cross to the right front, go down to the right rear and finish at the left front. Repeat on all the bleeders until you get fresh, clean fluid coming out of them. Use caution lowering the car from the stands after you replace the wheels, then refill the master cylinder with as much fluid as necessary.

Senin, 28 Mei 2012

How to Replace Brake Shoes on a Pajero

How to Replace Brake Shoes on a Pajero

In terms of safety features, properly working brakes are probably one of the most important components of a passenger vehicle. While expert mechanics don't advise that you complete any brake work on your own car, you can do so if you pay careful attention to the brake's components as you work. Replacing the brake shoes on a Mitsubishi Pajero is not unlike replacing them on any other car, although the Pajero does have several unique mechanical features that factor into the job. Knowing what to expect will make replacing the brake shoes of your Pajero an accomplishable task.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the hubcaps and crack the nuts on the front wheels of your Pajero using a lug wrench. It is important to crack or loosen the nuts on the wheels before attempting to unscrew them entirely.

    2

    Raise your Pajero up on a 2.5 ton jack and support the car with two jackstands.

    3

    Unscrew the nuts on the driver's side front wheel and remove the wheel and tire.

    4

    Spray the front wheel's hub with a penetrating oil and allow the oil to sit for several minutes. Penetrating oil is a low-viscosity lubricant that allows you to unscrew rusted bolts and screws; it can be purchased at local hardware or automotive parts stores.

    5

    Remove the retaining clips that hold the existing brake drum in place, then unscrew the two anchoring screws that attach the drum to the car. You may need to cut the clips using a pair of wire snips.

    6

    Remove the brake drum.

    7

    Spray the brake drum as well as its connection points to the car with brake cleaner. This will remove excess debris, grime and oil from the mechanism, making it easier to both remove and replace the brake shoes.

    8

    Remove the old brake shoe return springs using the shoe return removal specialty tool. A return spring specialty tool is specifically designed to remove brake shoe return springs. It looks very similar to a screwdriver in overall design and it can be acquired at your local automotive parts store.

    9

    Depress the shoe's retaining pin while simultaneously removing the retainer springs.

    10

    Remove the old shoes by pulling them outward from the drum from both shoes, as though you are attempting to open a dog's mouth that is latched onto the brake drum.

    11

    Attach the new brake shoes in the opposite manner that you removed them.

    12

    Depress the shoe's retaining pin while simultaneously attaching the new retainer springs.

    13

    Reattach the new brake shoe return ring.

    14

    Reattach the brake drum to your Pajero by replacing the anchoring screws and retainer clips.

    15

    Repeat these steps on each wheel for which you need to replace the brake shoes.

Minggu, 27 Mei 2012

How to Change the Rear Brake Pads on a Honda CR-V

Brake pads are an important part of your Honda CR-V's braking system. They are the replaceable friction pads that pinch the brake disc when the brakes are applied. You should replace the brake pads before they wear beyond a 1/4 inch, or risk damaging your CR-V's brake discs.

Instructions

Remove the old Brake Pads

    1

    Park your car on a level surface. If you have a stick shift car, make sure the car is in gear. Place blocks in front of the front tires so the car does not move while you are working on it.

    2

    Open the hood of your car. Locate the master cylinder and brake fluid container. If necessary, remove brake fluid until the level in the container is less than half full. A turkey baster is a good tool for this. Put the brake fluid in the plastic container and dispose of it the way you dispose of motor oil.

    3

    Raise the rear end of your car with your car jack. Remove the rear tire or wheel assembly.

    4

    Use the socket wrench to remove the caliper bolts from the back of the caliper. Slide the caliper off of the disc brake and suspend it near the disc brake with a small bungee cord or coat hanger. Suspend the caliper housing so that you do not damage the brake hose.

    5

    Remove the retainers, brake pads and pad shims from the caliper. The shims are on the outer edges of the caliper and the retainers are at the top and bottom of the caliper.

Install the new Brake Pads

    6

    Reconnect the caliper retainer. Grease the shims and the backs of the new brake pads with a thin coat of brake grease. Insert the pads and shims into the caliper.

    7

    Use the socket wrench to attach the caliper to the disc rotor. Tighten the caliper bolts to 16 feet lb. (22 Nm).

    8

    Replace the tire wheel assembly. Lower the car to the ground. Pump the brake pedal a few times to seat the brake pads.

    9

    Add fluid to the master cylinder container to replace any you removed before you removed the old brake pads.

    10

    Season the brake pads by making only gentle stops when you are driving for the first week after you install the new brake pads. Try not to do any hard stopping when you are seasoning the brakes.

Sabtu, 26 Mei 2012

How to Check the Brake Rotor Runout

How to Check the Brake Rotor Runout

The term "runout" is used to describe the amount of wobble occurring when an element rotates. In a disc braking system, the brake rotor runout must be minimized so that the brakes do not shake and vibrate when engaged. Measuring the runout will allow a service technician to determine if the rotors are warped or improperly installed, allowing corrective action to be taken. With proper tools and a knowledge of how to properly measure the rotor runout, this is a job that amateur mechanics can tackle themselves.

Instructions

    1

    Park the car on a firm and level surface. Put automatic transmissions in "Park" and put manual transmissions in either first or reverse gear. If servicing a front wheel, set the parking brake and securely block the rear wheels. If servicing a rear wheel, leave the parking brake off but securely block the front wheels to prevent the vehicle from accidentally rolling. Loosen the lug nuts about one full turn each and jack up the car. Support the car securely on an axle stand. Completely remove the lug nuts and pull off the wheel.

    2

    Remove the two caliper bolts. Grasp the caliper and rock it back and forth a few times to spread the brake pads a little and then lift the caliper up and off the disk. Hang the caliper out of the way, using a wire or bungee cord, taking care not to stretch or kink the flexible brake hose.

    3

    Thoroughly clean the disc surface with brake cleaning fluid and wipe down with rags and allow to dry. Mark the face of the disc around the rim at 45-degree intervals, using a felt-tip marker. Number the marks from one through eight.

    4

    Place the dial indicator on the dial-indicator stand and position the stand so that the dial-indicator probe contacts the disc surface at a point about 1/2 inch from the rim of the disc. Rotate the disc until mark No. 1 is at the probe and then zero the indicator. Record this on a piece of paper.

    5

    Rotate the disc until mark No. 2 is at the dial-indicator probe. Check the runout measurement on the indicator and record it on a piece of paper. Continue this process until you have measurements at all eight marks.

    6

    Determine the difference between the highest and lowest measurement. This is the rotor runout. Compare this number to the manufacturer's limit found in the shop manual or aftermarket equivalent repair manual. These are usually available at the local public library or can be purchased at many book stores. As a general rule, the runout should be no more than .002 inches for passenger vehicles and .003 for light trucks and large SUVs.

    7

    Excessive runout can sometimes be cured by removing the disc, rotating it until the lug bolts line up with the next hole over and reinstalling the disc. It is important that the hub be immaculately clean before the disc is installed. If the runout is still excessive, then the disc can be shimmed with special tapered brake-disc shims to even it up. In other cases, resurfacing the disc can bring the runout back below the manufacturer's tolerance. If the disc is damaged or warped, it must be replaced.

    8

    Reassemble the brake by following the steps in reverse order. Test the brake operation before driving normally.

Kamis, 24 Mei 2012

How to Replace Brake Rotors on a 1986 Nissan Pickup

In 1986, Nissan produced pickup trucks in both the Frontier and the Pathfinder models. Replacing the brake rotors on either vehicle is the same process. The rotors are located behind all four wheels connected to the axles. There are four securing nuts in the center of each rotor. The rotors are large metal discs that the brake pads squeeze to stop the truck.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the tire nuts from the rear left tire. Raise the rear left side using a jack. Pull the rear left tire off of the axle. Loosen the securing nut with the wrench that connects the brake caliper to the rotor and remove the caliper from the rotor.

    2

    Remove all four securing bolts from the center of the rear left tire using the ratchet set. Slide the rear left rotor off of the axle. Slide the new rear left rotor onto the axle, then replace and tighten the securing nuts.

    3

    Replace the rear left tire onto the axle. Lower the rear left side of the truck to the ground and tighten the tire nuts. Repeat these steps for the other three rotors on your 1986 Nissan pickup.

Rabu, 23 Mei 2012

How to Change the Brake Pads on a Caddy

The Cadillac brake system is not much different from the other General Motors vehicles. Changing the brake pads on Cadillacs that are not equipped with an ABS system is straightforward with only minor considerations. The ABS systems used on later model Cadillacs require an additional step when compressing the piston, and some systems require a scan tool to bleed air from the modulator when the system is opened. Consult the service manual for more information specific to your year and model of Cadillac.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the vehicle with the floor jack, and place a jack stand under the frame. Lower the vehicle onto the jack stand so the stand, not the jack, is supporting the vehicle's weight. This will prevent injury should the vehicle slip on the jack, or if the jack should fail.

    2

    Remove the tire, using the lug wrench, and place it out of the way. Then turn the steering wheel to allow access to the bolts retaining the caliper to the caliper bracket. These are torx type bolts on some models, but most are metric 13mm or 15mm. Remove the caliper bolts and slip the caliper off the bracket and brake pads.

    3

    Collapse the caliper piston into the bore by opening the bleeder screw and pushing the piston in with a C-clamp. Catch any spilling fluid in the drain pan, and dispose of it the same way you would engine oil. This will prevent debris from being forced into the modulator valve assembly and damaging it.

    4

    Transfer any retaining/anti-rattle clips and shims from the old pads to the new pads unless new are supplied with the pads. These are needed for quiet brake applications and should not be left off. Install the pads on the caliper bracket.

    5

    Reinstall the caliper over the pads, and securely tighten the caliper bolts. Reinstall the wheel, and lower the vehicle.

    6

    Top off the brake fluid level in the master cylinder and start the engine. Pump the brake pedal a few times to expand the caliper, and test drive.

Parts of Brakes

Parts of Brakes

The brake system is one of the most important safety features on your vehicle, one in which you trust with not only your own safety, but the safety of your family. Modern automotive braking systems rely on hydraulic fluid to translate the force the driver applies to the brake pedal into stopping power at each of the four wheels.

Master Cylinder

    The master cylinder is the heart of your vehicle's brake system. It takes the input force the driver applies to the brake pedal and channels that force through hydraulic lines to the four wheels. Most modern master cylinders incorporate a dual reservoir design. This means that there is a separate hydraulic circuit for the front and rear brakes. If one of the brake lines should be damaged or cut. The brakes on the other circuit will continue to function.

Power Booster

    The power booster is usually mounted in the engine bay between the master cylinder and the vehicle's firewall. Its job is to amplify the force the driver applies to the brake pedal. This not only lessens the amount of force needed by the driver to engage the brakes, but also lessens the distance the brake pedal needs to travel. Most automotive power brake boosters are powered by vacuum generated by the engine.

Brake Rotor

    New Brake Rotor

    A brake rotor is a thick steel or aluminum disc that attaches to the wheel hub just behind the wheel. It works in conjunction with the brake caliper to slow the vehicle down when the brake pedal is applied. As a general rule the larger the brake disc the shorter the distance a vehicle will need to come to a complete stop from a given speed. Brake rotors have a tendency to become extremely hot during use, so some manufactures incorporate cooling slots or holes to improve brake performance

Caliper

    Brake Caliper Mounted on Rotor

    The brake caliper is mounted over the brake rotor and is the muscle of the disc brake system. It is usually a cast iron or aluminum piece with a piston inside. Brake fluid travels from the master cylinder and forces the piston out of its bore, which in turn pushes the brake pad against the brake rotor and slows down the vehicle. High performance vehicles such as sports cars usually incorporate a four wheel disc brake setup.

Brake Drum

    Brake Drum Exposed

    Drum brakes are an older technology, which is still used on the rear axles of many cars and trucks manufactured today. A large drum or bowl rides on the wheel hub and rotates with the wheel. When the brake pedal is applied the brake shoes are pushed against the inside of the brake drum slowing the vehicle down. Brake drums are no longer used on the front axles of vehicles, because they offer much less stopping power than disc brake systems.

Wheel Cylinder

    Wheel Cylinder and Brake Shoes

    The wheel cylinder does for drum brake systems what the brake caliper does for disc brake systems. It is mounted to the drum backing plate behind the brake drum, and is a small round cylinder with plungers on each side. When force is applied to the brake pedal, brake fluid travels from the master cylinder to the wheel cylinder. This causes the plungers to extend and in turn these plungers force the brake shoes against the brake drum.

Brake Pad/Shoe

    Loading Pads Into Mounting Bracket

    The terms brake shoes and brake pads are sometimes used interchangeably but in technical terms brake shoes refer to the linings in a drum brake system and brake pads refer to the linings in a disc brake system. They are both comprised of a friction surface mounted on a steel backing plate, and must be replaced periodically, whenever the friction surface wears below tolerable safety levels.

Selasa, 22 Mei 2012

Fitting a Replacement Banjo Bolt

Fitting a Replacement Banjo Bolt

Bolts come in a multitude of shapes and sizes, from those designed to permanently attach elements to those designed to allow fluid transfer between parts. Banjo bolts are of the latter type and are used in applications ranging from plumbing to automotive brake systems. Consisting of a hollow body and spherical union, they are used to attach two elements together while still allowing fluid to transfer from one element to the other. Banjo bolts can be installed by hand in a few steps.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the existing banjo bolt by turning it counterclockwise with a torque wrench.

    2

    Unscrew the existing banjo bolt from its housing by hand and collect any washers installed with it.

    3

    Thread the existing washers onto the replacement banjo bolt in the same configuration as the original bolt.

    4

    Insert the tip of the replacement banjo bolt into the housing and tighten the bolt by hand.

    5

    Tighten the banjo bolt to its manufacturer's specifications using a torque wrench. Do not exceed the manufactuer's recommend pressure, as banjo bolts are hollow, relatively fragile and can break if over-tightened.

Senin, 21 Mei 2012

How to Change the Disc Brakes on a 2001 BMW 325i

The BMW 3-series arrived in the U.S. in 1977 as the replacement for the 2002, after a two-year stint in the European market only. In 1984, the 325e came to be and BMW released the 325i three years later. The 2001 BMW 325i came fitted with four-wheel disc brakes, just as any car dubbed the ultimate driving machine should. Replacing the front disc brakes on the 2001 325i requires a quick inspection of the rotor to determine if the rotor needs replacement as well.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the front wheel bolts with a ratchet and socket, and raise the front of the BMW with a floor jack. Slide jack stands under the vehicles subframe and lower the 325i onto the jack stands. Remove the wheel bolts and pull the front wheels off the vehicle.

    2

    Find the metal spring on the outside of the brake caliper. Pry it away from the caliper with a flat-head screwdriver to disengage its ears from the holes in the caliper. Pull the spring off the caliper.

    3

    Skip to the next step if you are working on the passengers side of the vehicle, as only the drivers side has a brake pad wear sensor. Trace the brake pad wear sensor wire upward until you find where it connects to the 325is wiring harness. Press and hold the unlocking button on the wiring harness and unplug it.

    4

    Pull the plastic plugs from the brake caliper bolts. Remove the caliper bolts with a ratchet and hex-bit socket. Pull the caliper upward off its bracket and hang it from a nearby suspension component with a bungee strap.

    5

    Press one end of the outer brake pad inward to disengage its tab from the locating hole in the caliper. Pivot that side of the pad upward from the caliper. Repeat this step on the other side of the pad and remove the pad from the caliper.

    6

    Set a drain pan under the brake caliper. Position an 8-inch C-clamp over the caliper, so its fixed part contacts the inner brake pad and its screw part touches the rear of the caliper. Open the brake bleeder valve on the caliper with a combination wrench and immediately tighten the C-clamp until it stops moving. Immediately tighten the bleeder valve and remove the C-clamp.

    7

    Notate the routing of the wear sensor on the inner brake pad, if you are working on the drivers side. Pull the inner brake pad from the caliper; notice the inner pad has metal springs that secure it in the cavity of the caliper piston.

    8

    Align the springs on the rear of the new inner brake pad with the cavity in the caliper piston and press the pad toward the piston until the pad sets on the piston. Route the brake pad wear sensor wire through the caliper in the same path as the old wire's routing.

    9

    Pry the metal spring on the rear of the outer brake pad with a flat-head screwdriver and guide that side onto the caliper. Slide that side of the pad onto the caliper until the tab seats in the locating hole in the caliper. Repeat this step on the other side of the brake pad.

    10

    Remove the rotor retaining screw with a ratchet and hex-bit socket. Pull the rotor off the hub and inspect it for any defects, including deep grooves, evidence of grinding, mirror-like shine or cracks. If any defects exist, replace the rotor.

    11

    Set the rotor on the 325is hub and align the screw hole in the rotor with the screw hole in the hub. Hand-thread the rotor retaining screw and torque it to 12 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and hex-bit socket.

    12

    Set the caliper back onto its bracket and hand-thread its retaining bolts. Tighten the caliper bolts to 81 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and hex-bit socket. Slide the curved part of the metal clip between the outer part of the caliper and the center of the rotor, then press upward on the clip until the ears on the clip snap into the holes in the caliper. Route the brake pad wear sensor wire back up to its connection point to the BMWs wiring and plug it in.

    13

    Repeat steps 2 through 12 to replace the pads on the other side of the vehicle.

    14

    Reinstall the front wheel on the BMWs front hubs and hand-tighten the wheel bolts. Raise the 325i off the jack stands with a floor jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the vehicle to the ground. Tighten the wheel bolts, in a crisscross pattern, to between 82 and 96 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    15

    Press and release the brake pedal until it feels firm. Check the brake fluid level in the brake master cylinder. If the fluid is below the Max line, unscrew the cap from the master cylinder and pour DOT 4 brake fluid into the master cylinder until the fluid reaches the Max line.

    16

    Turn the ignition to the 1 position and leave it there for at least 30 seconds to clear the brake wear light.

Minggu, 20 Mei 2012

How to Replace Front Pads on a 2005 Durango

How to Replace Front Pads on a 2005 Durango

The front brake pads in your Dodge Durango need changing by 80,000 miles. They may need changing sooner, if your truck endures a lot of hard braking. When you change the front pads, be sure to change all of them at the same time. Work on one brake assembly, and then move to the next wheel.

Instructions

Removal

    1

    Raise the truck's front end, support it on the jack stand and remove both front wheels. Make sure the parking brake is applied.

    2

    Wash off the entire brake assembly using an aerosol brake cleaner. Place a drip pan underneath the assembly to catch any residue.

    3

    Depress the caliper's piston by using a C-clamp to push it back into its bore. Remove the cap on the brake master cylinder reservoir in the engine before you do this.

    4

    Disconnect the brake caliper from the disc by removing its two mounting bolts with a wrench. Use a coat hanger or other strong wire to hang the caliper by the control arm so it does not stretch the brake hose.

    5

    Pull the brake pads out of the caliper's mounting bracket, starting with the inner one.

    6

    Remove the anti-rattle clips from the mounting bracket. Lubricate them with a multi-purpose grease and install them back into the bracket.

Installation

    7

    Install the new inner brake pad into the caliper mounting bracket, followed by the outer one. Make sure both pads are fully seated within the bracket.

    8

    Place the caliper back into position on the mounting bracket.

    9

    Remove the guide pin bushings from the caliper and lubricate them with a high-temperature grease.

    10

    Install the bushings and then the caliper mounting bolts. Tighten the bolts.

    11

    Connect both wheels and lower the truck. Do this once you've changed the brakes on both wheels.

    12

    Press on the brake pedal multiple times. Do this until you the pedal greets you with firm resistance.

DOT 3 Vs. DOT 4 Brake Fluid

DOT 3 Vs. DOT 4 Brake Fluid

DOT 3 and DOT 4 brake fluids are formulated to lubricate the moving parts within the brake system and withstand weather changes while maintaining a liquid state necessary for proper brake function. The differences, however, are what stand between your foot and one rough stop.

Department of Transportation Requirements

    DOT 3 brake fluids meet the minimal requirements set forth by the Department of Transportation. DOT 4 fluids endure tests that are more rigorous and are used in high temperature performance vehicles.

Chemical Formulation Differences

    All brake fluids begin as ethylene glycol or antifreeze. DOT 3 fluids, for regular vehicles, are made from polyalkylene glycol ether and other hydroscopic glycol chemicals. DOT 4 fluids have borate esters added which raise the temperature of the boiling point for better performance under extreme racing conditions.

Dry Boiling Point

    Boiling points are the major differences between formulas. As brake fluid heats up because of friction, it boils, forming gas bubbles that lead to soft brake pedals. Dry boiling refers to new, unexposed brake fluid. DOT 3 brake fluid has a dry boiling point of 401 degrees while DOT 4 boils at 446 degrees.

Wet Boiling Point

    Wet boiling refers to old brake fluid or fluid that has been exposed to moisture from the environment. DOT 3 boils at 284 degrees while Dot 4 boils at 311 degrees.

Water Tolerance

    As brake fluid sits in the line, it collects moisture, which evaporates to steam, interferes with braking capabilities, reduces the boiling temperature and leads to corrosion. DOT 4 is designed to tolerate water levels better than DOT 3. Regardless of the type of brake fluid, water levels should be less than 3 percent of the total fluid in the line. For this reason, brake fluid should be changed often to reduce the amount of moisture in the line.

Car Brakes Information

Car Brakes Information

A brake is an object or device used to apply force to a moving object in order to reduce its motion and bring it to a halt. Brakes used on vehicles commonly bring a moving surface into contact with a stationary surface to generate friction, which slows and eventually stops the vehicle. The brakes used on cars at the beginning of the 21st century are usually either disc or drum brakes, with some manufacturers choosing a combination of the two.

History

    State University reports that brakes were initially invented for use with steel-rimmed wheels of horse drawn carriages and steam locomotives with a wooden block often applied to the wheel to force the vehicle to a stop. The introduction of rubber tires by the Michelin brothers in 1895 brought about research into a more efficient way of braking vehicles as the previous versions were unworkable with rubber tires. In 1899 the Daimler car manufacturer developed a system of drum braking called servo assistance where a cable attached to the chassis of the car would tighten around the drum to reduce resistance on the brake pedal. The servo system is still in operation today where the drum brake is used.

Drum

    The drum brake was the first new method of braking introduced in the late 19th century with components such as the brake shoes housed in a drum that spun with the wheel. The automotive website Edmunds explains that when the brake pedal of a motor car is depressed the brake shoes are forced against the drum slowing the wheel and the car.

Disc

    According to Edmunds, disc brakes were introduced in the 1970s as a way of increasing the efficiency of braking on cars used for racing, which over the subsequent years has trickled down to cars used for everyday purposes. A small caliper holds two brake pads, one on either side of a rotor which is attached to the wheel. When the brake pedal is depressed, the caliper clamps the two brake pads to the rotor creating friction and heat that slow the wheel.

Problems

    The drum braking system carries a number of problems, the main being a reduction in braking ability when the hardware contained in the drum becomes too hot with friction. According to Edmunds, reduced braking ability was a problem in large vehicles carrying heavy loads when the drum braking system could not cool itself. Disc brakes, on the other hand, are not enclosed and therefore are cooled by outside air flowing over the discs as the car moves. As the cost of producing disc brakes is higher and forces up the retail cost of building a car, Edmunds reports, many manufacturers are using disc brakes for the front wheels of a car and cheaper drum brakes for the rear where less force is needed to slow the vehicle.

ABS

    According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the antilock braking system is a common feature on cars manufactured in the early part of the 21st century. This advance in car braking reduces the chances of brakes locking the car's wheels in place and not allowing the driver to steer away from danger. Before the advent of antilock braking, to avoid skidding and locking brakes a driver would pump the brake manually but the antilock brakes now do this automatically, allowing the driver to steer as the car brakes.

Sabtu, 19 Mei 2012

How to Change the Rear Brakes on a 2003 Cadillac EXT

How to Change the Rear Brakes on a 2003 Cadillac EXT

The Escalade EXT is Cadillac's luxury pickup. The 2003 Escalade came equipped with four-wheel anti-lock brakes and all-around disc brakes as standard equipment. The brakes' life is measured in distance driven, not time elapsed, but usually they last three to six years, depending on how much driving you do and the amount of city driving versus highway driving. Highway driving significantly increases the life of your brakes compared with city driving.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the lug nuts from the EXT's rear wheels with the tire iron. Set wood blocks in front of the front tires.

    2

    Set the floor jack underneath the support strut along the outside undercarriage of the Escalade EXT. Raise it up until the tires have at least 2 inches of clearance from the ground. Set jack stands underneath the axle of the EXT and lower the vehicle onto the stands. Remove the tires.

    3

    Loosen the bottom bolt on the caliper mounting bracket on one of the rear wheels with the socket wrench. Remove the brake pads from the bracket by sliding them out of it.

    4

    Compress the caliper cylinder with the compression tool so that the cylinder is flush with the bracket base.

    5

    Install the new brake pads with the metal facing outward. This will place the black brake material against the rotor.

    6

    Re-bolt the caliper mounting bracket to the rotor.

    7

    Repeat the process on the opposite side. Replace the wheel and tires on the hubs. Lower the truck.

Jumat, 18 Mei 2012

How to Remove the Brake Rotor in a 2007 Camry

In a direct response to Hondas popular Accord model, Toyota released a mid-size vehicle of its own, the Camry. The initial Camry beat out the Accord in the areas that mattered most to buyers: overall length, legroom and horsepower. The 2007 model year brought about an intense redesign for the Camry. Toyota eliminated the smooth-looking Camry in favor of a more stylish and aggressive-looking body. The 2007 Camry came standard with front and rear disc brakes to minimize stopping distances. Replacing the rotors on the 2007 Camry is a straightforward process that requires only basic tools.

Instructions

Front Rotors

    1

    Loosen the front lug nuts, but do not remove them, with a ratchet and socket. Raise the front of the Camry with a floor jack and slide jack stands under the vehicles subframe. Lower the Toyota onto the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels from the Camry.

    2

    Hold the upper caliper guide pin steady with a combination wrench and loosen the caliper bolt with a ratchet and socket. Repeat this step on the lower caliper bolt and guide pin. Pull the caliper upward and off the caliper bracket. Hang the caliper from a nearby suspension component with a bungee cord.

    3

    Slide the brake pads out of the caliper bracket and pull the pad slippers the thin, metal shims above and below the brake pads off the bracket. Remove the two caliper bracket bolts with a ratchet and socket, and pull the caliper bracket off the front hub.

    4

    Grab the rotor and pull it off the front hub. Set a new rotor onto the front hub.

    5

    Set the caliper bracket back on the front hub and hand-thread its retaining bolts. Tighten the caliper bracket bolts to 79 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket. Press new pad slippers included with new brake pads into the brake pad guides on the caliper bracket; the slippers are formed, so they only fit one way.

    6

    Apply a thin coat of disc brake grease onto the rear of the new brake pads and slide the pads into their guides in the caliper bracket.

    7

    Slide a drain pan under the brake caliper.

    8

    Set a box wrench on the bleeder valve on the rear of the caliper. Place the old inner brake pad in the caliper, so it contacts the caliper piston. Position an 8-inch C-clamp over the brake caliper, so its fixed part touches the rear of the caliper and its screw part touches the old inner brake pad.

    9

    Turn the bleeder valve a quarter turn counterclockwise and immediately start tightening the C-clamp. Continue tightening the clamp until the piston retracts completely into the caliper. Immediately close the bleeder valve by turning it clockwise. Remove the C-clamp, old brake pad and box wrench.

    10

    Set the caliper on the caliper bracket and hand-tighten its retaining bolts. Hold the caliper guide pins with a combination wrench, and tighten the caliper bolts to 25 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    11

    Install the front wheels on the Camrys front hubs and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the Camry off the jack stands with a floor jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the Toyota to the ground and tighten the lug nuts, in a crisscross pattern, to 76 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    12

    Press and release the brake pedal until it feels firm. Check the brake fluid level in the master cylinder, and add new DOT 3 brake fluid to bring the level to the Max line, if needed.

Rear Rotors

    13

    Loosen the rear lug nuts with a ratchet and socket do not remove the lug nuts. Raise the rear of the Camry with a floor jack, and slide jack stands under the rear suspension. Lower the Camry on to the jack stands. Remove the rear lug nuts and pull the rear wheels off the hub.

    14

    Follow Steps 2 and 3 in the section titled Front Rotors to remove the caliper, brake pads and caliper bracket.

    15

    Pull the rubber plug parking brake shoe adjuster plug from the rotor backing plate. Insert a flat-head screwdriver into the hole where the plug was until the blade of the screwdriver contacts the star-shaped wheel the parking brake shoe adjuster wheel. Rotate the wheel up with the flat-head screwdriver until the rotor pulls off with ease.

    16

    Set a new rotor on the rear hub and hand-tighten two lug nuts onto the wheel studs to hold the rotor in place. Spin the rotor clockwise as you turn the parking brake shoe adjuster wheel downward until the rotor stops turning. Turn the parking brake shoe adjuster wheel upward until the rotor starts spinning freely again. Press the parking brake shoe adjuster plug back into the hole on the rotor backing plate. Remove the two lug nuts.

    17

    Follow Steps 5 through 10 in the section titled Front Rotors to reinstall the caliper bracket and brake pads, compress the caliper piston and install the caliper, tightening the caliper bracket bolts to 46 foot-pounds and the caliper to 20 foot-pounds.

    18

    Set the rear wheels back on the Camrys rear hubs and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the vehicle off the jack stands and remove the jack stands. Lower the vehicle to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts, in a crisscross pattern, to 76 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    19

    Push and release the brake pedal repeatedly until it feels hard. Check the fluid level in the brake master cylinder, and add new DOT 3 brake fluid until the level reaches the Max line, if needed.

Facts About Anti-Lock Brake Systems

Facts About Anti-Lock Brake Systems

Anti-lock brake systems help to keep a car from skidding when traction is minimal. By preventing the car from skidding, the driver will be able to control the car while coming to a stop.

Function

    An anti-lock brake system automatically pumps the brakes when traction is lost. The driver should not pump the brakes themselves; he should hold the brake down and steer the car, letting the system perform as designed to stop the car.

History

    Anti-lock brakes were first developed in 1921 by Gabriel Voisin to be used on airplanes. Mercedes-Benz was the first to put anti-lock brakes in production cars.

Types

    The BMW K100 was the first motorcycle to include electronic-hydraulic anti-lock brakes. It was released in 1988.

Safety

    A 2003 study by the Monash University Accident Research Center determined that anti-lock brake systems lower the risk of a vehicle crashing from running off the road by 35%.

Misconceptions

    Anti-lock brake systems do not necessarily make the car stop quicker. Their main purpose is to allow the driver to maintain control.

Kamis, 17 Mei 2012

How to Change the Brake Pads on a 2002 Chrysler Van

How to Change the Brake Pads on a 2002 Chrysler Van

The 2002 Chrysler vans were among the first models to use different types of calipers. Your van may use Teves or TRW calipers, which can make the process of changing brakes slightly different depending on the type. This can apply to any 2002 model minivan, including the Caravan, Town and Country or Voyager. Check with your mechanic before you try working on the brakes yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the front or rear wheels--whichever end you are changing the pads on. Raise that end of the van and support it on jack stands. Apply the parking brake and remove the wheels.

    2

    Siphon out 2/3 of the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir using a syringe, a vacuum pump or a turkey baster; make sure the siphon tool hasn't been used for anything before. Discard the fluid as per your local laws.

    3

    Clean off the brake assemblies with aerosol brake cleaner. Use a drip pan to catch the residue and dispose of it properly.

    4

    Compress the caliper piston into the bore with a C-clamp. This will cause fluid to enter the master cylinder; make sure it doesn't overflow and siphon out more if needed.

    5

    Disconnect the brake caliper from the disc by removing the anti-rattle spring with a flat screwdriver and the caliper's guide pin bolts. TRW calipers use bolts requiring a standard socket wrench, while Teves caliper bolts require a hex socket.

    6

    Remove the brake pads from the caliper bracket if the brakes use TRW calipers. On Teves calipers, remove the outer pad from the bracket and the inner one from the caliper; the inner pad is connected to the piston bore through a retaining spring.

    7

    Hang the caliper by the strut spring with a strong wire while you prepare the new brake pads. Never let the caliper hang by the brake hose.

Installing New Pads

    8

    Remove the guide pin bushings, inspect them for damage and replace them if needed. Lubricate the bushings with multipurpose grease and install them.

    9

    Apply anti-squeal compound to the back of the brake pads in the areas where they come in contact with the caliper and piston.

    10

    Install both brake pads onto the caliper bracket and anti-rattle clips for TRW calipers. On Teves calipers, install the inner pad into the caliper and fully seat it into the piston bore, then install the outer pad into the bracket.

    11

    Reconnect the caliper onto the steering knuckle and tighten the bolts to 35 ft. lbs. Install the anti-rattle spring, hooking the end over the caliper's bracket tab.

    12

    Reconnect the wheels and lower the car once you've changed the pads on both brakes.

    13

    Pump the brake pedal multiple times to seat the brake pads.

How to Change Brake Pads in a Saab 900

How to Change Brake Pads in a Saab 900

The brake pads in your Saab 900 are part of an important safety system. If you neglect your Saab's brakes, you could end up in a serious car accident. The braking system on the Saab uses a caliper and brake pad assembly for maximum clamping force. The pads have a small tab that will make contact with the brake rotor and make noise when the brake pad needs to be changed. Replacement brakes can be purchased from most auto parts stores.

Instructions

    1

    Jack up the front of the Saab 900 with a floor jack positioned under the front jack point behind the radiator.

    2

    Place jack stands under the front pinch-weld jacking points and lower the vehicle onto the stands.

    3

    Unbolt the lug nuts on the wheels with an impact wrench or lug wrench, pull the wheel off, and set it aside.

    4

    Wrap the C-clamp around the brake caliper and position the screw end of the clamp so that it sits flush with the back of the outboard brake pad. Then tighten the clamp until the caliper piston on the inside of the brake caliper is fully retracted into the caliper. There should be a gap between the outboard brake pad and the caliper bracket of about one inch on the Saab 900 when the piston is fully retracted. This process is used to reset the brake calipers on all four wheels.

    5

    Inspect the brake rotor. Since the brake pads make contact with the rotor in order to slow down your Saab, you need to ensure that the rotor surface is smooth. Uneven, scored, or pitted rotors will negatively effect brake performance and can cause premature wear of the new brake pads. If the rotor surface isn't smooth, have the rotors resurfaced by a machine shop or replaced.

    6

    Unbolt the lower caliper pin bolt on the backside of the caliper using a socket wrench.

    7

    Swing the caliper up from the bottom and remove the brake pads by pulling them out of the caliper.

    8

    Install the new brake pads into the caliper with the same orientation as the old brake pads. Then, reassemble the brakes. The rest of the installation is the reverse of removal.

    9

    Repeat this process for the rear wheels.

How to Replace Rotors on a 2005 Chevy Impala

How to Replace Rotors on a 2005 Chevy Impala

Brake rotors on the Chevy Impala use friction to slow and stop the car when you depress the brake pedal. A piston from the brake caliper holds the two brake pads, which squeeze the brake rotor, forcing the car to slow down. The brake rotors get hot when you apply the brakes and can warp from too much heat. Allowing brake pads to wear too thin also damages the rotors by damaging the rivets holding the brake lining on the pad, cutting grooves into the rotor. Damaged rotors need to be replaced and do not take long to repair.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Impala on a level surface, turn off the ignition and place a set of wheel chocks behind the rear wheels. Open the engine compartment and drain some of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using the turkey baster and drain pan.Loosen the wheel's lug nuts with a lug wrench. Jack the car up with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the Chevy near the jacking point and raise it to the frame of the car.

    2

    Remove the wheel lug nuts with a lug wrench. Take the wheel off the vehicle. Remove the brake caliper using a socket and ratchet. Secure it to the strut using a wire tie. Do not allow it to hang loose or you will damage the brake line.

    3

    Pull the old rotor off the wheel hub. If it does not come off easily, use the rubber mallet to strike the rotor until it breaks free. Put the new rotor on the Impala.

    4

    Cut the wire tie securing the caliper to the strut with pliers. Put the caliper in place on the wheel assembly and tighten the bolts with the socket and ratchet. Replace the wheel on the Impala and tighten its lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the car.

    5

    Lower the car to the ground with the car jack. Repeat the process to change the rotor on the other wheel. When the project is complete, pump the brakes several times until the pedal feels firm. Replace the brake fluid in the master cylinder, as needed.

Rabu, 16 Mei 2012

How to Adjust Brake Pedal Height in a Ford Taurus

The Ford Taurus is widely regarded as a practical economy car. As such, safety is one of its main selling points. This also applies to the braking system. If you feel the brakes in your Taurus becoming mushy, you can adjust the brake pedal height rather than waste time and money on new pads and rotors.

Instructions

    1

    Press lightly against your brake pedal to determine the amount of free play it has. Free play is the distance you can depress the pedal before you encounter resistance. Ideally, you should have about 10mm of free play in your pedal. Measure your actual free play with a ruler.

    2

    Find the brake booster adjustment rod. This is a small rod connected to the back of the brake pedal lever, at the rear. There are two adjustable nuts at either end of the booster rod.

    3

    Make a mark on the booster rod where you can see it, with either white-out or nail polish. This will help you gauge whether you're increasing or decreasing the height, once you start adjusting the booster rod. If the mark disappears, it means you're lowering the pedal.

    4

    Use your crescent-wrench to loosen the lower nut on the booster rod. While Ford typically employs specialty tools, this is one of the lucky instances where you can use a standard wrench. Be sure not to loosen the top nut, only the bottom.

    5

    Twist the booster rod with a pair of pliers. Turning it clockwise, toward the clutch pedal will raise the brake pedal and decrease the amount of free play. Going counter-clockwise will lower the brake pedal and increase the amount of free play.

    6

    Tighten the lower lock nut.

    7

    Test your adjustment by taking your car for a short drive. The pedal should be responsive and you shouldn't notice any unusual sounds. Also make sure your brake lights are working correctly.

The Signs & Symptoms of a Stuck Caliper

The Signs & Symptoms of a Stuck Caliper

In automotive disk brake systems, pressing the brake pedal generates hydraulic pressure in the brake lines and actuates a piston in a caliper at each wheel. The piston pushes the disk brake pads into contact with the brake rotor, stopping the vehicle. A common malfunction in disk brakes is a stuck piston in the wheel caliper. Inserting a caliper spreader between the brake pads to press the piston back into the caliper can release a frozen caliper piston. A new caliper or an overhaul of the existing caliper is required to prevent recurrence. Symptoms of a stuck caliper are definitive and hard to miss; ignoring them can be unsafe and expensive.

Severe Steering

    A caliper piston can stick in the closed position. When this happens the brake shoes operated by that caliper are constantly applied, causing an imbalance of braking force when the brake pedal is pushed and brakes are applied to the other wheels. The vehicle pulls strongly toward the side with the stuck caliper. It's often necessary to steer against this pulling tendency, sometimes forcefully, in order to keep the vehicle moving in a straight line while applying the brakes.

Mileage Variances

    Driving with one brake always "on" significantly reduces acceleration. The car will feel sluggish and less responsive. Fuel efficiency and gas mileage may decline sharply.

Something's Burning

    A stuck caliper inflicts considerable friction on the brake pads. You'll probably smell the pungent odor of brake linings being seared by heat from constant contact with the brake rotor. If you put your hand against the wheel with the stuck caliper immediately after driving, the wheel may feel hot to the touch. Still more friction-related drama, including smoke and/or boiling brake fluid, may occur if you drive with a severely stuck caliper at freeway speeds.

Shakes and Shudders

    A stuck caliper often wears the brake rotor unevenly, creating high and low spots. Brake pads passing over the uneven surface of the rotor may cause wheel shudder or vibration. This is transmitted into the steering system and may be misdiagnosed as a wheel alignment problem or worn steering linkage.

High Maintenance

    You'll find yourself shelling out more money for brake repairs, and with greater frequency, if you're driving around with a sticky caliper piston. Brake lining life expectancy is severely reduced by a frozen caliper and a new pair of disk brake pads can be eaten up in a very short time. Because wear is accelerated, the pads may wear down to the rivets unexpectedly fast. The rivets then score the surface of the brake rotors, leading to still additional repair expense.

How to Change a Brake Wheel Cylinder

A brake wheel cylinder will wear out over time. This causes the cylinder to get damaged easily, affecting the brakes of your car. The leaking fluid can cause the car to have a hard time using its brakes, causing the car to stop. The perfect way to fix this problem is to replace or change the brake wheel cylinder. This will help you save yourself from accidents while using a car with a bad brake wheel cylinder. You can do the replacement yourself with a few tools.

Instructions

    1

    Park your car on level ground and use bricks to block the tires on both sides to prevent the vehicle from moving while you do the replacement. Raise the car with a floor jack and support it with jack stands. Remove the tire and its brake drum.

    2

    Check the cylinder of the brake wheel to spot the leaks. Use a brake cleaner to clean the entire vacuum plate as well as the brake shoes.

    3

    Take out the upper return springs from the wheel brake shoes with your brake spring removal tool. Take out the parking brake strut by pressing the spring tool inward and holding down the cup to turn it slightly. Hold the retaining pin in its place from the backside, and pull the brakes from its vacuum plate.

    4

    Disconnect the arm of the parking brake while you remove the brake shoes to gain full access to the brake wheel cylinder.

    5

    Spray penetrating oil onto the wheel cylinder and onto the brake lines. Use a flare nut wrench to loosen the line and remove the clips and bolts that hold the cylinder.

    6

    Take out the old brake wheel cylinder, and install the new one in the same placement of the old cylinder. Tighten its line with a wrench, and reinstall the brake drum and brake shoes into the original position.

    7

    Reverse the process to put the car parts back together.

Selasa, 15 Mei 2012

Buick Brake Problems

The Buick automobile line is manufactured with three main types of hydraulic brakes: four-wheel disk, four-wheel drum, or a combination of rear drum and front disk systems. All of these systems use friction surfaces and a pressurized pad or shoe that stops the vehicle by direct contact with a rotor or drum. These mechanical parts are prone to failure due to shearing stresses and heat dissipation. The average mechanic can determine the issue with the braking system on a Buick in about 20 minutes.

Fluid

    At the core of the Buick's hydraulic brake system is the master cylinder and power booster. These are typically at the driver's side firewall in the engine bay. The master cylinder contains two pockets filled with golden fluid, with a rubberized sealed cap. This fluid, usually DOT-3 brake fluid, runs to all of the calipers and shoes of the system through steel and rubber lines. When the fluid is dark it indicates that heat has cooked the particles in the fluid, or there may be a heat issue somewhere in the system. If it is low then there could be a leak, or air could be corrupting the sealed system. The system is flushed of air with the bleeder nipples at each wheel.

Recalls

    Braking systems have advanced over the decades, and Buick made very attempt to keep up with the highest level of consumer technology. During the 1990s many vehicles in the Buick lineup used anti-lock braking systems, which is a computerized anti-seizing solenoid on each of the front calipers. This system was prone to electrical failure, due to the inherent heat resistance of the delicate ABS sensor. Researching the recall database available at a local Buick dealership can determine if the brakes for a particular model have been affected.

Friction Surfaces

    As brakes age and wear, the friction surfaces can fail. This can lead to a loss of stopping power, or loud noises from the braking system. The commonly worn parts are designed to be replaced at regular intervals, such as the pads and shoes. Other mated parts can become damaged by a lack of maintenance, such as the rotor and drum, that will require repair or replacement. Most problems experienced by the braking system are the direct result of ignoring this routine maintenance. Buick brakes, following the lead of General Motors, used similar, if not exact, hardware from many other models in the GM lineup. The standard maintenance schedule for GM brakes is 45,000 to 65,000 miles, at which time a complete replacement is recommended.

Overuse

    Older Buick models tended to weigh a lot, and the drum brakes from the 1960s were not adequate for the size of the car. Many accidents and complaints led to the adoption of the disk brake system, which improved wet weather and panic stopping. Unfortunately, the early rotors were not as forgiving of heat, and using the brakes for extended periods would warp them. This "riding" of the brakes should be avoided, and any burnt brake material smell should be investigated immediately. Heat buildup in the braking components is the number one cause of braking part failure.

Computer codes

    The Buick's computer scans the sensors for errors, and this includes vehicles with the ABS system installed. Using a scanning tool plugged into the main OBD-II port, the computer's stored trouble codes can be downloaded and analyzed for braking system faults. The OBD-II port is located underneath the driver's side kick panel on most Buick models.

How to Replace Brakes on a 1997 Oldsmobile Cutlass

How to Replace Brakes on a 1997 Oldsmobile Cutlass

Check your owner's manual to see how often you should replace the brakes on your 1997 Oldsmobile Cutlass. This estimate will be based on whether you drive city or highway and on the number of miles you drive. Alternatively, you can wait until your brakes wear out and emit a loud squeal, but that is not advisable.

Instructions

    1

    Park your Cutlass on a level surface and apply the parking brake. Place two wood chocks in front of the front wheels and two behind the front wheels.

    2

    Lift up the car by placing the jack under the frame of the car in the back and use the jack to lift the car up off the ground. Position two jack stands under the car on the axle, one jack stand next to each wheel. Now lower the car onto the jack stands.

    3

    Use the lug nut wrench to loosen the lug nuts on the two rear wheels. Remove the lug nuts, then remove the two back wheels.

    4

    Find two bolts attached to a caliper. Remove the bolts with an adjustable wrench. Set the caliper on the axle, and be careful not to let it drop on the ground.

    5

    Push in the brake pads. If you have trouble doing this, you can use a C-clamp to press them in.

    6

    Pry the spring clips open and remove the pads. If the pads won't move, remove them with a screwdriver.

    7

    Spread some silicone grease on the backside of each new brake pad and place the pads in the same place the old pads were. Put on the spring clips to hold pads in place.

    8

    Put the caliper back on and tighten the two bolts.

    9

    Put the wheel back on the car and tighten the lug nuts. Jack up the car and remove the jack stands. Lower the car to the ground and tighten the lug nuts.

    10

    Look under the hood for the master cylinder brake fluid container. You can find it on the driver's side at the back of the engine compartment. Check to see if the brake fluid is low. If it is, top it off.

Minggu, 13 Mei 2012

How to Make Parking Brake Adjustments in a Dodge Ram

Make adjustments to your parking brakes on your Dodge Ram when you replace or disconnect the tensioner or a cable for service, or if your vehicle starts to slip down the slope when the parking brake is on. Use this technique for your Dodge Ram years 1997 to 2000.

Instructions

    1

    Raise your Dodge Ram rear wheels in the air using a jack and support the rear wheels with jack stands. Fully release the parking brake and verify the rear wheels spin freely.

    2

    Press in on the parking brake pedal now and make sure it presses to the fullest position towards the floor of the vehicle.

    3

    Crawl underneath your Dodge Ram and locate the tension rod in the middle of the vehicle. Mark the tension rod 1/4 in or 6.35mm from the edge of the tension bracket.

    4

    Tighten the adjuster nut with your wrench or pliers until the mark you made on the tension rod is even with the tension bracket or until you can no longer see the mark.

    5

    Release the parking brake pedal and verify that the rear wheels spin freely.

    6

    Lower your Dodge Ram using the jack and removing the jack stands from the rear wheels.

How to Change the Rear Drum Brakes on a Nissan Sentra

Although they're not as easy to replace as front disk brakes, the rear drum brakes on your Nissan Sentra can be removed and replaced in the comfort of your driveway with the proper tools. It takes some hand dexterity and some technical know-how, but it's certainly an achievable task if you leave yourself enough time. A recommendation to beginners would be to remove both drums first and leave one side together intact with the shoes and hardware as a reference to the other side. Remove the shoes and hardware, then when reinstalling, you have a set still intact to go look at and help figure out how to put it back together and what springs go where.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Sentra on a flat, level paved or concrete surface. Place the car in park or gear.

    2

    Place a wheel chock in front of one of the front tires. Break the lug nuts loose on both rear tires. Do not loosen the lug nuts too much and do not remove them.

    3

    Lift the rear of the Sentra using the floor jack and place a jack stand under the rocker panel on that side. Repeat the procedure for the other side so the entire rear axle is elevated. Remove the lug nuts and wheels from both sides.

    4

    Screw in the two 8-by-1.25 millimeter bolts into the small holes near the hub on the face of the drum. Tighten them inward using the ratchet and socket alternately. Three turns on one bolt, then three turns on the other. This will draw the drum from the hub. Remove the drum when it breaks free of the hub and remove the bolts. Repeat this procedure for the other drum.

    5

    Remove the retaining springs on each shoe of the left rear wheel first using the retaining spring tool in one hand while holding the retaining pin located on the backing plate with the other. Turn the retaining spring tool to the left until the slot in the cup of the retaining spring releases from the pin. Repeat this step for the other retaining spring on the other shoe.

    6

    Remove the upper and lower return springs that connect the shoes together and the adjuster spring at the very bottom using the brake spring pliers and or dikes. The entire rear brake assembly will now fall apart. Leave the right side intact as a reference to aide in putting the left back together.

    7

    Remove the retainer ring from the top of the outboard shoe (closest to the rear of the vehicle) using the dikes to pry it off. Remove the washer and remove the outboard shoe.

    8

    Remove the adjuster from the assembly and be sure to take note how your removed it in order to replace it in the same fashion. It is recommended to take the adjuster apart, clean it and apply lubricant to the threads inside before reinstalling.

    9

    Spray the backing plate with brake clean and spray the drums out with brake clean. Wipe the three contact points (for each shoe) on the backing plate that the shoes contact and apply a liberal coating of silicone brake lubricant to those points.

    10

    Reinstall the outboard shoe first, inserting the holding pin into the toggle lever through the hole in the shoe and locking it in with the washer and retaining ring. While holding it into place, replace the hold-down pin through the hole and replace the retainer spring and cup using the brake retaining spring tool until the slot in the cup feeds through the head of the pin and then turn the tool 1/2 turn to lock the pin in place. Repeat this step for the inboard pad.

    11

    Replace the upper and lower adjuster springs to hold the shoes into place. Replace the adjuster. You'll still be able to manipulate the shoes apart to fit in the adjuster. Make sure the adjuster lever is in place properly. Refer to the right side if you need to.

    12

    Replace the adjuster spring. Do not install the drum yet until you've completed the right side so you can refer to the left side again if needed.

    13

    When both sides are done, slide the new drums (or old drums if you're not replacing them) onto the rear shoes. If the drum slides easily, turn the star-wheel on the adjuster three or four click to extend the shoes apart and slip the drum on again. Do this until the drum had to be put onto the shoes with a little bit of force. Not too much force, but if you can slide the drum back off easily, you'll need to adjust the shoes outward a little more.

    14

    Replace the wheels and lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts as tight as you can with the wheels elevated and lower the Sentra. Torque the lug nuts in an alternate fashion using the adjustable torque wrench set at 80 foot pounds.

    15

    Remove the wheel chock and test drive.

Sabtu, 12 Mei 2012

How to Replace the Front Brakes and Rotors on a 2003 Jeep Grand Cherokee Laredo

Jeep released the Grand Cherokee, its first true "luxury" SUV, in 1993. The 2003 Grand Cherokee came in three main trim levels: Laredo, Limited and Overland. The Laredo trim was the entry-level model of Grand Cherokee. It came fitted with a 4.0-liter, in-line six-cylinder engine that produced 195 horsepower. The Laredo model also came standard with four-wheel anti-lock disc brakes. Replacing the front brake pads and the rotors on the 2003 Grand Cherokee Laredo is a relatively easy task for a do-it-yourself mechanic.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the lid from the master cylinder reservoir and siphon out about half of the fluid from the master cylinder, using a turkey baster. Transfer this fluid to a small container.

    2

    Loosen the Grand Cherokee's front lug nuts, but don't remove them, using a ratchet and socket. Raise the front of the SUV with a floor jack, and slide jack stands under the frame rails. Lower the Jeep onto the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts and pull the front wheels from the vehicle.

    3

    Remove the two caliper bolts, using a ratchet and socket, and pull the caliper from the brake system; notice the brake pads remain attached to the caliper. Suspend the caliper from a nearby suspension component, using a bungee strap.

    4

    Pry one side of the outer brake pad inward, using a flat-head screwdriver, to release the button on the pad from the hole in the caliper, and pivot the brake pad downward. Repeat this step for the other side of the outer brake pad.

    5

    Set an 8-inch C-clamp over the caliper, positioning the screw part on the inner brake pad and the fixed part on the rear of the caliper. Tighten the C-clamp until the caliper piston presses completely into the body of the caliper. Remove the C-clamp.

    6

    Pull the inner brake pad from the caliper; notice the inner pad has three metal clips that insert into the cavity in the caliper piston to hold it in place.

    7

    Set the new inner brake pad on the caliper and press the clips on the rear of the pad into the cavity in the caliper piston. Press the outer brake pad on the caliper until the buttons seat in the holes in the caliper body.

    8

    Remove the circular clips holding the rotor to the lug studs, if applicable, using side-cutting pliers. These do not get replaced, so if someone removed the rotor before, it's likely your Jeep will not have them.

    9

    Grab the brake rotor and pull it from the Grand Cherokee's hub. Lightly tap the rotor with a rubber mallet if it does not pull off easily.

    10

    Set the new rotor on the Grand Cherokee's hub. Place the caliper on the new rotor and tighten the caliper bolts to 65 to 85 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and socket.

    11

    Repeat Steps 3 through 10 for the brake pads and rotor on the other side of the SUV.

    12

    Reinstall the wheels on the Grand Cherokee and hand-tighten the lug nuts.

    13

    Raise the Jeep from the jack stands, using the floor jack, and remove the stands from under the SUV. Lower the Grand Cherokee to the ground.

    14

    Tighten the lug nuts, in a star pattern, to 110 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    15

    Press and release the brake pedal until it feels firm. This extends the caliper piston out so it contacts the brake pads.

    16

    Check the fluid level in the brake master cylinder and add DOT 3 brake fluid to the master cylinder until it reaches the "Max" level on the reservoir.

    17

    Dispose of the old brake fluid in the small container properly. Many auto parts stores accept used automotive fluids free of charge.

How to Make Parking Brake Adjustments in a Honda CR-V

Adjust your Honda CR-V parking brake when the vehicle starts to slip down a hill after you put the vehicle in "Park." You can make the adjustments yourself at home to save you time and money. Use these procedures on your Honda CR-V years 1995 to 2000.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the trim covers that are covering the screws holding the center console cover in place with your Phillips screwdriver. Next, remove the screws using your Phillips screwdriver.

    2

    Slide the center console cover back and then up to removed it from the parking brake lever area.

    3

    Use your wrench to adjust the parking brake adjuster nut attached to the end of the parking brake cable.

    4

    Raise your Honda CR-V rear wheels in the air using your jack and support both rear wheels with your jack stands.

    5

    Pull up on the parking brake lever two notches and verify there is a slight resistance on the rear wheels. Raise the parking brake lever to six notches and verify the rear wheels don't move.

    6

    Lower your Honda CR-V using your jack and remove the jack stands from the rear wheels.

    7

    Put the center console back into place. Use your Phillips screwdriver to put the screws back into place to hold the center console. Replace the trim covers over the center console screws.

Jumat, 11 Mei 2012

How to Replace Front Brake Pads on a 2000 Ford Mustang

How to Replace Front Brake Pads on a 2000 Ford Mustang

The 2000 Ford Mustang features two types of front brake calipers. Replacing the front brake pads, however, still employs the same procedure. Some of the 2000 Mustangs used a single hydraulic piston caliper to extend outward on braking demand. Other 2000 Mustangs featured dual (two) piston calipers. The more pistons on the caliper applies a degree of better and more even braking power. However, it also adds to the odds of more frequent failure. When pushing back the pistons, always inspect the dust boots and release any trapped air inside making bubble-shaped pockets on the boots.

Instructions

    1

    Remove and discard half the brake fluid from the master cylinder in the engine compartment (driver's side firewall) with the brake fluid baster. Replace the cap of the master cylinder.

    2

    Apply the parking brake, and then loosen the front wheel lug nuts (both tires) with the lug nut wrench.

    3

    Hoist the front end of the Mustang up (one side at a time) with the jack, and then lower the jack so the car is supported onto jack stands. Remove the lug nuts and wheels.

    4

    Remove the clip, washer and caliper locating pin (dual caliper piston) with the hand wrench, or remove the caliper bolts with the wrench on single-caliper pistons.

    5

    Pry the caliper and pad assemblies off of the rotor gently with a small pry tool and use the length of cord to tie (support) the caliper from the front suspension so it does not dangle from the hydraulic brake fluid hose (attached to the calipers).

    6

    Remove the outer and inner brake pads from the calipers. On single-piston calipers, also remove the rattle clip.

    7

    Brush the surface of the brake caliper mount and brake caliper with a wire brush to remove brake dust, rust and other corrosives.

    8

    Compress the pistons of the calipers inward by placing an old pad (removed) against the pistons and use the large C-clamp to tighten against the inner housing of the caliper and against the backing plate of the old pad. Tighten the clamp fully to press the pistons fully into their bores.

    9

    Apply an even coat of silicone brake grease to the matting surfaces of the brake caliper and caliper mounts.

    10

    Install the inner pads into the brake calipers first by pushing the clips into the hollow pistons. Install the outer pads last by clipping on the wing clips to the outer caliper housing.

    11

    Replace the calipers (after removing the cords) and pads assemblies by reversing the removal procedure respectively. Tighten the locating pin or caliper bolts with the wrench.

    12

    Replace the wheels and lug nuts, and tighten the lug nuts in a star pattern with the lug nut wrench.

    13

    Use the jack to raise the front end up (one side at a time) high enough to remove the jack stands.

    14

    Torque the lug nuts in a star pattern with the torque wrench (set to 100 foot-ibs) and a socket.

    15

    Climb into the driver's seat, and pump the brake pedal until it feels firm.

    16

    Check and add brake fluid (DOT-3) to the master cylinder to top it off if necessary. Release the parking brake and test drive.

How to Replace the Disc Brake Rotors on a 1992 Honda Civic Si

How to Replace the Disc Brake Rotors on a 1992 Honda Civic Si

Honda Motor Company introduced the Civic in 1973. The 1992 Honda Civic was available with nine different trim packages. The 1992 Civic Si Coupe and Si Hatchback were both equipped with a 1.6-liter, in-line four-cylinder engine, which could produce up to 125 horsepower and 106 foot-pounds of torque. The brake rotors on the 1992 Civic Si can wear thin or warp over periods of time. Replacing the brake rotors on the 1992 Civic Si is a difficult procedure and should be performed by someone with mechanical knowledge.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of the Civic and set the prop rod. Open the brake fluid reservoir, which is located on the driver's side, in the rear of the engine compartment.

    2

    Loosen the front wheel lug nuts, using a tire iron. Raise the front of the Civic with a jack. Place jack stands underneath the front frame rails, on either side of the engine. Lower the car onto the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts completely, and remove the front wheels from the Civic.

    3

    Place a ratchet and socket on the caliper mounting bolt, on the rear of the caliper mounting bracket. Place an open end wrench on the caliper slide. The caliper bolts into the free-floating caliper slide, with the caliper mounting bracket between the two parts. Hold the caliper slide motionless with the wrench, while turning the caliper bolt counterclockwise until the caliper bolt is removed. Repeat this step to remove the second caliper bolt from the caliper you are working on.

    4

    Pull the caliper off of the brake assembly completely, using a small pry bar to assist you if necessary. Hang the caliper from the front strut spring with a metal clothes hangar or thin metal rod. Do not let the brake caliper hang from the rubber hose it is attached to. Remove the brake pads from the caliper mounting bracket.

    5

    Place one of the used brake pads against the caliper piston, which protrudes from the rear wall of the caliper. Install a large screw-style C-clamp around the rear of the caliper and against the brake pad. Slowly compress the caliper using the C-clamp. Turning too fast may break or disrupt the caliper piston seal, causing air to enter the brake system. Turn the C-clamp until the caliper piston is completely compressed flush with the rear inner wall of the caliper.

    6

    Remove the two caliper mounting bracket bolts, using a ratchet and socket. The caliper mounting bracket bolts are behind the rotor, attached to the wheel hub assembly. Remove the two Phillips (3 head) screws from the front of the brake rotor, with the appropriate screwdriver. If the screws will not turn with an adequate amount of force applied, spray the screws with PB Blaster or an equivalent penetrating spray. Allow the penetrant to work for no less than 5 minutes, then remove the rotor mounting screws. Remove the brake rotor by hand.

    7

    Install a new brake rotor onto the Civic by hand, and immediately insert the mounting screws into place. Tighten the screws using the Phillips screwdriver, until you cannot turn the screws any farther by hand. Install the caliper mounting bracket. Tighten the bracket bolts between 85 and 100 foot-pounds of torque, with a 1/2-inch drive torque wrench and socket.

    8

    Install new brake pads onto the caliper mounting bracket, on either side of the rotor. The grain side of the pads should face inward toward the rotor, while the flat metal backings should face outward. Apply a thin film of caliper grease to the metal backings on both brake pads.

    9

    Install the caliper over the new brake pads and rotor. Install the caliper bolts, and tighten them to 54 foot-pounds with the torque wrench and socket on the bolt. Use an open-end wrench to keep the caliper slide from moving while you torque the bolts.

    10

    Repeat steps 3 through 9 to complete the brake rotor replacement on the second side of the Civic. Double check your torque on all of the caliper bolts and mounting bracket bolts, when you have completely installed both assemblies.

    11

    Install the front wheels onto the Civic. Turn the lug nuts until they are snug, using a tire iron. Raise the Civic off of the jack stands with your jack. Remove the stands from beneath the car. Lower the car to the ground, and immediately tighten the lug nuts on both sides to 80 foot-pounds, with the torque wrench and a socket.

    12

    Depress the brake pedal slowly, no less than 10 times, from within the car. The pedal should become rigid or more difficult to press after each pump.

How to Remove Caliper Paint

Calipers house the brake pads on your vehicle. They usually are on the tops of the rotors behind the wheels. To remove paint from calipers, you must remove the caliper from the rotor, the brake pads must be pulled from the caliper and the brake wire must be disconnected from the caliper. A fine-grit sandpaper will take care of most of the paint, but it's necessary to use a light chemical on the caliper to remove the paint that cannot be easily reached.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the lug nuts that secure the wheel to the frame of the vehicle, using the lug wrench. Raise that side of the vehicle off the ground, using the jack, and then lower the vehicle onto a jack stand. Pull the wheel off the frame and set the wheel aside while you work.

    2

    Loosen the retaining nuts on the rear top right and left side of the caliper, using the ratchet and socket. Loosen the nut that secured the brake line to the caliper, using the wrench. Pull the line from the caliper and lift up on the caliper to remove it from the rotor.

    3

    Pull the brake pads from the caliper, using your hand, and set the brake pads on a clean, dry surface. Using the 100-grit sandpaper, gently sand the caliper's surface. Sand the caliper until the paint comes off.

    4

    Wet the towel with a small amount of gasoline and apply the gasoline to any area painted area on the caliper that you can't use the sandpaper can't reach. Allow the gas to penetrate the paint and sand the caliper again.

    5

    Apply more gasoline to the painted area on the caliper and allow the gas to set and wet the paint. Keep sanding the painted area on the caliper until the paint has been removed. Wipe the caliper down and remove any debris from the caliper. Allow the gas on the caliper to evaporate before you reinstall the caliper to the top of the rotor.