Senin, 30 April 2012

How to Make Parking Brake Adjustments in a Chevy Silverado

When your Chevy Silverado truck's parking brake does not hold the truck in place after use, follow these simple steps to adjust the parking brake. Make your adjustment at home with a few tools and a jack stand for your truck to save you time and money and avoid taking your car to the mechanics. Use this adjustment technique on trucks that are year 2001 or older.

Instructions

Adjust the Parking Brake Automatically

    1

    Press down on the parking brake pedal, which is on the far left floor of the driver's side of the vehicle. The vehicle has automatic cable adjusters that remove the slack from the parking brake cables.

    2

    Release the parking brake pedal by pressing down again with your foot on the pedal.

    3

    Repeat Steps 1 and 2 three times to allow the park brake cable equalizer to take the slack out of the parking brake cables.

Adjust the Parking Brake Manually

    4

    Raise the rear end of your Chevy Silverado with jacks and a jack stand. Remove the rear tires using a tire iron to loosen and unscrew the lug nuts.

    5

    Insert your head in the wheel well and locate the star shaped adjuster nut inside the top of the back part of the wheel well.

    6

    Use your screwdriver or star shaped socket to unscrew the nut until 5mm of threads are showing.

    7

    Replace the tire by screwing the lug nuts back into place with the tire iron.

    8

    Repeat Steps 2, 3 and 4 for the second rear wheel.

Minggu, 29 April 2012

How Long Should Brakes Last on a New Car?

Average Distance

    On average, brakes on a new car can go around 60,000 miles before needing to be replaced. The owner's manual lists the specifications for the brakes in your car and how long you can expect them to last. The front brake pads are typically the first brake component to require replacement.

Driving Habits

    Brakes last a different amount of miles depending on how frequently and harshly they are used. Highway driving generally puts less strain on brakes than city driving, and heavier cars wear out brakes sooner than lighter cars. Coasting to slow down before braking helps brake pads last longer.

Bottom Line

    The brakes on a new car will typically last about 60,000 miles under ideal driving conditions. These conditions include driving slowly in stop-and-go conditions to avoid heavy use of brakes, not stopping from high speeds and not transporting heavy items in the car.

Sabtu, 28 April 2012

How to Replace the Brake Calipers on a '97 Ford Escort

How to Replace the Brake Calipers on a '97 Ford Escort

The 1997 Ford Escort was equipped with a 2.0-liter, in-line, 4-cylinder engine, that was capable of producing up to 110 horsepower. The 1997 Escort was equipped with two-wheel disc brakes on the base model, and four-wheel disc brakes on the LX model. The disc brake assembly on the 1997 Escort is made up of the calipers, rotors and brake pads, which work together to stop the vehicle. The calipers can be replaced after they wear out over time.

Instructions

1997 Ford Escort: Replacing the Calipers

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the wheels on the end of the Escort on which you are working. Lift the Escort using a 2-ton jack or a jack with greater capacity. Place jack stands beneath the Escort under the frame rails, or the rear axle beam if you are replacing the rear calipers. Remove the lug nuts from the wheels and then remove the wheels completely from the car.

    2

    Place a brake line clamp on the brake line which leads from the frame of the Escort to the back of the caliper. Place the clamp as close to the caliper as possible, so that you can lessen the amount of brake fluid lost in the replacement of the calipers. Remove the brake caliper mounting bolts using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Turn the mounting bolts counterclockwise until they are removed from the caliper.

    3

    Remove the banjo bolt or brake line bolt from the rear of the caliper, using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Remove the brake line completely from the caliper. Remove the caliper from the brake assembly, using a small pry bar to pry the caliper free if necessary.

    4

    Install the new caliper onto the brake assembly, over the brake pads and rotors. Install the caliper mounting bolts and tighten the bolts between 29 and 36 foot-pounds of torque, using a certified torque wrench. Install the brake line onto the rear of the new caliper and tighten the brake line bolt between 16 and 20 foot-pounds with a torque wrench.

    5

    Repeat Steps 2 through 4 to complete the caliper replacement on the second side of the car.

1997 Ford Escort: Bleeding the Brakes

    6

    Ask you assistant to sit in the driver's seat of the Escort. Loosen the caliper bleeder screw on the back of the caliper using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Turn the bleeder screw counterclockwise to open the screw.

    7

    Ask your assistant depress the brake pedal completely to the floor of the Escort. Ask your assistant to use the words "down" when the pedal is depressed completely, and "up" when the the pedal is pumped up or at the top of resting position. When the brake pedal is down to the floor, tighten the bleeder screw back shut. Ask your assistant try to pump the brake pedal. If the brake pedal will not pump up, have your assistant lift the brake pedal up to the top position.

    8

    Repeat Step 2 on the first side of the Escort at least three times, then perform this same procedure on the second side of the car at least three times as well. Make sure you add brake fluid to the brake fluid reservoir frequently while bleeding the brakes, and always replace the fluid reservoir cap after filling. When the brake pedal becomes solid or unable to be depressed from the upward position, then the brakes have been bled sufficiently.

    9

    Install the wheels and snug the wheel lug nuts onto the car. Raise the car using a 2-ton jack or a jack with greater capacity. Remove the jack stands from beneath the escort. Lower the Escort to the ground and remove the floor jack. Complete this step only after you have verified that you have torqued all of the caliper bolts to the proper torque, and once the brakes have been bled.

How to Change the Brake Rotors on a 1999 Jeep Wrangler

How to Change the Brake Rotors on a 1999 Jeep Wrangler

Many people change their own brakes because it saves money and time. But changing the brakes on your Jeep doesn't just mean changing out the front pads; it also means replacing or turning the front rotors to maximize the contact surface between the new pads and the rotors. In this case, the project vehicle is a 1999 Jeep Wrangler and the front brake rotors.

Instructions

    1

    Raise up the front of the vehicle using the jack and set it on the jack stands. Make sure that the vehicle is solidly on the stands before crawling underneath it. Take off the front wheels using the tire iron and set them out of the workspace.

    2

    Unbolt the brake caliper bracket from the steering knuckle using the ratchet, then slide the caliper and caliper bracket off of the front rotor. Set the assembly onto a spare jack stand to support the weight of the caliper so that the brake line doesn't get damaged.

    3

    Slide the retaining clips off of the wheel studs using the needle nose pliers. If your rotors have been removed once before, the retaining clips may already be gone. Slide the rotor off of the hub.

    4

    Slide the replacement rotor onto the hub, then slide the caliper bracket and caliper onto the steering knuckle over the rotor and secure them with the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket. The retaining clips are no longer necessary as they are installed from the factory to aid in manufacturing, but the wheel lugs will keep the rotors on now.

    5

    Reinstall the front tires using the tire iron then lower the vehicle off of the ground with the jack.

Jumat, 27 April 2012

How to Replace the Brake Lines on a 1995 Ford Ranger

How to Replace the Brake Lines on a 1995 Ford Ranger

Brake lines are the tubes that carry brake fluid from the master cylinder to the brake caliper. When you push the brake pedal in your vehicle, brake fluid is forced through the brake lines to your brakes, which causes them to squeeze the rotor and stop your vehicle. If the brake lines fail, fluid will leak out and you will lose braking power. It is important to replace your brake lines immediately when failure occurs so that you will be able to stop the vehicle properly.

Instructions

    1

    Jack up the wheel, using a floor jack, which you are changing the brake line for. Place a jack stand underneath the wheel and lower it until the weight of the vehicle is supported by the jack stand. Remove the wheel from the vehicle and set it aside.

    2

    Clean the joint, which the brake line is screwed into at the brake assembly, of any debris that may be near the joint. This prevents any debris from getting into the brake system and causing malfunction.

    3

    Place one wrench on the joint and one wrench on the fitting on the brake line. Turn the wrench on the fitting while holding the joint in place with the other wrench. Use a drain pan to catch any fluid that may leak out of the brake line.

    4

    Remove the other end of the break line at the master cylinder by using a wrench to loosen the fittings. Move down the whole length of the brake line and undo any clips that are holding it in place. Remove the brake line from the vehicle and discard it.

    5

    Screw the new brake line into the joint at the brake assembly replacing any washers, or gaskets, that were found on the old line. Use two wrenches, one to turn the fitting and the other to hold the joint in place.

    6

    Attach the other end of the brake line to the master cylinder by screwing the fitting into the master cylinder. Move along the brake line and attach the line to any clips that hold it onto the vehicle. Make sure that the brake line is protected from rubbing against any moving parts on the vehicle and is not bent or kinked in any way.

    7

    Fill the vehicle with brake fluid and bleed the system to make sure there are no air bubbles present. After the brakes are properly bled, put the wheel back on the vehicle and use the floor jack to life the vehicle off of the jack stands and back onto the ground to complete the installation.

Toyota Celica Brake Problem

The Toyota Celica, a sports coupe that Japanese automaker Toyota produced from 1970 to 2005, has not exhibited any major or unique problems related to its brake. There has been a recall, though, related to this particular component.

Problem

    On November 2004, the 2000 Celica became one of the models among the 109,000 vehicles that Toyota recalled because a rubber seal ring in the brake's master cylinder corroded easily.

Consequence

    A corroded rubber seal ring can allow brake fluid to leak from it or allow air to enter the master cylinder. This consequently increases the vehicle stopping distance.

Solution

    Authorized dealers will inspect the master cylinder and replace it and the booster, if necessary. Since Toyota accepts sole responsibility for this defect, the service is performed free of charge.

Selasa, 24 April 2012

How to Replace the Rotors on a 2003 Nissan Altima

How to Replace the Rotors on a 2003 Nissan Altima

Replacing the rotors on the front of your 2003 Nissan Altima is a good project to do at home. The task is straightforward and doing the work yourself will save you the cost of a repair bill from a garage. While the front brakes of the Altima use rotors and calipers, the rear brakes use a drum brake system and are completely different to work on. Replacement rotors for your Altima are available from most major auto parts stores.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the front wheels of your Nissan with a lug wrench, but do not remove them from the wheel studs yet. Position a jack under the front of the car and raise it off the ground. Support the car with a set of jack stands positioned under the front suspension.

    2

    Remove the lug nuts from the wheel studs and then remove the wheels from the car. Locate the brake caliper mounted on the steering knuckle. Find the four bolts on the back of the caliper. The upper two are the slide bolts, the lower two are the caliper mounting bracket retaining bolts.

    3

    Remove the two caliper mounting bracket retaining bolts with a socket and ratchet, set the bolts aside and lift the caliper and bracket straight off the rotor. Support the caliper and bracket up out of the way, using some wire to hang it on. Do not let the weight of the caliper hang against the brake hose or damage will occur to the hose.

    4

    Pull the rotor off the front hub and discard it. Install the new rotor on the wheel studs and hub and then slide the caliper and mounting bracket back on the rotor and knuckle. Install the retaining bolts and tighten them with a socket and ratchet until they are secure.

    5

    Position the wheel back on the wheel studs and install the lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts with a lug wrench and then move to the opposite side of the car. Repeat the process.

    6

    Raise the front of the car off the jack stands with a jack. Remove the jack stands from under the car and lower the jack until the car is safely on the ground. Tighten all the lug nuts with the lug wrench now that the weight of the car is on the wheels.

Senin, 23 April 2012

What Is a Brake Pot?

Researching the specifications of new and used cars online can be confusing to the layman. When reading about disc brakes, terms like "caliper," "rotor" and "pad" are defined easily enough--but what is a "pot?"

Car-guy slang

    The answer is deceptively simple. When discussing disc brakes, "pot" is simply car-guy speak for "piston." The shortened term is most often used when discussing brake specifications: a four-piston brake caliper will be referred to as a "four-pot" caliper.

Disc brake components

    Disc brakes work by pressing a high-friction material against a disc that is attached to the rotor. Though mechanically complex, the system itself consists of four major components: the rotor, pad, piston (or "pot," if you prefer) and caliper. The rotor is the disc that's attached to the axle. The pads press against the rotor on either side, like a clamp, and the piston is what pushes the pad against the rotor. The caliper wraps around part of the rotor in a C-shape, and is the unit that contains the pads, pistons and compression mechanism, which can be hydraulic, electronic or a combination of both.

Additional information

    The number of pistons can vary depending on the application. High-performance automobiles often use multiple pistons to provide additional brake clamping force.

Minggu, 22 April 2012

How to Remove the ABS Wheel Sensor on a 96 Ranger

How to Remove the ABS Wheel Sensor on a 96 Ranger

The front wheels on a 1996 Ford Ranger have a sensor that mounts onto the front spindle on the suspension. This sensor records the wheel speed from the wheel hub and determines if the ABS needs to kick in for emergency braking situations. When this sensor malfunctions, your ABS may randomly kick in, which can be a major problem with driving the truck. To replace it, you first have to remove it.

Instructions

    1

    Use the jack to lift up the front of the vehicle, then set it on the jack stands. Be sure that the vehicle is completely and solidly on the stands prior to working on the vehicle. Take off the front wheels using the tire iron and set them out of the workspace.

    2

    Look behind the brake rotor to see the spindle, then look for electrical wiring running from the back of the spindle. Follow the wiring to the harness connection on the frame and unplug the harness using your hands.

    3

    Unbolt the sensor from the back of the spindle using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket, then pull out the sensor from the spindle.

Jumat, 20 April 2012

How to Change the Brake Pads on an Equinox

Changing the brake pads on the Chevrolet Equinox is easy enough to do in your own driveway. Each wheel will only take about thirty minutes to complete. The brake pads and rotors use friction to slow and stop the Equinox. They eventually wear down, and you need to replace them.

Instructions

    1

    Open the engine compartment and remove 2/3 of the brake fluid from the master brake cylinder using the turkey baster. Put the fluid in the drain pan for later recycling.

    2

    Place the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels. Raise the Equinox up with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the Chevy near the jacking point and raise it to the frame of the vehicle. Remove the wheel using the lug wrench to loosen the lug nuts.

    3

    Loosen one bolt on the brake caliper with a socket and ratchet and pivot the caliper up. Remove the front brake pad, but leave the back one in. Use the c-clamp to push the caliper piston back into the caliper housing. Place one jaw on the back of the caliper and the other jaw on the back brake pad and twist it until the piston seats itself. Remove the remaining brake pad from the caliper.

    4

    Insert the new brake pads into the caliper. Pivot the caliper down onto the wheel assembly. Tighten the retaining bolt with the socket and ratchet. Place the wheel back on the Equinox and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the vehicle. Lower the Chevy to the ground and repeat the process on the other wheel.

    5

    Add fresh brake fluid to the master cylinder as needed. Pump the brakes several times until the pedal feels firm. This will seat the brake pads against the brake rotor. Check the brake fluid again to be sure it is at proper levels.

How to Change the Brake Rotors on a 2006 Chevrolet Silverado Truck

How to Change the Brake Rotors on a 2006 Chevrolet Silverado Truck

You need to replace the brake rotors or discs on your Chevrolet Silverado truck if they have any grooves or cracks. You must also replace them if they are worn down past the minimum thickness; the minimum thickness is imprinted on the rotor, and a micrometer will measure the current thickness. Since the brakes and their pads need to be equal on both sides of the truck, you need to replace both of the rotors together; you also need to replace the brake pads at the same time.

Instructions

Removal

    1

    Siphon at least two-thirds of the brake fluid out of the brake master cylinder reservoir using a turkey baster, syringe bottle or other siphon tool that has never been used before. Dispose of this fluid as allowed by your local laws,

    2

    Raise the truck's front or rear end and support it on jack stands. Remove the wheels.

    3

    Compress the brake caliper's pistons back into their bores using a C-clamp. Watch the brake fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir as you compress the piston and siphon out more fluid if necessary to prevent it from overflowing.

    4

    Unscrew the brake caliper bolts with a wrench and remove the caliper; hang the caliper from the frame with a strong wire; don't let it hang by the hose.

    5

    Pull the brake pads out of the caliper mounting bracket and dispose of them.

    6

    Unbolt and remove the caliper mounting bracket using the wrench.

    7

    Clip off any pressed washers installed on the wheel studs using cutting pliers. Slide the brake rotor off the hub.

Installation

    8

    Slide the replacement brake rotor onto the wheel studs. You will not need to install any replacement washers on the studs if you removed any old ones.

    9

    Connect the caliper mounting bracket to the rotor, tightening its mounting bolts to 129 foot pounds (221 foot pounds on models other than the 1500) with a torque wrench.

    10

    Install the replacement brake pads into the caliper mounting bracket.

    11

    Connect the caliper to the mounting bracket and tighten its mounting bolts with the torque wrench (74 foot pounds on a 1500, 80 for other models).

    12

    Reinstall the wheels and lower the truck after changing the rotors that needed replacing.

    13

    Fill the brake master cylinder reservoir with fresh DOT 3 brake fluid.

    14

    Apply the brake pedal multiple times until it feels firm, re-seating the brake pads against the rotors.

How to Change Rotors on a Chevy Uplander Van

How to Change Rotors on a Chevy Uplander Van

When you inspect the brake rotors on your Chevy Uplander, you need to check them thoroughly. Some light grooves on the surface of the rotor may seem insignificant. The fact is, if the brake pads cannot grip the surface solidly, they will not work properly. Check to be sure there is no cracking visible in the rotor. You also want to look for warping. Check both sides of the rotor and not just the front as damage can occur on both sides. It only takes about 30 minutes to change the rotor on each wheel. If you have any doubt about the rotor at all, replace it.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Uplander on a level, firm surface. Place wheel chocks behind the rear wheels.

    2

    Raise the Chevy with an automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the vehicle near its jacking point and raise it up to the frame.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts on the wheel with the lug wrench then pull the wheel from the wheel assembly. Remove the caliper retaining bolts with a socket and ratchet. Secure the caliper to the strut with a wire tie. Never let the brake caliper hang loose or you will damage the brake lines.

    4

    Pull off the brake rotor from the wheel assembly. Install the new brake rotor onto the wheel assembly.

    5

    Cut the wire tie holding the caliper to the strut with a pair of pliers. Put the caliper in place on the wheel assembly and tighten the bolts with the socket and ratchet. Remount the wheel on the Uplander and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

    6

    Remove the jack stand from under the Uplander and lower the vehicle to the ground with the jack. Repeat the process on the other wheel.

Kamis, 19 April 2012

How to Change the Brake Pads on a Ford Escort

How to Change the Brake Pads on a Ford Escort

When you step on the brake pedal of your Ford Escort, the friction material on the brake pads grip the brake rotors to help you slow or stop the vehicle. After months of service, this friction material wears down to a point where you begin to hear a squealing sound every time you apply the breaks. That is the built-in alert system on your brake assembly letting you know that it is time for new brake pads. Once you have the replacements, just follow these steps to change the pads on your Escort model.

Instructions

Remove the Old Brake Pads

    1

    Empty half the fluid from the brake master cylinder using a hand siphon pump.

    2

    Loosen the wheel lugs on the front wheels using a lug wrench.

    3

    Raise the front of the vehicle using a floor jack and install two jack stands to support the car.

    4

    Remove the front tires from the wheel assemblies.

    5

    Pay careful attention to how the two spring wires are mounted on top of the brake caliper and holding the two brake pads in place. Then disengage the wires from the caliper by hand.

    6

    Push the brake caliper cylinder into its bore using a C-clamp. Place the C-clamp between the back of the caliper and the front brake pad. Also, place a socket between the C-clamp screw and the front pad so you can reach the pad. Then screw in the C-clamp to push in the cylinder.

    7

    Remove the two brake-pad locating pins by hand from each side of the caliper top. The pins come with a hole towards one of the ends. Make sure to note which way this holes point so that you mount the pins the same way.

    8

    Remove the brake pads and shims from the brake caliper by hand.

Install the New Brake Pads

    9

    Apply a light coat of brake pad grease to the back of the new brake pads and lay the shims on the back of the pads.

    10

    Install the brake pads and shims in the brake caliper.

    11

    Insert the two brake pad locating pins on the brake caliper.

    12

    Mount the two spring wires on the brake caliper.

    13

    Replace the brake pad set on the other front tire following steps 5 from the previous section through step 4 of this section.

    14

    Mount the tires on the wheel assemblies and screw in the wheel lugs.

    15

    Lower the vehicle and finish tightening the wheel lugs using the lug wrench.

    16

    Pump the brake pedal several times to position the new brake pads properly over the brake rotor.

    17

    Refill the brake master cylinder with new brake fluid with the level between the Low and Full marks.

How to Replace the Front Brake Rotors on a 2002 Buick Park Avenue

How to Replace the Front Brake Rotors on a 2002 Buick Park Avenue

The 2002 Buick Park Avenue features front disc brakes which include calipers, brake pads and rotors (also known as discs because of their shape). Unlike rear brakes (no matter if rear disc or rear drum), the front brakes work three times harder in order to stop the vehicle efficiently. This is due to weight distribution--since the engine is in the front, most of the weight is located in the front. If the rotors are warped (causing a pulsation/vibration when braking), pitted with rust, grooved or scored, they will prematurely damage the friction material of the brake pads.

Instructions

    1

    Place a tire chock behind one of the rear tires after parking the Buick on a hard, level surface and applying the parking brake.

    2

    Loosen the front wheel nuts with a breaker bar and socket a quarter turn counterclockwise.

    3

    Raise the Park Avenue with a hydraulic jack and support it onto jack stands located under the corner frame rails. Do not place the jack stands under the lower control arms; this will prevent you from removing the rotors.

    4

    Remove the loosened wheel nuts and then the tires.

    5

    Place a medium pry bar into the front window of the caliper between the outboard pad and rotor, then pry against the piston of the caliper to compress it inward. Go as far as the pry bar will allow you to. This will make room for the new, thicker rotor.

    6

    Spray the drive axle threads with brake cleaner spray and wipe them clean with a shop rag. This will remove any dirt or debris that can damage the threads to the spindle when removing the spindle nut.

    7

    Insert a slotted screwdriver into the front caliper window and then into one of the rotor fins. Pivot the rotor so the screwdriver will secure it in order to turn the spindle nut counterclockwise without allowing the rotor to move (clockwise for the driver's side rotor and counterclockwise for the passenger side rotor).

    8

    Remove the spindle nut from the spindle in a counterclockwise motion using a breaker bar and spindle nut socket.

    9

    Remove the caliper bolts with a box wrench, then remove the caliper and pad assembly from the rotor. Use a caliper hanger to support the caliper to the front chassis in order to prevent it from hanging by the hydraulic brake hose.

    10

    Remove the rotor.

    11

    Spray the replacement rotor with brake cleaner spray in order to remove the rust prevention coating. The coating prevents rust from forming on the rotors during storage on the parts shelves. Clean both sides thoroughly and allow to dry fully, or wipe them dry with a shop rag.

    12

    Replace the rotor, caliper, caliper bolts and a new spindle nut. Tighten the spindle nut to 120 foot-pounds with the torque wrench and spindle nut socket. Perform the rotor replacement procedure for the other front wheel.

    13

    Replace the tires and wheel nuts. Tighten the wheel nuts snug to the hub and lower the Buick. Re-tighten the lug nuts in an alternate pattern to 100 foot-pounds with the torque wrench and suitable-sized socket.

    14

    Pump the foot brake pedal until it feels normal, release the parking brake, remove the tire chock and then test drive the Park Avenue for braking efficiency.

Rabu, 18 April 2012

How to Change Brake Fluid in a Honda Accord

Changing the brake fluid is also known as bleeding the brakes, which entails getting old brake fluid out of the brake system and getting all the air out. You need to bleed the brakes every time you replace the brake pads, or every 2 to 3 years, to get new fluid in the brake system. The brake fluid becomes contaminated with dirt and metal particles from the moving parts in the master cylinder and calipers. You will need 2 people to complete this task.

Instructions

How to Change Brake Fluid in a Honda Accord

    1

    Remove the cover on the master cylinder, which is located under the hood in the rear of the engine. Suck the old brake fluid out of the master cylinder with a turkey baster, and fill the master cylinder with new brake fluid to within 1/4 inch of the top. The only recommended brake fluid for a Honda Accord is Honda Brake Fluid Dot 3. Put the cover back on the master cylinder, but do not lock it. You will need to refill the master cylinder throughout this process.

    2

    Spray the bleeder screws on all wheels with oil to help loosen old bleeders then use a socket wrench to open the bleeder screw on all 4 wheels. Remove the bleeder screws and replace them with new bleeders. Screw in the new bleeders so they are closed. You can get new bleeders from a Honda parts shop.

    3

    Have another person get in the car and pump the brake pedal a few times.

    4

    Attach the clear hose to the bleeder screw on the wheel furthest away from the master cylinder, and put the end of the hose in a clear jar.
    Begin the process on the rear passenger side wheel, then move to the rear driver's side wheel, then the front passenger wheel and, finally, the front driver's side wheel.

    5

    Open the bleeder screw then have the person in the car slowly press down on the brake pedal. You will see fluid come out of the hose. When the pedal is fully pressed down, close the bleeder screw. You do not want any air sucked back into the brake system when the pedal is released. Have the person in the car slowly let up on the brake pedal. Repeat this step until there are no more air bubbles coming out of the hose.

    6

    Repeat Step 4 and Step 5 on the other 3 wheels in the sequenced explained in Step 4. Remember to check the level of brake fluid in the master cylinder after you are done with each wheel. Keep the master cylinder full with brake fluid. Make sure all the bleeder screws are closed and the top on the master cylinder is secured when you are finished bleeding the brakes.

Selasa, 17 April 2012

How to Replace the Brake Pads in a 1995 Oldsmobile Achieva

How to Replace the Brake Pads in a 1995 Oldsmobile Achieva

Oldsmobile introduced the Achieva in 1992. The 1995 Oldsmobile Achieva came equipped with the option of a 2.4-liter four-cylinder engine, or a 3.1-liter V-6 engine. The 1995 Achieva had vented disc brakes on the front and drum brakes on the rear. The Achieva's front-disc brakes incorporate a brake caliper system that compresses the brake pads against the rotors. The friction created between the pads and rotors helps to stop the car. Changing the pads is a challenging yet rewarding task that will provide you with greater safety and better handling of your 1995 Achieva.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Achieva on a level surface. Raise the hood on the car, and then visually locate the brake reservoir within the engine compartment. Check the level of the reservoir. If the reservoir is at or near the "Full" mark, use a turkey baster or small bottle siphon to remove the fluid down about 1/4-inch from the "Full" mark. Adding new pads is going to displace fluid within the brake lines back into the reservoir. An over-filled reservoir will overflow, causing a brake fluid spill.

    2

    Loosen the front wheel lug nuts, but do not remove them yet. Raise the front of the Oldsmobile up using a 2-ton jack, or a jack with greater capacity. Place jack stands beneath the lower subframe, found on either side of the bottom of the engine. Remove the lug nuts completely from the vehicle at this time, and then remove the wheels. Use the wheel and tire assemblies as a makeshift seat while working on the brakes, if you do not prefer to sit on the ground.

    3

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts from one side of the Achieva, using a 3/8-ratchet with a hex head or Allen-head bit. Turn the bolts counterclockwise in relation to their position on the car. Use a small pry bar to remove the caliper from the rotor assembly. Hold the caliper in one hand while applying a C-clamp over the caliper assembly. Press an old brake pad against the piston on the inside rear of the caliper. Tighten the C-clamp against the brake pad. Turn the C-clamp slowly about 1/2-turn at a time, in order to compress the caliper piston completely.

    4

    Hang the caliper from the front strut using a piece of wire or a metal clothes hanger. Do not let the caliper hang freely so as not to damage the rubber brake hose. Remove the old brake pads completely from the brake caliper. Visually and physically inspect the front rotors for excess grooves or channels on the front and back of the rotor. Make two or three measurements with a micrometer to gain the overall thickness measurements of the rotor. The minimum rotor thickness is 0.751 inches, while the nominal thickness is 0.796 inches. Replace any rotor that is below 0.736 inches thick.

    5

    Lubricate the shim plates or thin metal plates on the rear of one set of pads. Install the inner brake pad by simply pushing the spring clip into the brake caliper piston. Install the outer pad by sliding the pad buttons or holders onto the outside of the caliper. Use a small pry bar to help you attach the outer pad, if necessary.

    6

    Pull the slide tubes from the caliper using your fingers or a pair of pliers. The slide tubes are metal tubes that sit within the rubber boots on the rear of the caliper. Thoroughly lubricate the slide tubes with caliper grease, and then reinsert them into their rubber boot housings on the caliper. Place the caliper assembly with the new brake pads onto the brake assembly. Tighten the caliper mounting bolts to 38-foot-pounds -- 456-inch-pounds -- using a 3/8-inch drive torque wrench and the 3/8-inch drive hex head bit.

    7

    Repeat Steps 3 through 6 to complete the pad replacement on the second side of the Achieva. Thoroughly coat both brake assemblies with aerosol brake cleaner spray. Spray the fronts and rears of both rotors to remove any possible grease residue or fingerprints. Oil from your fingers can damage the new pads and the rotors, due to excess heat transference.

    8

    Reinstall the front wheels on the car and tighten the lug nuts until they are snug, using a tire iron. Raise the front of the vehicle with your jack, and remove the jack stands from beneath the car. Lower the car to the ground. Immediately torque the wheel lug nuts to 100 foot-pounds, using a 1/2-inch drive torque wrench and a socket. Check the brake fluid reservoir, and add or remove brake fluid as necessary to place the fluid level at the "Full" mark.

Minggu, 15 April 2012

Problems With Car Brakes

Repairing a car's brake system is often regarded as a difficult process. However, the biggest challenge most often comes from diagnosing the problem. It is only once the source of the problem can be identified that it can be remedied. The fastest way to identify the source of a car's brake problem, or to at least eliminate some of the possible problems, it to determine what the brakes do or fail to do when the car is operated.

Pedal Goes to Floor

    A car's brake system is based on hydraulic pressure. When a car's brake pedal can easily be depressed to the floor, the problem most likely lies with the hydraulics. The most common problem is an insufficient amount of brake fluid in the brake fluid reservoir. If the reservoir is full of brake fluid, then the problem is probably that there is air in the brake lines. Hydraulic pressure can also be lost if one or more wheel cylinders leak fluid, the brake lines are worn or loose or the master cylinder leaks.

Squealing Brakes

    Squealing brakes are quite possibly the most common problem with car brakes. The squealing sound is almost always generated by a problem with a brake shoe or a damaged drum. Brake shoes use several different springs to hold them in place. Squealing often results if the shoe's retaining spring or return spring is either broken or weak. Brake shoes can also produce a squealing sound if the shoes become distorted, which usually occurs if the brake shoe has been used for too long. A defective brake drum will also produce a squealing sound if too much brake dust has accumulated inside the drum or if the drum is out-of-round (no longer true to its original circular shape). A squealing sound that emanates from vehicles with disk brakes can sometimes be traced to the rotor. If the vehicle is operated with severely worn brake pads, the rotor can get hot enough to warp, resulting in the squealing sound when the brakes are applied. Some vehicles are equipped with semi-metallic brake pads. Although this type of brake pad generally lasts longer, they do naturally produce a minor amount of squealing, particularly if the brakes are cold, such as in the morning hours. Less common sources of brake squealing include glazed or saturated brake lining, or brake lining that is the incorrect one for the particular car.

Dragging Brakes

    Brakes are said to "drag" when they partially engage without the brake pedal being depressed. This is not to say that the car's brakes have frozen, but only that the brakes are causing a slight resistance, which can almost always be noticed by the driver. The culprit can almost always be traced to an adjustment problem, or to something as simple as either forgetting to disengage the parking brake, or a parking brake cable that is in need of adjustment. Other causes include a weak or broken return spring, brake fluid which has been contaminated with water, or a defective proportioning valve.

Brake Chatter

    Brake chatter refers to a condition that, when the brake pedal is depressed, causes the car to pulsate. The problem gets noticeably worse the harder the brake pedal is depressed. Brake chatter is usually caused by either an out-of-round drum or distorted brake shoes. A loose or bent support plate can also cause the problem, as can contaminated brake lining. It should be noted, however, that brake chatter can also result from out-of-balance wheels.

Brake Fade

    Brake fade is a condition used to describe brakes which lose partial effectiveness at high speeds. This does not mean that the brakes fail to work at all, but only that the brakes are not as effective at high speeds as they are at low speeds. Brake fade is usually cause by overheated brake drums or from using an incorrect kind of brake fluid, meaning that the fluid has a low boiling point.

Sabtu, 14 April 2012

How to Replace Brakes on a 1991 Ford Aerostar

How to Replace Brakes on a 1991 Ford Aerostar

The Ford Aerostar, first introduced in the 1986 model year, was the Automakers attempt to compete with Dodge's Caravan. The first edition of the Aerostar had an underpowered 2.3-liter in-line four-cylinder. The 1991 Aerostar, on year before a mild redesigns, was fitted with either a 3-liter V-6 or a 4-liter V-6, making the van much more powerful than before. The front brakes on the Aerostar are basic disc brakes. Replacing the front brake pads on the Aerostar is slightly different than other vehicles as the caliper is help by pins, as opposed to bolts.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the Aerostar's front lug nuts, do not remove the lug nuts.

    2

    Raise the front of the vehicle, using the floor jack. Place the jack stands beneath the vehicles, ideally under the rails of the frame. Lower the jack, allowing the vehicle to rest on the stands.

    3

    Continue loosening the lug nuts and remove them from the front wheels. Pull the front wheels from the van.

    4

    Place the C-clamp over the brake caliper, so the fixed part of the clamp is contacting the rear of the caliper and the screw part is contacting the outer brake pad.

    5

    Tighten the C-clamp until it can no longer tighten. This action compresses the caliper's internal piston, allowing the clearance needed for the new, thicker brake pads.

    6

    Look where the caliper connects to the spindle, the component the connects the wheel assembly to the vehicle, and locate the pins holding the caliper to the spindle. There are two pins, one upper and one lower.

    7

    Place the center punch on the outer portion of the lower caliper pin and lightly tap the punch, at a 45- degree angle, with a hammer, this compresses the locking tab. Once the tab is compressed place the punch in a direct line with the pin and tap it until the pin fall out of the rear side of the caliper. Repeat this step for the second pin on the caliper.

    8

    Lift the caliper off of the spindle. Notice the brake pads remain attached to the caliper.

    9

    Attach the caliper to a suspension component, using the bungee strap. Never allow the caliper to hang by its rubber hose, as damage may occur.

    10

    Place the screwdriver under the anti-rattle clip, small metal clip, at the lower end of the inner brake pad. Compress the clip by prying with the screwdriver and remove the inner pad. Make note of how the pad is positioned before removal, as the new pad must be positioned the same way.

    11

    Place the flathead screw driver beneath the metal clip on the rear of the outer pad and lightly pry upward to release the clip. Slide the torque buttons, small, metal tabs on either end of the pad, from the notches in the caliper and pull the pad from the caliper.

    12

    Place the new inner brake pad into the notch at the lower portion of the caliper, anti-rattle clip first, press downward on the pad to compress the clips, then slide the upper portion of the pad into the upper notch in the caliper.

    13

    Place the outer pad on the rotor by pressing it until the torque button are seated into the notches in the caliper.

    14

    Place the caliper back on the spindle.

    15

    Apply a coat of brake grease to the caliper pins. Place the lower pin between the caliper and the groove in the spindle, make certain to position the tabs so they will seat against the spindle. Lightly tap the pin, with the hammer, until the tabs seat against the spindle. Repeat this step for the upper caliper pin.

    16

    Repeat steps 4 through 15 for the pads on the other side of the Aerostar.

    17

    Place the front wheels back on the van and hand-tighten the lug nuts.

    18

    Raise the Aerostar off of the jack stands, with the floor jack, remove the jack stands from under the van and slowly lower it to the ground.

    19

    Tighten the lug nuts to 85 to 115 foot-pounds, using the torque wrench and a socket.

    20

    Press and release the brake pedal repeatedly, until it feels firm.

How to Install an Emergency Brake on a Ford Truck

Emergency brakes were originally designed to stop a vehicle in motion during an emergency. Modern braking systems have made this use largely obsolete, and emergency brakes are now used primarily as a parking brake. Ford F-series trucks have been in continuous production since 1948, with an abundance of varied makes and models, so this is a very general guide to installing emergency brakes in a Ford truck. For specific procedures, consult the owner's manual for your particular truck.

Instructions

    1

    Park the truck over a hoist. Place the transmission in neutral gear and release the parking brake. Remove any panels necessary to access the parking brake, and raise the truck with the hoist.

    2

    Pull the parking brake cable to its maximum limit of travel, and insert a retainer pin where appropriate to prevent the cable from retracting. The parking brake should not have any tension on it. You'll probably need an assistant to hold the cable while you insert the retaining pin.

    3

    Use a socket wrench to disconnect the parking brake cable. Remove the rear brake discs and the front brake discs, depending on your particular vehicle.

    4

    Unfasten any brake shoe adjuster screws that attach the brake springs, using a screwdriver. Remove any brake springs and pins on the parking brake shoes, and remove the parking brake shoes.

    5

    Lubricate the new shoes for the parking brake at the points where they'll contact the wear pad. Install the new brake shoes and ensure they're centered with respect to the brake pads.

    6

    Fasten the springs, pins and screws for the brake shoes, and connect the parking brake cable. Use a torque wrench to tighten the screws to the proper torque. Remove the retaining pin on the brake cable, and adjust the clearance on the parking brake as appropriate for your vehicle.

Information on Fixing ABS Brakes

Information on Fixing ABS Brakes

Antilock brake systems are basically upgraded versions of ordinary brakes that function to keep brakes from locking or sliding during unfavorable driving conditions. Information on fixing ABS brakes can be helpful, like tips on utilizing its warning features as well as dealing with parts that are known to experience trouble such as speed sensors and control modules.

Warning

    ABS brake systems were made to keep drivers informed about possible failures as they occur. A flashing ABS warning light could indicate a low level of hydraulic pressure or low levels in fluid. Do not drive a vehicle that has both the brake and ABS warning lights flashing.

Speed Sensors

    Due to the magnetic qualities of wheel speed sensors in ABS brake systems, they can attract and accumulate harmful debris. Sensors are also known to have faulty wiring issues. Defective speed sensors -- except those built into the wheel bearing assembly --can be replaced.

Control Module

    The ABS control module controls the hydraulic pressure formed during braking. This part is prone to damage from electric overloads as well as very hot temperatures. Defective control modules -- except for the type that is built into the hydraulic modulator assembly -- can be replaced.

How to Choose Brake Rotors

How to Choose Brake Rotors

Choosing brake rotors largely depends on what application you are using the rotors for. Shops often offer premium rotors without a true explanation of what that means, and why you should choose them, often becuase they do not understand the differences themselves. Understanding the science, purpose and construction of brake rotors will help you choose the right ones for your particular application.

Instructions

    1
    Higher speed creates more friction and heat
    Higher speed creates more friction and heat

    Understand brake rotor function. Brake rotors work by dissipating heat from friction. This friction is caused by a caliper squeezing brake pads against the rotor using hydraulics. The heat generated varies depending upon the material the brake pads are made of, the length of time the brakes are held, and the weight and speed of the vehicle being stopped. The simplification of the scientific formula is this: the more pressure caused by weight, rate of speed, and length of brake application is equal to more friction, which creates more heat. The more heat generated, the more readily the rotor needs to be able to absorb and dissipate that heat.

    2
    Trucks will have larger vented rotors
    Trucks will have larger vented rotors

    Define your application. High performance and sports cars use drilled or drilled and grooved rotors. Most passenger cars and light trucks have solid rotors in the rear, and vented rotors up front. Many newer vehicles use grooved rotors from the factory for increased efficiency. Unless you plan to change rotors and brakes frequently, do not substitute drilled rotors on standard vehicles, as they wear quickly and if not changed in a timely manner can cause brake failure. Rotors on motorcycles are a typically drilled solid rotors of completely different construction than automotive rotors.

    3

    Consider premium rotors, which are typically constructed the same as your original rotors, using different materials. These different metals are used to dissipate heat better, so if you are towing, or driving in daily stop-and-go traffic, these may be worth the extra money.

    4

    Analyze cost versus performance. This depends greatly on your application, and the type of driving you plan to do. Differences in pricing can be significant, as can wear time and maintenance intervals. Unless you are using your vehicle for an application other than the one it was designed for, the rotors originally designed by the manufacturer work very well. If you have any question, call the manufacturer or an experienced shop mechanic.

Kamis, 12 April 2012

How to Troubleshoot Electric Brakes

Electric brakes are used on trailer and work primarily with magnets. There are a number of problems that can occur with these brakes, which mainly include becoming weak, noisy or intermittent; surging, grab locking or dragging; or not working at all. There are several possible causes for these problems, and some can lead to multiple problems. When troubleshooting electric brakes, look for issues that can cause multiple problems, and then check for anything that might cause something specific.

Instructions

Multiple Issues

    1

    Check the brake adjustment and adjust it properly, if needed. This can result in no brakes, weak brakes, dragging brakes or noisy ones.

    2

    Look for and replace any weak or broken springs. This can cause noisy, dragging, grabbing or locking brakes.

    3

    Replace the brake linings if they are excessively worn or contaminated. Worn linings will cause noisy brakes, while contaminated ones can make them noisy, weak, grabbing or locking.

    4

    Make sure the trailer ground is adequate. A ground through the trailer hitch is inadequate and can cause intermittent or surging brakes.

    5

    Check the electric circuit and look for a short. This can be a cause of weak or no brakes.

    6

    Inspect the brake controller. Dragging brakes occur from a hydraulic defect in the controller or an insufficient gap between its contactor strip and coil. Disconnect and check the controller's red wire if it isn't modulating, which can make the brakes grab or lock. Rewire the controller and check its operation if you have no brakes. Bench-test the controller and replace it if needed.

    7

    See if the brake magnets are worn or defective, and replace them if so. They can cause weak or no brakes.

    8

    Check the selective resistor, which is needed when the brakes have more power than is needed for the load carried. No resistor makes the brakes grab or lock, an incorrect resistor setting makes them weak and a defective one leads to no brakes.

    9

    Make sure the flanges are properly installed. A bad location can make the brakes drag, grab or lock. Check with the axle manufacturer if the flanges are improperly installed.

    10

    Look for a bent backing plate if you have weak or noisy brakes. Repair the plates and their flanges if needed.

Specific Issues

    11

    Look for an open circuit if you have no brakes. This can include broken wires, loose connections, improper grounding or a bad connector plug between the vehicle and trailer.

    12

    Adjust bearings if they aren't properly adjusted and causing noisy brakes. Replace any worn or damaged bearings.

    13

    Clean and lubricate the brake assemblies if they are corroded, causing the brakes to drag. Make sure the magnet levers can operate freely.

    14

    Turn or replace the brake drums if they are out of round, replace any broken magnet lead wires and adjust any loose wheel bearings. Any of these can cause intermittent or surging brakes.

    15

    Look for any loose or dirty connections, make sure you aren't carrying an excessive load or using the trailer brakes only, see that you have brakes on every axle and make sure the wiring is adequate. These can all cause weak brakes.

Rabu, 11 April 2012

How to Change Rear Brakes on a Ford

Changing the rear brakes on a Ford vehicle depends a lot on the exact model. Some, like the Mustang, use calipers and brakes exclusively, just like the front brakes, while others have drum brakes with shoes that work with the parking brake. It is recommended to check an automotive guide for your specific year and model.

Instructions

    1

    Apply the parking brake, raise the rear end of the car on jack stands and remove the wheels, loosening the lug nuts before raising the car.

    2

    Push the caliper piston back into its bore using a C-clamp. Siphon out some fluid from the master cylinder reservoir first to prevent the fluid from overflowing.

    3

    Disconnect the caliper from the disc by removing its mounting bolts. On the front brakes, you may just need to remove the lower bolt and swing the caliper upward. If you disconnect the whole caliper, hang it somewhere with a strong wire and make sure the brake hose doesn't stretch.

    4

    Remove the inner and outer pads from the caliper mounting bracket. Remove the V-springs and stainless steel slippers if they are used to hold the pads in place.

    5

    Apply an anti-squeal compound to the backs of the new brake pads. Install the pads into the bracket, using new slippers and V-springs if needed. Place the caliper back into position while holding the pads in place, then install and tighten the bolts.

    6

    Connect the wheels and lower the car once both sets of brake pads have been changed.

Drum Brake Shoes

    7

    Park the vehicle on a level surface, then block the wheels and release the parking brake. While an assistant pulls on the parking brake cable, lock the brake drum assembly into position by inserting 5/32-inch drill bit into the control actuator. Raise the rear end on jack stands and remove the wheels.

    8

    Remove the brake calipers as described above, then remove the brake discs by clipping off the retaining washers with metal-cutting tools and slipping the disc of the studs. The washers won't need to be replaced.

    9

    Remove the hold-down clips for the brake shoes assembly with a flathead screwdriver, starting with the front clip and then the back, then remove the shoe adjuster and the lower return spring from the bottom of the assembly. Grab the shoes and spread them away from the rotor and lift them off the assembly. Remove the upper return spring from the old shoes.

    10

    Lubricate the assembly's backing plate with high-temperature grease. Connect the new brake shoes with the upper return spring, spread the lower ends apart and install the shoes on the assembly. Install the front and rear hold-down clips, followed by the lower return spring and adjuster. Make sure the adjuster's star wheel points toward the vehicle's front.

    11

    Reinstall the brake discs and calipers once the shoes have been changed on both sides. Turn the adjusting screw star wheel with a screwdriver (you'll need to remove the rubber plug from the backing plate) until the brake shoes rub against the disc, then turn it back until enough so they don't drag.

    12

    Reconnect the wheels and lower the vehicle.

How to Bench Bleed a Master Cylinder in a Ford Taurus

The Ford Taurus premiered in 1986 and has been popular for families ever since. If it becomes necessary to replace the brake master cylinder, be sure to bench bleed it before installation. A new master cylinder is full of air, which, if allowed in your brake lines, can cause further braking problems. You don't need any specialized equipment to bench bleed and it only takes about 10 minutes for any model year.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the old brake master cylinder from your Ford Taurus. Look for it up toward the firewall, behind the air box tube and next to the strut tower.

    2

    Put your new brake master cylinder in a bench vise or clamp it to an old table to keep it in place. Make sure it's level when you tighten the vise.

    3

    Look for the two fittings that came with your bleed kit and screw them into the outlet holes on the side of the Ford Taurus's master cylinder; they may both be on one side or there could be one on each side, depending on which model year you own. Locate the two pieces of tubing in the kit and insert them snugly into the fittings.

    4

    Bend the tubes up and insert them into the reservoir. Cut them, if you need to, so they sit with the ends about halfway into the reservoir. Clip them to the lip of the reservoir, so they stay put and don't slip; you could end up with air in the system and have to start over, if you skip this.

    5

    Pour fresh DOT 3 brake fluid into the reservoir. The hoses will extend down into the fluid, creating a hydraulic system. This means you won't have to clamp the tubes to avoid letting fluid flow back into the master cylinder while you work.

    6

    Insert your screwdriver into the Ford Taurus's brake master cylinder and push. This moves the piston, forcing brake fluid into the cylinder to clear the air out of it. You'll see brake fluid recycling back into the reservoir, which doesn't pose a risk since you used fresh fluid.

    7

    Watch for air bubbles coming out of the tubes. If you have clear hoses, you'll see the air bubbles moving through the tubes; if your tubes aren't transparent, watch for bubbles coming out into the fluid in the reservoir. Sometimes bleed kits come with black tubes, so consider buying clear ones, if this is the case.

    8

    Keep pumping the piston steadily until you no longer see air bubbles. Leave the hoses in the master cylinder, carefully remove it from the vise and install the primed cylinder in your Ford Taurus.

Minggu, 08 April 2012

How to Repair a Master Cylinder on a Ford Ranger

How to Repair a Master Cylinder on a Ford Ranger

The master cylinder is the heart of your Ford Rangers brake system. When the driver pushes down on the brake pedal, a piston inside the master cylinder forces hydraulic fluid to each of the four wheels. On the front wheels a caliper forces brake pads against a steel disc, slowing the vehicle down. On the rear wheels a wheel cylinder forces brake shoes against a steel drum. When replacing the master cylinder you will introduce air into the hydraulic circuit. Therefor it is important to bench bleed the new master cylinder before installing it into the vehicle. Then you must bleed the entire brake system after the master cylinder is installed.

Instructions

Removing the Master Cylinder on a Manual Brake System

    1

    Disconnect the ground cable from the negative battery terminal. Loosen the retaining bolt, using a wrench. Then pull the clamp off the terminal.

    2

    Unscrew the nut, bolt and spacers that secure the master cylinder pushrod to the brake pedal, using a socket.

    3

    Loosen and remove the hydraulic brake lines from the master cylinder, using a line wrench.

    4

    Unscrew the nuts that secure the master cylinder to the firewall.

    5

    Pull the master cylinder away from the firewall and remove it from the vehicle.

Removing the Master Cylinder on a Power Brake System

    6

    Disconnect the ground cable from the negative battery terminal. Loosen the retaining bolt, using a wrench. Then pull the clamp off the terminal.

    7

    Push the brake pedal down to expel the vacuum pressure from the power booster.

    8

    Loosen and remove the brake lines from the master cylinder. Rotate the fittings counterclockwise, using a line wrench. Pull the fittings away from the master cylinder.

    9

    Unscrew the nuts that connect the master cylinder to the power booster, using a socket. Remove the nuts and lock washers.

    10

    Pull the master cylinder away from the power booster and remove it from the vehicle.

Bench Bleeding the Master Cylinder

    11

    Secure the new master cylinder into a bench vise, by positioning one of the retaining tabs into the vise and tightening it.

    12

    Plug all but one of the hydraulic line holes on the bottom of the master cylinder.

    13

    Fill the master cylinder with fresh brake fluid.

    14

    Insert a Phillips screwdriver in the rear of the master cylinder (the side that mates with the power booster). Position the screwdriver against the master cylinder piston in the center of the hole.

    15

    Push the screwdriver in and out until fluid comes out of the open line hole.

    16

    Move one of the plugs so that the open hole is plugged and a new hole is open.

    17

    Push the screwdriver in and out against the master cylinder piston until fluid comes out of the open line hole.

    18

    Move the plug so that the last hole is open and the other two are plugged.

    19

    Push the screwdriver in and out against the master cylinder piston until fluid comes out of the open line hole.

Installing the Master Cylinder on a Manual Brake System

    20

    Set the new master cylinder into position on the firewall. Be sure to guide the pushrod through the hole in the firewall.

    21

    Screw the nuts and lock washers onto the studs that secure the master cylinder to the firewall.

    22

    Thread the retaining bolt through the brake pedal and brake pedal pushrod. Then screw on the nut, bolt and spacers.

    23

    Screw in the fittings that connect the hydraulic lines to the master cylinder.

    24

    Reconnect the ground cable to the negative battery terminal. Slide the clamp over the terminal and tighten the retaining bolt, using a wrench.

Installing the Master Cylinder on a Power Brake System

    25

    Set the master cylinder into position in front of the power booster.

    26

    Screw the nuts onto the studs that secure the master cylinder to the power booster, using a socket.

    27

    Screw the fittings on the hydraulic brake lines into the master cylinder, using a line wrench.

    28

    Reconnect the ground cable to the negative battery terminal. Slide the clamp over the terminal and tighten the retaining bolt, using a wrench.

Bleeding the Brake System

    29

    Raise the vehicle's front and rear, using an automotive jack. Support with jack stands placed underneath the frame or axles.

    30

    Remove the wheels and tires, using a lug wrench.

    31

    Fill the master cylinder reservoir with fresh brake fluid. Be sure not to allow the reservoir to run dry at any point during this process.

    32

    Locate the bleeder screw on the front drivers-side brake caliper. Attach a length of clear plastic tubing to the bleeder screw. Immerse the other end of the tube in a jar half-filled with brake fluid.

    33

    Ask an assistant to pump the brake pedal a few times and then hold it against the floor.

    34

    Open the bleeder screw, using a wrench. Allow a little fluid to seep out--you will notice small air bubbles in the fluid. Close the bleeder screw before your assistant releases the brake pedal.

    35

    Repeat the two steps listed above until there are no more bubbles in the fluid.

    36

    Repeat the process listed above on the brake caliper on the passengers-side front wheel.

    37

    Repeat the process listed above on the wheel cylinder on the drivers-side rear wheel. The bleeder screw on this wheel will be located on the inboard side of the brake drum.

    38

    Repeat the process listed above on the wheel cylinder on the passengers-side rear wheel.

    39

    Reinstall the wheels and tires.

    40

    Lower the vehicle.

How to Remove Moisture From a Brake System

How to Remove Moisture From a Brake System

Ordinary brake fluid is hygroscopic, which means it readily absorbs any moisture found in the brake system. While this is important for preventing corrosion due to condensation in the system, brake fluid that is overly saturated with moisture will not perform effectively, causing excessive brake fade, mushy pedal feel and fluid vaporization due to a lowered boiling point. The best way to remove moisture from the brake system is to flush the old brake fluid from it. This task will require a partner, unless you have one-way bleeder valves installed or power bleeding equipment on hand.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels with a lug wrench without removing them completely. Raise the rear of the vehicle with a floor jack and stabilize the vehicle with jack stands. Finish removing the lug nuts and remove the rear wheels.

    2

    Determine how far the brake pedal goes down during normal operation and place a block of wood under the pedal to prevent it from going down any further. This will prevent damage to the brake system.

    3

    Open the hood and locate the brake master cylinder reservoir. Clean the outside of the master cylinder reservoir with a shop rag to prevent dirt from getting inside. Remove the top covering the reservoir and remove as much brake fluid as possible with a turkey baster. Be careful not to spill brake fluid on painted surfaces. Fill the brake master cylinder reservoir with fresh brake fluid and close the reservoir.

    4

    Start at the wheel that is furthest from the master cylinder. With many vehicles, it will be the passenger side rear wheel. Place a length of clear plastic tubing onto the bleeder valve and feed the tube into a clear container for collection. Place a box-end wrench on the bleeder bolt and prepare to open it.

    5

    Instruct your partner to hold down the brake pedal. Open the bleeder valve with the box-end wrench and allow the old fluid to go through the tubing and into the container. Have your partner hold the brake pedal down until the fluid stops draining. Close the valve and instruct your partner to release the brake pedal.

    6

    Open the master cylinder reservoir and top it up with fresh fluid. Do not let the fluid in the reservoir get too low, otherwise air will be sucked in through the master cylinder. Pump the brakes a few times then repeat the draining and refill procedure for each wheel, working from the wheel furthest from the master cylinder to the closest. This will remove both the brake fluid and moisture that was absorbed into the fluid from the brake system.

    7

    Install the wheels on the car and lower it. Carefully test-drive the vehicle and check the brakes. If they feel mushy, air may have gotten into the system. You will need to bleed the brakes in order to remove all of the air from the system. Check the fluid levels in the reservoir and refill if necessary.

    8

    Dispose the old brake fluid in an environmentally friendly manner. Many automotive parts outlets accept old fluid for proper disposal, free of charge.

How Do I Troubleshoot Nissan Brakes?

How Do I Troubleshoot Nissan Brakes?

The brake system on your Nissan has many components that can cause problems when they go bad. Usually, the biggest problem is understanding the actual troubleshooting steps. With all of the brake system components, it can get somewhat confusing at times to figure out which one is the culprit. Knowing the proper steps to diagnose the brake system will make your job much easier and make it more likely that you will diagnose it properly the first time.

Instructions

Brake Noise (Squealing or Grinding)

    1

    Jack up the vehicle and secure it on jack stands.

    2

    Remove the lug nuts using a ratchet and socket, then remove the wheels from the vehicle.

    3

    Check the hardware of the brake system to make certain no metal pieces are rubbing against any moving parts.

    4

    Examine the condition of the rotor. Large grooves in the rotor can cause a squealing sound. If there are grooves, replace the rotors or have them resurfaced.

    5

    Check the thickness of the brake pads. The pads should be at least the thickness of two pennies stacked together. If they are not, replace them.

Vehicle Pulls when Braking

    6

    Remove the slide pins that hold the calipers to the brake system. Inspect the slide pins for heavy rust or lack of lubrication. Clean and lubricate, then recheck.

    7

    Push the flat end of a pry bar between the brake pad and rotor.

    8

    Pry on the pad and make certain the caliper compresses. This can be verified as you see the caliper move a few inches. If is does not compress, then it is frozen. Replace or rebuild the caliper, then recheck.

Soft Brake Pedal

    9

    Open the hood and check the fluid level of the brake master cylinder.

    10

    Check the undercarriage of the car for any brake fluid leaks. Inspect the brake calipers and the hoses that connect to the caliper. Repair any leaks then recheck.

    11

    Check for air in the brake lines. Have a friend pump the brake pedal until it feels firm then open a bleeder valve, located at the top of each caliper, using a wrench. Listen for the sound of air escaping. If air is detected, bleed the brakes. To do this, pump the brake pedal until it is fully pressurized. Then while holding the pedal, have a friend loosen the bleeder valve until fluid flows out. Repeat this step until only fluid comes out of the valve.

Sabtu, 07 April 2012

How to Change PT Cruiser Brake Discs

Changing the brake discs in your PT Cruiser is a common part of a brake job on this vehicle. The brake discs from the factory are thin and have a tendency to wear below minimum thickness specifications within the life of one set of pads. If the discs are not changed when they are below thickness requirements, symptoms, like pedal pulsation and severe vibration when braking, can occur. The average home mechanic can replace the brake discs in an afternoon and restore safe operation of the vehicle.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle on a level surface and turn off the ignition. Secure the wheels on the opposite end of the vehicle with wheel chocks. Raise and support the PT Cruiser using a floor jack and jack stands. Remove the appropriate wheels using a lug wrench and lay the wheels aside. Put the lug nuts in a safe place to prevent losing them.

    2

    Remove the two caliper slide pins with a 7 mm Allen socket and a ratchet. Slip the C-clamp over the caliper and position the screw shaft of the clamp on top of the outer brake pad. Tighten the caliper to compress the caliper piston into the caliper bore. Lift the caliper off the rotor and hang it from the front strut to prevent damage to the rubber brake hose.

    3

    Remove the two caliper bracket bolts using a 13 mm socket and ratchet and lay the bracket aside with the brake pads. If you are also changing the brake pads, install the new pads onto the caliper bracket.

    4

    Remove the rotor by sliding it off the hub assembly. Clean the hub surface that makes contact with the inside of the rotor with a wire brush to remove any rust and scale that has accumulated.

    5

    Install the new rotor over the lug studs and hub assembly. Secure it to the hub using a lug nut. Bolt the caliper bracket in place over the new rotor and fully tighten the mounting bolts. Squeeze the inside and outside brake pads together against the rotor. Slide the caliper over the rotor and into position on the caliper bracket. Install and securely tighten the caliper slide pins.

    6

    Remove the lug nut that secures the rotor and install the wheel. Repeat the procedure for the remaining side. Raise the PT Cruiser off the jack stands and remove the stands before lowering the car to the ground with the jack. Pump the brake pedal slowly until it is hard to push. Test drive the vehicle to verify that the problem is fixed.

Jumat, 06 April 2012

How to Make Parking Brake Adjustments in a Chevy Corvette

Adjust your Chevy Corvette hand parking brake if the car has disc brakes or drum brakes. Make the adjustments at home to save time and money by avoiding the mechanic shop. Both techniques require you to raise the car off the ground. Use these instructions for model years 1963 to 1982 and also years 1984 to 1996.

Instructions

Drum Brakes Years 1963 to 1982

    1

    Lift up the rear of your Chevy Corvette using a jack and then support each rear wheel with a jack stand.

    2

    Adjust the adjustment nut that holds where both of the parking brake cables come together, using a pliers. Locate the cables underneath the car coming from both the rear wheels.

    3

    Lower the car using the jack and remove the jack stands from underneath the car.

Disc Brakes Years 1963 to 1982

    4

    Release the hand parking brake by pushing it down to the floor of the car.

    5

    Raise your Chevy Corvette off the ground using the jack and support the car with the jack stands. Place a jack stand under each rear wheel.

    6

    Remove the rear wheels using a tire iron to loosen and remove the lug nuts. Take the tire off the screws with both hands.

    7

    Get underneath the car on the inside wheel well, locate the drum brake that spins around. Rotate the drum around until you can see the adjusting hole.

    8

    Loosen the cables that come from the rear wheels. Use your pliers to adjust the adjuster nut located at the curve of the "U" shape on the cable.

    9

    Place your screwdriver inside the adjusting hole of the drum brake. Move it up and down to tighten the disc to make it unmovable. Then relax the adjuster six to eight notches.

    10

    Tighten the hand parking brake four clicks. Tighten the brake cables at the adjuster nut, then release the hand parking brake to the floor. Lower your car using the jack and remove the jack stands.

Years 1984 to 1996

    11

    Raise your car with the jack and support the rear wheels with the jack stands. Remove the rear wheel and then reinstall two lug nuts to hold the rotors in place.

    12

    Get underneath your car and use pliers to hold the caliper piston in the bore. Loosen the parking brake cable to release the tension.

    13

    Rotate the wheel disc so you can insert a screwdriver into the hole where the star adjuster nut is located.

    14

    Insert your screwdriver and for the drivers side turn the handle towards the ceiling to adjust out and towards the floor to adjust in. The opposite is true for the passenger side adjustment.

    15

    Adjust the star nut until the wheels do not turn anymore. Rotate the star adjuster nut back off five to seven clicks to set it at the right adjustment. Perform this on both wheels.

    16

    Lower your car using the jack and remove the jack stands.

How to Replace a Brake Master Cylinder in a Chevrolet S10

The master cylinder is the main storage unit of brake fluid for your Chevrolet S-10 truck. Any damage to the cylinder will result in a great loss of brake fluid and major problems with the brakes. You need to change the cylinder and its reservoir whenever this occurs. Because you are opening the brake system to air while doing this, you need to bleed the system of air afterward.

Instructions

    1

    Place rags on the floor underneath the cylinder to catch any fluid.

    2

    Loosen the tube nuts connecting the brake lines to the master cylinder using a flare nut wrench. Pull the lines away and either plug their open ends with rubber or wrap plastic bags around them to prevent contamination.

    3

    Remove the rear wheel anti-lock (RWAL) module if the truck has this type of brake system. The module is located near the cylinder; release its clip with a thin pointed tool and remove it from its mounting bracket. You don't need to remove its electrical connectors; just lay it somewhere safe.

    4

    Remove the two mounting nuts for the master cylinder, then set aside the isolation/dump valve and the bracket for the RWAL module. Make sure you don't bend or kink the hydraulic lines as you disconnect these and remove the module. Remove the reservoir cover and diaphragm from the cylinder and properly dispose of any fluid remaining in the module.

    5

    Fill the master cylinder and its reservoir with brake fluid and bench-bleed the cylinder. With the cylinder balanced, hold your fingers over the brake line holes, press the piston with a large Phillips screwdriver while removing your finger from one hole, then place your finger back on the hole before releasing the piston. Repeat this multiple times and cap the holes afterward.

    6

    Install the new cylinder on the vehicle in reverse order of removal. Remove the caps on the holes and the brake lines before connecting the lines to the cylinder.

    7

    Bleed the braking system. Attach a clear tube to the bleeder valve on one brake caliper and open the valve as another person presses down on the brake pedal to remove air. Repeat this for all of the brakes and make sure the pedal feels firm and not spongy afterward.

Rabu, 04 April 2012

How to Improve Motorcycle Drum Brakes

How to Improve Motorcycle Drum Brakes

Drum brakes, like those found on most cars, used to be the principle method of slowing down a motorcycle. Since the 1970s, most manufacturers have shifted to the disc brake, as it is more powerful and reliable. Drum brakes still appear on smaller motorcycles and mopeds, however, as the lower weight of the vehicle puts less strain on the brake, making it less susceptible to the overheating and wear-outs that led to drums being removed from larger machines.

Instructions

    1

    Examine the linings of the brake shoes. One of the main problems with drum brakes is the high speed at which they wear. If you've noticed a sudden drop-off in braking force, remove the drum and check the shoe linings for wear. If they are excessively worn, they will need to be replaced with new ones. Linings for modern brakes are available at ordinary service centers, but if your machine is a classic, there may be an issue. The original brake shoes on many older bikes contained asbestos, to control temperature. As this is now a restricted material, it will be necessary to source replica linings made from modern materials. It will be necessary to contact a motorcycle restoration specialist to have the shoes re-lined.

    2

    Check the surface and overall shape of the drum. It should be perfectly round, not dented or distorted in any way. If the drum is warped, the brakes will not maintain even pressure as the wheel rotates, which can manifest itself as squealing or juddering under braking. Materials that radiate heat well make the best drums. Cast iron, rolled steel or aluminum are ideal. If the drum gets too hot, it will expand, reducing the pressure on the shoes inside, which in turn reduces braking pressure.

    3

    Remove the shoes and examine the cam levers that press on the shoes when the lever is pulled. Check them for bends or warping as this would reduce the pressure they exert on the brake shoes. They can be replaced with longer versions to increase braking power, as with all physical levers, a longer lever can exert more force.

    4

    Check and air vents on the drum are clear and allowing the free movement of cool air through the drum. Overheating is the worst enemy of drum brakes, so keeping them as cool as possible will preserve their power. Once you've taken the drum apart and familiarized yourself with the locations of all the mechanisms inside, it can help to drill a few small holes in the trailing edge of the brake plate, allowing hot air to exit more effectively.

Selasa, 03 April 2012

How Do You Change the Rear Brakes on a 1993 Cavalier?

How Do You Change the Rear Brakes on a 1993 Cavalier?

Changing the rear brakes on a 1993 model Chevy Cavalier can be a painstaking process. The brake drums for the rear wheels use brake shoes that are assembled with a number of pins and springs. When disassembling the brake shoes, take note of where each spring, pin and lever is connected, and make sure you connect them in the same place during assembly.

Instructions

Accessing the Brake Shoes

    1

    Raise the rear end of the car with a floor jack; it's a good idea to loosen the wheel lug nuts before raising it, and supporting it on jack stands will provide better support.

    2

    Remove the rear wheels from the car using the lug wrench.

    3

    Pull the brake drum off of the rear brake assembly. Do not remove the brake drum for the other wheel until you finish working on the first brake assembly.

Removing the Brake Shoes

    4

    Unfasten the primary and secondary return springs from the anchor pin using a brake spring remover tool (tool J-8049 is recommended) while leaving them installed in the springs. Use pliers to compress, twist and remove the hold-down springs and pins.

    5

    Lift up on the actuator lever and remove the actuator link, then remove the actuator lever with its return spring and bearing sleeve. Remove the parking brake strut and spring.

    6

    Disconnect the parking brake cable from the backing plate, then spread the brake shoes apart at the top--they are held together by the lower spring--and remove them from the backing plate.

    7

    Detach the adjusting screw and its spring from the brake shoes and remove the retaining ring, pin and parking brake lever from the rad brake shoe--this may require pliers.

Installing the Brake Shoes

    8

    Lubricate the surfaces on the backing plate where the shoes, anchor pin and parking brake lever touch using a high-temperature grease.

    9

    Connect the parking brake lever to the replacement rear brake shoe using its pin and retaining ring. Install the adjuster screw assembly and spring onto the brake shoes.

    10

    Attach the parking bake cable to the brake shoes and then position them on the backing plate. Spread the shoes apart and connect the parking brake strut and its spring, making sure the end without the spring engages the rear shoe and the end with the spring engages the front shoe.

    11

    Install the bearing sleeve, actuator lever and lever return spring to the rear brake shoe and then install the hold-down pins and springs with pliers. Fasten the actuator link to the anchor pin and then fasten the link to the lever as you hold the lever up.

    12

    Attach and secure the return springs to the shoes using pliers.

    13

    Turn the star wheel with a flat screwdriver to adjust the brake shoes; they need to be .03 inches less than the diameter of the brake drums.

    14

    Reconnect the brake drum to the assembly, using the alignment marks to ensure you install it in the correct position.

    15

    Reconnect the wheels and lower the car after changing the brakes on both sides.

Senin, 02 April 2012

Problems With Fitting the Brake Cable on a 2000 Hyundai Elantra

Problems With Fitting the Brake Cable on a 2000 Hyundai Elantra

A 2000 Hyundai Elantra has a brake cable that is used to engage the emergency brake. Most of the brake cable installation is done by touch because it is difficult to see where the cable slides into the mounting brackets. The brake cable is attached to the rear brakes of the Elantra and engages the brake shoes when the car is parked. Engaging the brake cable or parking brake ensures that the Hyundai does not roll unexpectedly when parked.

Cut Short

    The brake cable can be cut too short to fit into the mounting brackets of the 2000 Hyundai Elantra. The cable runs from the bottom of the cab, where the driver's seat is located, to the rear brake assembly. A brake cable that has not been measured correctly can be too short to run that far.

Lever Alignment

    The brake cable on the 2000 Hyundai Elantra pulls on a lever which engages the rear brakes, locking the brakes in place. This lever is there to bypass the wheel cylinders so the pads are controlled manually. The lever needs to be aligned properly to ensure that once pulled into place by the brake cable, the lever moves enough to tighten the pads or brake shoes.

Slack in Brake Cable

    The brake cable lever located inside the cab of the 2000 Hyundai Elantra can allow too much slack in the cable. Once the brake cable is engaged, it pulls on the brake pad engaging lever. Adjusting the length of the brake cable to ensure that enough slack is left in the cable to tighten down on the brake pads is important. Many times, too much slack is left in the brake cable, and when the parking brake is engaged, it pulls on nothing but itself.

Retainer Clip

    The retainer clip holds the brake cable in place on the 2000 Hyundai Elantra. Once it is clipped into place, it can slip out if not knocked down tightly with a rubber mallet or hammer. Many times, this retaining clip is just put in place and not hammered down securely. Once it pops off, the parking brake cable hangs loose, entangling other moving parts of the Elantra.

How to Adjust the Rear Drum Brakes on a 1997 Chevy Cavalier

How to Adjust the Rear Drum Brakes on a 1997 Chevy Cavalier

The 1997 Chevy Cavalier features rear drum brakes that can become unadjusted because of normal wear on the brake shoes and drums. It's important to keep them adjusted because fully-adjusted rear drum brakes only provide about 25 percent braking power for the front-wheel drive vehicle. This means when they become unadjusted, the front brakes over-compensate which can result in premature wear on the front pads and rotors. However, like some GM vehicles, there is not external adjusting port hole in the backing plate to adjust the rear drum brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Place a tire block in front of one (or both) of the front tires to brace the Cavalier on a level, hard surface. Ensure the parking brake is not applied.

    2

    Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts (after removing the hubcaps, if applicable) 1/4-turn counterclockwise with the jack handle.

    3

    Slowly lift one rear quarter panel at a time with the jack and then support each side onto a jack stand place under the frame.

    4

    Completely remove the lug nuts and then remove the tires.

    5

    Try to remove the drums by pulling them off. If they are stuck to the hubs or the shoes, apply a spray of penetrating lubricant to the mating surface of the hub center and drum. Allow the lubricant to soak in for several minutes.

    6

    Strike the face of the drum with the dead blow mallet near the center of the hub without hitting the lug studs. Turn the drum 1/4 turn and continue to strike it until it breaks free from the center of the hub.

    7

    Remove the drum. If it is stuck on the shoes, use a slotted screwdriver to pry it off around the circumference of the drum until you work it off (if there is a deep ridge along the interior circumference of the drum, bring it to a parts store or repair facility to have it machined).

    8

    Measure the interior diameter of the drum with a brake drum gauge. Use the inside horns of the gauge to measure the brake drum.

    9

    Measure the outside diameter width of the brake shoes using the brake drum gauge (using the outside horns). Compare the measurements to one another.

    10

    Turn the star-wheel adjuster with the slotted screwdriver so it expands the shoes outward (or inward if necessary; but unlikely) so the width of the shoes is 0.030-inches (0.76-mm) less than the interior diameter measurement of the drum (again, engaging the drum gauge to measure the outside diameter width of the shoes.

    11

    Replace the drums over the shoes. Replace the tires and lug nuts and snug the lug nuts flush to the hub with the jack handle.

    12

    Raise one side of the Cavalier enough to remove the jack stand on the respective side and then slowly lower it to the ground. Repeat for the opposite side.

    13

    Torque the lug nuts in a crisscross pattern to 100-foot pounds with the torque wrench and socket. Remove the tire block(s).

Minggu, 01 April 2012

How to Find the Cold Side of Brake Switch Wiring

How to Find the Cold Side of Brake Switch Wiring

When the brake pedal on an automobile is depressed, a brake switch closes and lets voltage flow to the brake lights. This switch has a "hot" side (the terminal which has battery voltage always present), and a "cold" side (which delivers voltage on demand to the brake lights). When replacing a brake switch, or when checking the related circuit, it is important that you know the hot and cold sides. Being aware of which is which will help you avoid blowing fuses from or melting wires when working on the brake lighting system.

Instructions

    1

    Put on your safety glasses and gloves.

    2

    Locate the brake switch on the vehicle. It is usually underneath the dash just above the brake pedal. Look for a small switch attached to the brake linkage that has two wires connected to it.

    3

    Connect the pigtail of the test light to a good ground. If using a voltmeter, connect the negative lead to a good ground. With the brake switch disengaged, probe one of the two wires at the connector with the positive lead of your tool of choice. The hot wire will either light the test lamp or cause the voltmeter to read the battery voltage of the vehicle. The cold lead will have no response on the tools.