Sabtu, 31 Maret 2012

How to Do a Brake Job for an MR2 Spyder

How to Do a Brake Job for an MR2 Spyder

The MR2 Spyder is a two-seat, convertible sports car built by Toyota. It comes fitted with a 1.8L, in-line four-cylinder engine, which produces 138 horsepower at 6,400 rpm and 125 foot-pounds of torque at 4,400 rpm. It also comes standard with front, ventilated disc brakes. Over time, typically every 25,000 to 35,000 miles, the front brake pads require replacement, due to their friction lining wearing out. Fortunately, the replacement process for these pads is relatively easy.

Instructions

    1

    Open the MR2's engine cover in the rear of the vehicle. Remove the cap from the master cylinder, the plaster reservoir near the passenger's side of the firewall. Siphon out about one-third of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using a turkey baster, and transfer the fluid to an empty container.

    2

    Loosen the front lug nuts, but do not remove them, using a ratchet and socket. Jack up the front of the MR2. Place the jack stands beneath the Toyota and lower the car until it is sitting on the stands. Remove the MR2's lug nuts and pull the wheels off.

    3

    Look on the rear of the brake caliper and locate the caliper bolts. Notice the bolts screw into small sleeves. Hold the bottom sleeve with a combination wrench while you loosen and remove the caliper bolt with a ratchet and socket.

    4

    Repeat for the upper caliper bolt, but only loosen the bolt, do not remove it.

    5

    Swing the caliper up, using the upper bolt as an axis, exposing the brake pads. Notice there are two thin wires on the rear of the brake pads. These are called anti-squeal springs.

    6

    Grab the lower anti-squeal spring and pull it from the holes in the rear of the brake pad. Grab the upper ant-squeal spring and pull it from the holes in the brake pads.

    7

    Grab the inner and outer brake pads and pull them from the brake assembly. Take note of now the pads are positioned prior to removal, as the new ones must be installed the same way.

    8

    Place the 8-inch C-clamp over the caliper so the screw portion contacts the piston inside the caliper and the fixed portion contacts the rear of the caliper. Tighten the C-clamp and observe as the piston begins pressing into the caliper. Continue tightening until the piston stops moving. Loosen and remove the C-clamp.

    9

    Place the new brake pads on the brake assembly, just as the old ones were before removal. Insert the anti-squeal springs onto the rear of the new pads, just as they were on the old pads.

    10

    Swing the caliper over the new pads and tighten the caliper bolts to 25 foot-pounds, using the torque wrench and a socket while holding the sleeves with a combination wrench.

    11

    Place the wheels back on the MR2 and hand-tighten the lug nuts.

    12

    Raise the Toyota from the jack stands, with the floor jack, and pull the stands from under the MR2. Slowly lower the vehicle to the ground.

    13

    Tighten the MR2's lug nuts -- in a crossing-pattern -- to 80 foot-pounds, using the torque wrench and a socket.

    14

    Check the fluid level in the master cylinder, it must be between the "Min" and "Max" lines on the reservoir. Add fluid from the container if it is low. Close the MR2's engine cover and prepare for driving by pressing and releasing the brake pedal until it feels firm.

How to Install an EBCM in an Isuzu Impulse

The Isuzu Impulse was a three-door lift-back coupe that Isuzu made from 1981 to 1992. The models made from 1981 to 1990 had rear-wheel drive, while the 1991 to 1992 Isuzus had front-wheel drive. All versions of the Impulse used the same anti-lock braking system (ABS). The ABS requires a brake controller, also known as an electric brake control module (EBCM), to determine the amount of force the brakes apply during an emergency stop. The procedure for installing the EBCM is the same for all versions of the Isuzu Impulse.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the cable from the negative battery terminal with a socket wrench. This will avoid an electrical discharge during the EBCM removal procedure.

    2

    Disconnect the bolts that attach the passenger seat to the floor with a socket wrench. Move the passenger seat to gain access to the EBCM under the passenger seat.

    3

    Remove the attaching bolts for the EBCM with a socket wrench, and detach the electrical wiring harness from the EBCM. Disconnect the EBCM from the bottom of the passenger seat.

    4

    Install the new EBCM to the bottom of the passenger seat, and attach the wiring harness for the EBCM. Tighten the attaching bolts for the EBCM to 62 inch-pounds with a torque wrench.

    5

    Install the passenger seat, and fasten its attaching bolts with a socket wrench. Connect the cable for the negative battery terminal.

DIY Brake Caliper Replacement

When removing and replacing a brake caliper from a car's wheel, the removal process can vary depending on the make and model. Consulting an automotive repair guide for your model is highly recommended, and leaving the work to a professional is even better.

Removing the Old Caliper

    The wheel must be disconnected from the vehicle to reach the caliper. Raise the vehicle on a higher-quality jack stand than its stock jack if possible, then use the "five-star" pattern to remove the lug nuts, disconnecting the nut opposite from the one you previously removed. Disconnecting the brake hose from the caliper first will help prevent it from getting damaged. Loosening the banjo bolt that holds it in place will require a socket wrench. Because brake fluid will come out of the hose once it's disconnected, you need a drip pan ready; the fluid is highly toxic to animals. Let the fluid drip continuously into the pan, which means you need to properly dispose of it and add new fluid. However, if you have rubber plugs, plug the hose to keep excess fluid from pouring out.

    Some calipers are mounted on with bolts that use a standard socket, but others use bolts that require a hex socket. Once you remove the bolts, it still may take some wiggling and effort to remove the caliper from the disc. With the caliper removed, check the brake pads to see if they (and subsequently the ones on the other wheel) need to be changed soon.

Installing the New Caliper

    Before installing the new caliper, make sure its piston is compressed. A large C-clamp can be used to compress it, but you may also need a block of wood in between the clamp and piston depending on the piston's size. Fit the caliper in place on its mounting bracket and install the bolts; it helps to lubricate the bolts with high-temperature grease first. Connect the hose onto the caliper -- removing any plugs from the hose first -- with the banjo bolt. Don't reconnect the wheel just yet.

Bleeding the System

    Disconnecting the brake hose brought air into the brake system, so you need to bleed it. You need a second person to help you bleed the air out of the brake system. Having the brake system filled with fluid is vital, so top off the master cylinder and reservoir with brake fluid. If you only disconnected the brake hose at one caliper and the brake fluid was not excessively low, you should only need to bleed at this one caliper.

    Attach a clear tube to the bleeder valve on the caliper and place the tube's other end into a container of fluid; a disposable plastic bottle will do. Open the caliper's bleeder screw as your assistant presses down on the brake pedal and look for air bubbles in the tube and container. When the fluid is running out of the tube cleanly, close the valve, remove the hose and replace the wheel. If you let the brake fluid drain out through the brake hose while changing the caliper, you may need to repeat this procedure at the other three wheels.

Jumat, 30 Maret 2012

How to Change the Rear Brake Pads on a Ford Focus

Brake pads are an important part of your Ford Focus's braking system. They are the replaceable friction pads that pinch the brake disc when you step on the brake pedal. You should replace the brake pads before they wear beyond a quarter inch or risk damaging your Focus's brake discs.

Instructions

Remove the old Brake Pads

    1

    Park your car on a level surface. If you have a stick shift car, make sure the car is in gear. Place blocks in front of the front tires so the car does not move while you are working on it.

    2

    Raise the rear end of your Focus with your car jack. Remove the rear tire or wheel assembly.

    3

    Disconnect the parking brake cable from the brake caliper. The cable is usually held in place with a retaining clip. You can use pliers to remove the clip and disconnect the cable.

    4

    Attach the brake hose clamp to the brake hose. Loosen the brake hose connection to the caliper. Don't remove the hose.

    5

    Use the socket wrench to remove the caliper bolts and remove the caliper from the disc rotor. If the bolts are tight, use the penetrating oil to loosen them. Use a small bungee cord or wire hanger to hang the caliper in the wheel well. Don't let the caliper hang from the brake hose.

    6

    Remove the brake pads from the caliper.

Install the new Brake Pads

    7

    Retract the caliper piston with the recommended caliper piston adapters.

    8

    Insert the brake pads into the caliper. Reattach the caliper to the brake rotor. Use the socket wrench to tighten the bolts to 26-feet lb. (35 Nm).

    9

    Tighten the brake cable connection to the caliper. Remove the brake hose clamp.

    10

    Reconnect the parking brake cable to the brake caliper.

    11

    Replace the tire wheel assembly. Lower the car to the ground.

    12

    Bleed the brakes to remove air from the brake system before you drive the car (See Resources).

    13

    Season the brake pads by making only gentle stops when you are driving for the first week after you install the new brake pads. Try not to do any hard stopping when you are seasoning the brakes.

How to Change Brake Rotors on a 1998 Honda Civic

How to Change Brake Rotors on a 1998 Honda Civic

Driving at high speeds and slamming on the brakes can warp the brake rotors on a Honda Civic. When the rotors get damaged, stopping the vehicle becomes difficult. A typical sign of warped rotors is the car skipping or lunging to a stop when you press the brake pedal. Warping causes uneven surfaces on the rotor, which look like small dips or valleys when viewed up-close. Changing the rotors on your 1998 Honda Civic can be done right at home. The repair should take 50 minutes or less to complete.

Instructions

    1

    Apply the Civic's emergency brake, then use a lug wrench the slightly loosen the lug nuts on the front driver's side tire.

    2

    Raise the car seven inches from the ground with a suitable car jack. Slide a jack stand into position, on the right of the car jack, to help support the weight of the car. Remove the lug nuts from the tire and slide the tire off the hub, using both hands. Roll the tire to the side of your work area and place all of its lug nuts in a small cup, for safe keeping.

    3

    Place an 8-inch C-clamp around the body of the brake caliper. Wind the C-clamp shut until the piston at the rear of the inner brake pad is forced down into its bore hole. Do not over-tighten the C-clamp. Once you see that the piston appears level with its opening in the bore hole, stop winding and remove the C-clamp.

    4

    Remove the two bolts that hold the caliper bracket in place with a socket wrench. (You do not need to take out the brake caliper's retaining bolts--just the two bracket bolts closest to the inner side of the hub.)

    5

    Straighten a wire coat hanger and then wrap it around the spring where your shocks are located. Slide the caliper and bracket off the rotor. Hang the assembly from the coat hanger using one of the available bolt holes. Do not hang the caliper and bracket from the brake line, because their weight will damage the brake line.

    6

    Remove the two screws that hold the rotor onto the hub, using a Phillips screwdriver, then slide the rotor off the hub with an outward motion.

    7

    Install the new rotor by reversing the removal steps. Tighten the caliper bracket bolts with a 3/8-inch-drive torque wrench set to 80 ft-lbs; tighten the tire's lug nuts. Pump the brake pedal until you feel it firm up. Follow the preceding steps to change the remaining rotors.

How to Inspect the Wheel Cylinder

Brake performance is important for your driving safety. If your brakes grab or fail, it could be because you have a leaking wheel cylinder. This should be corrected immediately. You may also experience heel drag, if the clearance between the pistons and the bore wall exceeds allowed values for your brakes. Prevent problems by reading on to learn how to inspect the wheel cylinder.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the brake drum. You need to look for wetness on the cylinder, linings, backing plate or on the inside of the tire. This is one sign of a leak from a wheel cylinder.

    2

    Check the dust boots. If they are cut, torn or heat-cracked, you need to replace your wheel cylinder before it begins to leak.

    3

    Peel back the dust boot. If you see a small amount of seepage, this is normal. If the boot is dripping, it needs to be replaced.

    4

    Examine the master cylinder reservoir. If the fluid level has dropped, you have a wheel cylinder leak.

    5

    Inspect the cylinder bore. If you see a ring of hard, crystal-like substance, you can remove with a crocus cloth or an approved cylinder hone. If the rough deposits cannot be cleaned off, you need to replace your wheel cylinder.

How to Fix Brake Lines

Over time, your vehicle's brake lines may become damaged or corroded. When this happens you should repair the lines by replacing them with more reliable steel brake lines. Once you've determined your brake lines need to be replaced you can do the job in your garage, saving you a bundle over having them replaced at an auto shop. However, it's important that you replace them as soon as possible as driving with leaking brake lines poses a major safety hazard.

Instructions

    1

    Jack up your vehicle using a floor jack and place a support stand under each wheel. Consult your owner's manual to determine a safe jacking position. While it's not necessary to do so, removing each wheel will make it easier to reach the damaged brake line.

    2

    Siphon out as much brake fluid from the master cylinder using a turkey baster. Loosen and remove the union nuts connecting the brake line to the hose. Then remove the retaining clip to pull the brake line from the hose.

    3

    Opt for steel lines, rather than copper, when replacing your fuel lines. Bend the brake line carefully then replace the retaining clip and reconnect the brake line to the house. Make sure the replacement lines are the same length as your old lines.

    4

    Top off the master cylinder with brake fluid before bleeding the brake system by removing the cap on the bleeder valve's caliper. Fit a length of clear plastic tubing over the valve, placing the other end into a clear container. Instruct your partner to pump the brake pedal as you turn the bleeder screw to bleed the brake system. Do this until you don't see any air bubbles in the fluid pouring into the container.

    5

    Refill the master cylinder after replacing and bleeding the other brake lines. Lower your vehicle from the support stands.

Kamis, 29 Maret 2012

How to Inspect a Brake Drum

Brake drum inspection is one of the most important safety inspections for a car. Your brakes need to work properly to stop your car. The brake drums absorb heat and dissipate it, so they can be weakened if their cooling surface area is reduced by distortion.

Instructions

    1

    Remove brake drum. You'll find the drum's maximum diameter stamped onto the outside of it.

    2

    Wipe out dust with damp cloth. You'll need an approved brake cleaner because brake dust may contain Asbestos. When you finish using the cloth, dispose of it.

    3

    Inspect drum. You need to check for cracks, deep grooves, roughness or scoring. These may appear to be small discolored areas.

    4

    Smooth slight scores with fine emery cloth. Light scoring of the drum of less than .020 inches in depth won't affect your brake's operation. A mechanic should resurface heavy or extensive scoring.

    5

    Measure drum for taper and out-of-roundness. You need to measure with a drum micrometer at the open and closed edges of the friction surface and at right angles to each other. Even though you may not see the out-of-roundness with a visual inspection, you may find the measurements show it has an egg shape.

Selasa, 27 Maret 2012

How to Fix the Front Brakes on a Scooter

How to Fix the Front Brakes on a Scooter

If youre a lucky scooter owner, your front brakes use a drum system. However, most modern scooters have front disc brakes, which are a bit more complicated. Knowing how to repair either system is important for maintenance and safety.

Instructions

Evaluation and Removal

    1

    Remove the front wheel rim on your scooter to access the brake system. Unbolt the rim from the wheel hub, loosening the nuts in a star pattern so that you dont warp the rim. Make sure not to untighten the rim nuts that keep the tire on, or it will burst in your face. The drum brake setup will be concealed underneath the front wheel hub, so you will need to remove it. The disc brake will have a rotor connected to the front hub on the outside so, depending on the setup, you can probably leave the hub alone.

    2

    Remove the circlips that keep the drum brake shoes on their pegs. Then remove the spring that keeps the shoes pressured together. Now you can wiggle the shoes off their pivot pegs and remove them completely. For a disc brake system, unbolt the caliper that holds the brake shoes on the rotor. Slip the caliper off the rotor so that you can access the shoes. You may need to drain the hydraulic brake fluid to replace the shoes, depending on your system.

    3

    Before removing the shoes on either system, check their wear. You may not need to replace them if sufficient shoe thickness still exists on a disc brake. However, brand new drum brake shoes are cheap and make a world of difference in stopping power. Throw out the old ones, making sure not to touch them directly, as most drum shoes are made with asbestos material.

Reinstallation

    4

    Insert new drum brake shoes on the pegs in the inside of the front hub chamber. Use a very small bit of grease to lubricate the axis pegs so that the shoes can move easily. Then reinstall the spring holding the shoes together and install the safety circlips to keep the shoes in place. When reinstalling a disc brake, insert new shoes in the caliper, making sure to clean out any dirt and grit. Relocate the caliper onto the rotor and bolt it into place as it was previously. For both systems, then reinstall the front hub cover and front wheel.

    5

    Bleed the hydraulic brake system by adding new fluid to the reservoir chamber and letting it drain through the hose. When it flows completely as you pump the front brake lever, get ready to secure it to the caliper. When the brake pedal has pushed out all air in the hose and only fluid is coming out, it will feel stiff to press. Bolt the hose end to the caliper and close off the end of the hose in doing so. Then seal the reservoir at the handle, again making sure the hand brake pedal is stiff to press. If it is spongy, then the bleeding did not work; redo the bleeding process. Use gloves to keep the fluid off your hands.

    6

    Finish the drum brake system by connecting a new brake cable. Grease and run the brake cable and cable housing through the scooter from the headset to the front brake actuator arm on the backside of the front hub. Secure the cable end in the hand lever, and then run the other end through the actuator arm itself. Pinch the lower end of the cable with a securing nut after making the cable sufficiently tight. There should be no slack in the actuator arm or cable, or the front brake will not work well.

How to Remove the Brake Drum From a 1998 Nissan Frontier

The rear axle of a 1998 Nissan Frontier uses drum brakes for the parking brake, and to provide additional power to the overall braking system. The assembly has brake shoes mounted inside of the drum that push out when the brake pedal is applied. After years of use, the drums can get warped and worn, leading to a situation where they need to be relined to function properly. To do that, you first have to remove the drums.

Instructions

    1

    Put the jack beneath the rear axle. Lift the jack and raise the rear wheels off the ground. Put jack stands beneath the rear axle.

    2

    Take off the rear wheels with the tire iron and move them out of the way. Release the parking brake if it's applied.

    3

    Thread the M8 bolts into the threaded inserts on the face of the drum. Tighten them in place using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket, alternating from bolt to bolt, until the drum pops off of the rear brake shoes. Take the drum away from the car.

Senin, 26 Maret 2012

How to Remove a Rear Brake Rotor on a 2001 Tahoe

The rear brakes on a 2001 Chevrolet Tahoe help you brake the vehicle in normal stopping conditions, but they're also the Tahoe's parking brakes. Although the rear brakes don't wear down as frequently as the front brakes, when they do, you'll need to remove the rotors and get them turned, relined or replaced. This process should take approximately 30 minutes to do per corner, and you won't need any special tools.

Instructions

    1

    Lift up the rear of the SUV by the rear axle and the jack, then set the axle down on the jack stands. Remove the rear wheels using the tire iron.

    2

    Unbolt the brake caliper from the rear axle. Run a piece of mechanics wire through the frame then through the caliper, and twist the wire to itself using the pliers so that the caliper is not hanging from the brake line.

    3

    Hold the rear rotor with both hands. Twist the rotor while simultaneously pulling it towards you until it comes off of the axle.

How to Install an Automotive Brake Line

How to Install an Automotive Brake Line

Automotive brake lines are part of a sealed hydraulic system that will fail to function correctly if you don't install your brake line properly. It is highly recommended that you purchase prebent automotive brake line specific to your automobile. A prebent automotive brake line will help with ease of installation.

Instructions

Removing the Old Brake Line

    1
    Your lug wrench has an extra-long handle to provide more leverage.
    Your lug wrench has an extra-long handle to provide more leverage.

    Break loose the lug nuts on all four tires using your lug wrench, but do not completely remove.

    2
    Improperly placed jack stands result in disaster.
    Improperly placed jack stands result in disaster.

    Raise the vehicle in the air with your floor jack and support it securely with a jack stands. Push down on both ends of the vehicle to ensure proper placement of jack stands.

    3

    Remove all tires from the vehicle and place them aside. Check for additional repairs that may be needed.

    4
    Brake calipers hold brake fluid behind the piston located in the center.
    Brake calipers hold brake fluid behind the piston located in the center.

    Place the drain pan directly under the fitting you are removing and use your line wrench to loosen and remove the fitting.

    5

    Locate all brake line support brackets for the brake line to be replaced and remove them. Set the support brackets aside. The old brake line should now be free and you can now dispose of it properly.

Installing the New Brake Line

    6

    Route your prebent brake line in the same way the original was. Lift the brake line to the body or frame of the car from the front of the vehicle back, using the support brackets to secure the new brake line to the vehicle.

    7

    Thread the brake line fitting by hand into the brake caliper or wheel cylinder, as well as the master cylinder. Apply a light torque with your line wrench, but be careful not to over-tighten the fitting.

    8

    Remove the brake fluid reservoir cap and fill with new brake fluid. Be careful not to overfill

    9
    The bleeder valve is always located at the highest point of the wheel cylinder.
    The bleeder valve is always located at the highest point of the wheel cylinder.

    Place your wrench over the bleeder valve and ask your helper to pump the brake pedal until stiff. Keeping pressure on the pedal loosen the bleeder valve slightly, breaking the seal.

    10

    Notice that the fluid and air is released from the bleeder valve the brake pedal will fall to the floor. Instruct your helper to hold it there until you have tightened the valve. Repeat this multiple times until there is absolutely no air coming from the bleeder valve.

    11

    Repeat steps four and five on the rear driver side, then the front passenger side, and finally the front driver side. If done correctly, you will have a stiff pedal and there will be absolutely no air in the hydraulic brake system.

    12

    Have the vehicle running and have your helper continuously apply the brake and check for any leaks throughout the system.

    13

    Replace the wheels back onto the vehicle and tighten the lugs down as much as you can with your fingers.

    14

    Using your automotive jack, raise the vehicle up and off the jack stands and remove them from under the vehicle one by one until all four tires are on the ground again.

    15
    The torque wrench is adjustable and will only tighten to the torque you set.
    The torque wrench is adjustable and will only tighten to the torque you set.

    Use the torque wrench and tighten your lug nuts to the factory specifications that are given in your owner's manual.

How to Maintain Automotive Brakes

The brakes in your automobile are one of the most critical mechanisms in your vehicle. Proper maintenance requires careful attention to details on a regular basis. Maintaining that your brakes are in perfect working condition is a must for safe operation and longer life of the brake system.

Instructions

    1

    Make sure the brake fluid is good in your vehicle. Also make sure that the brake fluid is always at the appropriate level. If the brake fluid has a milky color, it means that water or condensation has infiltrated the fluid and you need to change the brake fluid. Contaminated brake fluid will destroy your master cylinder in the brake system. It also deteriorates your wheel cylinders.

    2

    Change the brake fluid in your automobile by adding new fluid in your master cylinder. You must bleed your brake lines in order to get all of the air out of them. In most cases, each wheel has a bleeder valve. This normally takes 2 people to achieve the goal.

    3

    Have 1 person inside the vehicle pumping the brakes. Doing this allows pressure to go through the brake lines. Pump the brakes 3 to 4 times. On the last time, hold the pedal all the way to the floor. The other person needs to be at one wheel, at the bleeder valve. Open the bleeder valve. Air will escape. When the brake fluid is flowing through the bleeder valve, close the bleeder valve. Repeat on the other 3 wheels.

    4

    Inspect the brake pads and rotors in order to maintain your automotive brakes. You can visually accomplish this by taking the tire off. If your brake pads are showing wear to the extent that you cannot see much pad, then it's time to change pads.

Minggu, 25 Maret 2012

How to Replace Rear Brake Hoses

How to Replace Rear Brake Hoses

If your car is having trouble with its braking system -- specifically, a less responsive pedal when you engage the brakes -- you may need to replace the brake hoses. These components are responsible for providing the mechanism with fluid. With a little know-how, you can replace these hoses in an afternoon.

Instructions

    1

    Set the parking brake and chock the front tires to prevent the car from shifting while you work. Elevate the rear of your vehicle off the ground using hydraulic jacks until there's about 6 inches of clearance between the rear tires and the ground. Locate the brake hoses (sometimes referred to as "lines"). If need be, consult your vehicle's manual to determine the location. Generally speaking, they're located on the upper side of the wheel wells.

    2

    Place one adjustable wrench over one nut on one side of the hose connection and place another wrench on the opposite side. Turn the wrenches in opposite directions to loosen the metal connector nuts. Have plenty of old towels or rags placed under your work space to catch draining brake fluid.

    3

    Pull away the old line once it's loose, and discard. Place the new hose where the old one was and repeat the above step, this time turning the wrenches to tighten the connector nuts.

    4

    Turn the top of the bleed valve clockwise until the valve is about 3/4 of the way open, and attach one end of a plastic hose to the valve opening. Place the other end of the hose down into a new, open container of brake fluid.

    5

    Pump the brake pedal (have someone else do this as you hold the fluid container, if necessary) about a dozen times. Tighten the valve. This forces air into the line and pushes new fluid into the brake line.

Sabtu, 24 Maret 2012

How to Change Back Disc Brakes on a Mazda 626

How to Change Back Disc Brakes on a Mazda 626

The Mazda 626 was introduced in 1979. It experienced five generational redesigns, but it wasn't until its fifth and final generation that it featured larger wheels and rear disc brakes. Combining efforts with Ford Motor Company, the Mazda 626 was considered the imported version of the Ford Probe, despite the fact that it was produced in the United States. Rear disc brakes work better than the rear drum brakes, but can require more service and replacement than drum brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Wedge a brick or a small length of thick wood in front of one of the front tires of the 626 on an even surface safe for lifting and supporting the car. Make sure the vehicle is in park or in gear, but do not apply the parking brake.

    2

    Break the rear tire nuts loose with the tire nut removal tool just enough to back them away from the rim slightly.

    3

    Raise the rear of the 626--one side at a time--with the jack, then support the rear of the vehicle onto jack stands placed in a secure and safe location.

    4

    Finish removing the tire nuts and wheels.

    5

    Remove the upper and lower caliper bolts with a ratchet and a metric socket. Pry the caliper off the rotor and pads using a flat-bladed screwdriver, then use the 2-foot length of durable wire to tie the caliper to the rear suspension. Be sure there is no tension on the brake hose attached to the caliper. Slowly squeeze the caliper piston into the caliper housing, using the 12-inch channel locks.

    6

    Remove the outer and inner brake pads from the caliper mount. If necessary, use the screwdriver to pry them out of their seats. If you're just replacing the pads, remove the upper and lower pad clips from the mount and apply some silicone brake grease to the tab seats on the clips. Replace the clips, then proceed to Step 11.

    7

    Remove the upper and lower caliper mount bolts with the ratchet and a socket.

    8

    Remove the rotor from the hub.

    9

    Clean the coating of rust preventative off of the new rotors with brake and parts cleaner spray, then place the new rotor onto the hub.

    10

    Apply silicone brake grease to the upper and lower pad clip seats, then reinstall the caliper mount and replace the upper and lower bolts. Tighten the bolts to 65 foot-lbs. with the adjustable torquing wrench and a metric socket.

    11

    Remove the thin transparent paper from the replacement pads (if applicable) and apply the stick-on shims (supplied with the replacement pads) if not already staked onto the backing plates of the pads. Install the inner and out pads into the caliper mount.

    12

    Remove the caliper from the wire and place it over the rear pads and rotor. Align the caliper according to the caliper bolts. Apply a coating of silicone brake grease to the smooth section of the bolts and insert them into the caliper. Tighten the bolts to 28 foot-lbs. with the adjustable torquing wrench and a metric socket.

    13

    Replace the brakes on the other rear wheel applying the same procedure, then replace the wheels and tire nuts. Tighten the tire nuts so the rims are mounted firmly to the hub.

    14

    Lower the 626, then re-tighten the lug nuts with the adjustable torquing wrench set at 80 foot-lbs. and a metric socket.

    15

    Apply a pump action to the brake pedal to extend the caliper pistons and seat the rear brake pads. Once the pedal feels firm, remove the brick or wood and test drive the vehicle.

Kamis, 22 Maret 2012

How to Bench Bleed a Master Cylinder in a Toyota Tundra

The Toyota Tundra made its first appearance in 2000. When replacing the master cylinder in a Tundra, it's best to bench bleed it before installing it. This ensures you won't have spongy brakes because air from the system was pushed into your brake lines. You can bench bleed your new master cylinder and prime it for installation in about 10 minutes. These steps apply to any model year.

Instructions

    1

    Remove your old brake master cylinder from your Toyota Tundra. The cylinder is located near the firewall of the driver's side of the engine compartment.

    2

    Set the new Toyota Tundra master cylinder in a vise on your work bench. Clamp it firmly into place, ensuring that it's level. Remove all the supplies that came in the kit and lay them out so you can assess what you have.

    3

    Take the brake fluid reservoir from your old cylinder and clean it out with warm water and a clean cloth to remove any dirt and debris that may have accumulated. Dry it thoroughly as brake fluid absorbs water and may damage your brake system. Install it into the new master cylinder.

    4

    Locate the two fittings that came with your kit. Thread these onto the outlets located on the side of the cylinder. There are two lengths of hose that came with your kit; insert these into the fittings and bend the hoses up, so they're aimed into the fluid reservoir.

    5

    Cut the hoses so they end up sticking halfway down into the reservoir. Use a clip to secure the two tubes to the Toyota Tundra's reservoir to keep them in place, so you don't end up spraying brake fluid all over the place or allowing air back into the system.

    6

    Fill the reservoir with fresh brake fluid. Pour enough fluid into the Toyota Tundra's reservoir to fill it just short of the maximum fill line. The hoses will extend down into the fluid, creating a temporary hydraulic system.

    7

    Pump the piston on the brake master cylinder to move the brake fluid through the unit and into the hoses. You can use a Phillips screwdriver to do this since it's thin, strong and will give you enough leverage to move the piston. Just insert it into the cylinder and push it firmly against the piston to start pumping.

    8

    Watch for air bubbles coming out of the hoses and into the fluid in the reservoir. You'll need to keep pumping until all the air is out of the cylinder and no more bubbles appear.

    9

    Keep the hoses in the reservoir and carefully remove the cylinder from the vise. Now you're ready to install the master cylinder into your Toyota Tundra.

How to Change Brake Pads on a Toyota Tercel

How to Change Brake Pads on a Toyota Tercel

Brakes are an essential item on your car for both function and safety. Brakes wear down over time, even without misuse by the driver, and must be replaced after they wear past a certain percentage. This might be determined by an auto mechanic or you might hear the wear indicators, small metal strips in the brakes that emit a squeal once the pads have gotten too thin. Replacing the brake pads of your Toyota Tercel on your own will save you money and will educate you about DIY car work.

Instructions

    1

    Set your emergency brake. Remove any hubcap by working your flat-head screwdriver around the edges and then popping it off. Next loosen the lug nuts, using the lug wrench, in a star-shaped pattern. Then jack the car up and place it on the jackstand. Finish unscrewing the lug nuts. Pull the wheel off by hand and set it to the side

    2

    Remove the brake caliper. The caliper is the rectangular-shaped part that is closest to you if you are facing the car. The caliper is connected by two bolts to its left of the caliper, one on the upper end of the caliper and one on the bottom. Remove the bolts using the socket wrench. Notice that the two bolts are different lengths and the long one will go back on top. Pull the caliper off the brake unit and lay it on top of the brake pad unit as it will still be connected to the car by the brake fluid line. You will still be able to complete the task without the caliper interfering.

    3

    Remove the tension clips in the small holes on the right-hand side of the brake pad. Unclip them with your fingers and set them aside. Remove the brake pads by sliding them out of their slots. There is an inner pad and an outer pad; you need to remove them both. The the pads have shims, or small plates that attach flush with the pads. Save these and set them aside for use with the new pads.

    4

    Remove the wear clips, made of small slips attached to the tops of the pad, and set them aside. Snap the shim from your old pad onto the new inner pad and attach the wear clips. Attach both parts to the same area as with the old pad. Repeat the process for the outer pad. Put both tension clips back on over the pads. Replace the caliper and the wheel in the reverse process of removal.

    5

    Attach the wheel to the car with the lug nuts in reverse order of the process of removing them. Hand-tighten them first. Take the car down off the jack stand and firmly tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench so they are firm and secure.

Selasa, 20 Maret 2012

About Car Brakes

About Car Brakes

Car brakes are one of the most important safety features on your vehicle. Every day, you press the brake pedal hundreds of times to stop a car that weighs as much as 2 tons. With every press of the brake pedal, you engage a complex system that sends your instinctive movement from the pedal to the brakes located at each wheel. Maintaining your brakes requires good knowledge of the entire braking system on your vehicle.

Features

    Brake systems have a number of parts that require regular maintenance for safety and optimum performance. Located under the hood of your car is the brake fluid container that holds extra brake fluid. The master cylinder functions as a brake fluid reservoir connected by lines to the brake pedal system and forces brake fluid into the brake lines. Brake lines are strong rubber hoses that connect the master cylinder to the brake system on each wheel.

    Brake pads (also called brake shoes) are roughly 1/4-inch-thick, oblong pads made of copper, brass or steel. Pads are attached to a caliper that compresses to drop the rotating disc or drum on a wheel. Drum brakes are located on the rear wheels of the car; disc brakes are located on the front. Brake pads press against both drums and discs to stop the vehicle. Rotors are the circular part of the disc brakes that are gripped by the pads for stopping the car. Consistent pressure against the rotor can cause grooving that may require smoothing (by grinding) during maintenance.

Types

    Drum brakes are typically found on the rear wheels of a car. Drum brakes work by forcing a piston to compress two brake shoes against the drum when you push the brake pedal. Disc brakes are found on the front wheels. Disc brakes can also be found on rear brakes. They function by allowing the brake pads to squeeze the rotor instead of the wheel (like a bike does). This force is transmitted through a cable, and the resulting friction slows the disc's rotation.

    Other braking systems on the car include the emergency brake, which is controlled through a series of steel cables. Another system is called the anti-lock braking system. This computerized system can be found on newer vehicles. ABS automatically applies the brakes at the point of wheel lockup when you start to skid. So instead of pumping the brakes when you lose traction, the computer does it for you.

Function

    There are many component parts to the braking systems on newer-model cars. To begin, when you press the pedal, pressure transfers from the pedal to the master cylinder. The master cylinder forces brake fluids into the brake lines that connect to each wheel of the car. The fluid moves through the line, creating friction. This friction creates heat that reaches the brake pads or drums/disc brakes. The heat caused by the friction causes the compression of the brake pads against the brake drum or disc, which stops the forward motion of the car.

Considerations

    Regular maintenance of your entire braking system is a must. For safety reasons, you should have your brake system safety inspected at least once a year. Your brake system should be serviced at least every 2 years. This service should include replacement of front brake pads if necessary, resurfacing of the rotors, replacing disc or drum brake pads, bleeding of the entire brake system, replacing brake fluid, and a total inspection of the brake system. In general, your car's brake system should be serviced every 20,000 to 30,000 miles.

Warning

    There are rather distinct signs that your brakes need attention. However, there isn't always a warning that your brakes might be failing, and it's dangerous to wait until too late. Some of the signs of excessive brake wear include a squealing sound, caused when the brake pads have worn to their replacement indicators, vibrations when pressing the brake pedal, and the dashboard brake warning indicator light. Your brakes might also need service if you notice the steering wheel pulling to one side, or if your brake pedal feels spongy or hard to push.

Senin, 19 Maret 2012

How to Remove Oil From Brake Shoes

How to Remove Oil From Brake Shoes

A vehicle's brake system uses hydraulics to engage and disengage the brakes. Over time, the seals containing this oil might become weak and start leaking fluid. On drum brakes, this typically means the brake shoes become covered with this oil. When oil seeps into the the brake shoes, it weakens them and can crack the shoe's friction material. Prevent this by catching the leak early, then thoroughly cleaning the fluid from the shoes and surrounding area.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen, but do not remove, the lug nuts from the wheel that corresponds to the shoes that need to be cleaned, using a ratchet and socket.

    2

    Raise the wheel from the ground, using the floor jack. Secure the vehicle by placing floor jacks beneath it.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheel from the vehicle.

    4

    Pull the drum (the large metal object directly behind the wheel) from the vehicle with your hands. A light tapping with the rubber mallet will help loosen the drum if it is stuck.

    5

    Place the drain pan directly beneath the brake system.

    6

    Cover the wheel cylinder (the small hydraulic component at the top of the brake system) with a plastic wrap to protect its rubber components from damage.

    7

    Spray the brake shoes and all of the mechanical brake components with the brake parts cleaner. Lightly scrub the components with a soft-bristled brush.

    8

    Repeat Step 7 until the entire drum brake system is free of all oils.

    9

    Repeat Steps 4 through 8 for any other shoes that need cleaned.

    10

    Remove the plastic wrap from the wheel cylinder and place the drum back on the brake system. Press the drum until it fully seats on to the brakes. A slight wiggling motion might help.

    11

    Place the wheel back on the vehicle and hand-tighten the lug nuts.

    12

    Remove the jack stands from under the vehicle and lower it to the ground.

    13

    Tighten the lug nuts to the specifications listed in your owner's manual, using a torque wrench and a socket.

    14

    Pour the fluid in the drain pan into the empty container and dispose of it properly. Many auto parts stores will take old fluids free of charge.

Minggu, 18 Maret 2012

Ford F-150 Rear Brake Rotor Removal Instructions

Ford F-150 Rear Brake Rotor Removal Instructions

Removing a rear brake rotor on a Ford F-150 is almost the same process as for the front brakes, with the primary difference being where the caliper is located on the wheel. Removing the rotor is an easy process and will take even an inexperienced person only about a half hour to get it done. If you find that your rotor has been worn too thin, or is severely damaged because of the brake pads cutting grooves into them, then they will need to be replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Park the truck on a level surface and place the wheel chocks in front of the front wheels.

    2

    Jack the truck up on the side that you are going to be working on and place a jack stand under the frame near the jacking point. Raise it as close as you can to the frame.

    3

    Remove the wheel using the lug wrench.

    4

    Remove the brake caliper by removing the guide pins, using the proper size wrench.

    5

    Secure the caliper to the frame of the truck, using wire ties.

    6

    Remove the rotor by pulling it off the lug nuts. If it is difficult to move, hit it on the side with the rubber mallet until it releases from the lugs.

Sabtu, 17 Maret 2012

How to Replace the Front Brakes on a Buick

How to Replace the Front Brakes on a Buick

Replacing worn out or damaged brake pads on your Buick is critical for proper brake system operation. This is a straightforward and simple procedure on the front tires of your car. However, careful handling of brake components is necessary to prevent damage to the system and trouble with your car brakes on the road. A brake hose connects to the brake caliper. Be careful not to damage this hose or you will end up with a brake fluid leak.

Instructions

Removing the Brake Pads

    1

    Park your Buick on a level surface and shift the transmission to Neutral.

    2

    Open the hood and draw enough brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir to bring the level down midway between the Full and Add marks if necessary. Use a new or clean turkey baster and a proper container. Then replace the reservoir cap but do not tighten.

    3

    Loosen the wheel lug nuts on both front tires using a lug wrench.

    4

    Raise the front of your vehicle using a floor jack and support it on jack stands.

    5

    Secure the rear wheels with chocks.

    6

    Finish removing the front wheel/tire assemblies.

    7

    Reinstall two wheel lug nuts, hand tight, on the hub assembly you will be working on first. This will prevent the rotor from sliding off the hub.

    8

    Force the brake caliper piston partially into its bore using a large C-clamp, just enough to allow it to clear the rotor when removing the caliper.

    9

    Unscrew and remove the lower caliper pin bolt using a Torx bit socket and ratchet.

    10

    Rotate the brake caliper upwards and secure it to the coil spring with a piece of wire.

    11

    Remove the inner brake pad from the brake caliper bracket and place it against the caliper piston.

    12

    Seat the caliper piston into its bore with the large C-clamp by pushing the inner pad with the clamp screw. Then remove the inner pad from the caliper.

    13

    Remove the outer brake pad and brake pad retainers from the brake caliper bracket.

Installing the Brake Pads

    14

    Clean the brake assembly of brake dust using brake parts cleaner spray and a clean, lint-free cloth or towel.

    15

    Install the brake pad retainers on the caliper bracket.

    16

    Inspect the boot around the caliper piston and make sure it is laying flat. If necessary, use a blunt plastic stick or suitable tool to set the inner edge of the boot flat while avoiding damage to the boot.

    17

    Set the new brake pads on the brake caliper bracket.

    18

    Untie the brake caliper and rotate it back into position over the brake pads and bracket.

    19

    Start the caliper lower-pin bolt by hand. Then tighten it with the Torx bit socket and ratchet.

    20

    Climb in behind the steering wheel and depress the brake pedal only about 2/3 of its normal travel distance. Release the pedal and wait for about 15 seconds before depressing the pedal again. Repeat this procedure until you feel a firm brake pedal.

    21

    Remove the two wheel lug nuts from the brake assembly.

    22

    Replace the brake pads on the other front wheel starting with Step 7, from the previous section, through Step 8 of this section.

    23

    Reinstall the wheel/tire assemblies.

    24

    Lower the vehicle and remove the chocks.

    25

    Add new brake fluid to the master cylinder reservoir to bring the level up to the Full mark if necessary. Then tighten the cap.

Jumat, 16 Maret 2012

How to Change the Rear Brake Pads on a Mazda6

Brake pads are an important part of your Mazda6's braking system. They are the replaceable friction pads that pinch the brake disc or drum when the brakes are applied. You should replace the brake pads before they wear beyond a quarter inch or risk damaging your Mazda6's brake discs.

Instructions

Remove the old Brake Pads

    1

    Park your car on a level surface. If you have a stick shift car, make sure the car is in gear. Do not set the parking brake. Place blocks in front of the front tires so the car does not move while you are working on it.

    2

    Open the hood of your car. Locate the master cylinder and brake fluid container. If necessary, remove brake fluid until the level in the container is less than half full. A turkey baster is a good tool for this. Put the brake fluid in the plastic container and dispose of it the way you dispose of motor oil.

    3

    Raise the rear end of your car with your car jack. Remove the rear tire or wheel assembly.

    4

    Disconnect the parking brake cable from the brake caliper. The cable is usually held in place with a retaining clip. You can use pliers to remove the clip and disconnect the cable.

    5

    Remove the upper caliper bolt. Rotate the caliper downward until you can comfortably work on it. Remove the springs, pads and shims from the caliper.

Install the new Brake Pads

    6

    Use the recommended tool to press the caliper piston back into the piston assembly.

    7

    Insert the shims, springs and new pads into the caliper. Reconnect the parking brake cable.

    8

    Rotate the caliper upward and back into place. Use the socket wrench to tighten the upper mounting bolt to 27 to 36 foot lb. (37 to 49 Nm) if you have a Mazda6, or to 16 to 23 foot lb. (21 to 31 Nm) if you have a Mazdaspeed6.

    9

    Replace the tire wheel assembly. Lower the car to the ground.

    10

    Add fluid to the master cylinder container to replace any you removed before you removed the old brake pads.

    11

    Season the brake pads by making only gentle stops when you are driving for the first week after you install the new brake pads. Try not to do any hard stopping when you are seasoning the brakes.

Kamis, 15 Maret 2012

How to Change the Spark Plugs in a Hyundai XG350

The spark plugs in your Hyundai XG350 (as in any other vehicle) are responsible for providing the engine cylinders with the electricity needed to perform the car's ignition. The spark ignites the fuel in the combustion chamber in the engine and provides the power to move the car forward. After roughly 30,000 miles, these spark plugs wear down and need to be changed.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood and locate the spark plug wires on the Hyundai XG350. The wires run across the top of the engine and are either blue or black (depending on the manufacturer of the last spark plug wires that were installed). The spark plugs are underneath the wires, so these must be removed. However, only remove them one at a time, starting with the right-most spark plug.

    2

    Pull the spark plug wire out. Hold onto the plug section of the spark plug wire and pull it out of the engine. There is nothing holding it in place, but it does fit snug over the top of the spark plug so you will need to pull pretty hard.

    3

    Attach the socket extension to the socket wrench and then attach the spark plug extension over the end of the socket extension.

    4

    Slide the socket wrench and extension down into the top of the engine and orient the wrench so that the socket extension slides over the top of the spark plug.

    5

    Turn the spark plug counterclockwise and pull the extension straight out fo the engine to remove the plug.

    6

    Hold the new spark plug in your hand so that you can easily see the electrodes. Slide the spark plug gap checker between the electrodes. The gap checker looks like a flat metal disc of varying thicknesses. On the face of the disc, there are numbers that represent different inches or millimeters of thickness. Adjust the gap between the electrodes by bending the top electrode on the plug either up with the assistance of the gap tool or down with your thumb until the gap is 0.043 in or 1.1mm. This gap measurement is specific to the XG350, so the gap must be made to this specification for optimum spark.

    7

    Insert the spark plug into the spark plug socket with the electrodes facing out and insert the plug into the engine. Turn clockwise to tighten the plug until you feel resistance. Then, give the plug an additional 1/8 to 1/4 turn.

    8

    Slide the spark plug wire back over the top of the spark plug and repeat steps 4 through 7 for each engine cylinder spark plug.

How to Replace Front Brake Pads on a 1995 Ford Taurus

How to Replace Front Brake Pads on a 1995 Ford Taurus

Mechanics recommend that vehicle owners change their brake pads every 20,000 to 40,000 miles. For front-wheel-drive vehicles such as the 1995 Ford Taurus, the front brake pads get the heaviest use. Brake pads for a domestic car such as the 1995 Ford Taurus are relatively inexpensive --- usually less than $75 for a whole set. Often the biggest expense when having your brake pads replaced is the labor. Resourceful and handy drivers can save money by changing their own brake pads.

Instructions

    1

    Park your Ford Taurus on a flat surface where you have enough room to work. Turn your engine off and set your parking brake.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts with your lug wrench on the wheel on which you're changing the brake pad.

    3

    Raise your car using your car jack. Securely support the car on the jack stand.

    4

    Remove lug nuts and wheel.

    5

    Loosen the upper and lower caliper mounting bolts with a 12mm socket. Remove the bolts and set them aside in an order so that you know which is which when it's time to replace them.

    6

    Lift the brake caliper off of the rotor and set it upside down to the side. Take care to not kink the brake hoses in the process.

    7

    Pull the old brake pads out. You may need to use a screwdriver or small pry bar to pry them off, as they've been in there for a while, but they should come off without too much difficulty.

    8

    Put the new brake pads in. Do this by hand --- they should just slip easily into the space where you took the old ones out of and snap right into place.

    9

    Put the old brake pads in the upside-down caliper you set to the side. Put the caliper spreader between the brake pads. Turn the crank on the caliper spreader, which will open the caliper spreader and put pressure on the brake pads. The spreader should be snug against the brake pads but not too tight. Turn the caliper over.

    10

    Open the bleeder valve and drain the brake fluid into a container. Turn the caliper spreader crank a little more to help wring the brake fluid out.

    11

    Tighten the bleeder valve to close it. Remove the caliper spreader. Take out the old brake pads and dispose of them.

    12

    Place the caliper over the newly installed brake pads. Put the upper and lower caliper bolts back in place by hand, then tighten them with the socket wrench.

    13

    Replace the wheel. Replace the lug nuts and tighten them with a lug wrench.

    14

    Lower your Ford Taurus back to the ground by removing the jack stand and reversing the car jack.

    15

    Repeat this procedure on the other front wheel.

Selasa, 13 Maret 2012

How to Check the Rotor, Caliper and Wear Indicator

Your car braking system is one of the most important components of your vehicle's safety. Proper inspection and maintenance are essential. With a little knowledge and a few tools you can check the rotor, caliper and wear indicator to ensure the safety of your braking system.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the wheel lug nuts and raise the vehicle on a set of jack stands. Remove the wheel and reinstall the lug nuts to hold the rotor, or disc, in place. Remove the caliper. After removing the caliper mounting pins, suspend the caliper with a piece of wire, out of the way. Do not let the caliper hang by the hose and ensure the hose is not twisted or crimped.

    2

    Visually check the rotor, or disc, surface for scoring or other damage. If there is deep scoring or grooving on the rotor, or disc, it will probably need to be replaced. Be sure to check both sides of the rotor, or disc, for damage. Check the wheel bearings to ensure they are properly installed.

    3

    Check the rotor, or disc, run out. This can be done with a dial indicator placed a half inch from the edge of the rotor, or disc. Set the indicator to zero and turn the rotor, or disc. It should not exceed the allowable run out time as indicated in your vehicle's manual. If it does, it should be resurfaced by a machine shop.

    4

    Notice the wear indicator located on the base of the caliper. This is a window that shows the wear on your brake pads. Note how close the wear indicator is to the rotor, or disc, indicating the brakes need changes.

    5

    Inspect the brake hose for leaking, damage, cracks or other problems. If there are problems, replace the hose. If not, leave as is and make a note to check again at your next brake inspection.

How to Remove the Rear Drum Brakes From a Toyota Tacoma

Rear drum brakes on a Toyota Tacoma are more complicated to remove than are the front brakes. Your memory for detail, hand dexterity and coordination will all be tested when you attempt to remove the rear drum brakes. Having some specialty rear brake tools will help, but only marginally. When you do attempt it, it is recommended you remove both drums and leave one side together if you've never performed a rear drum brake job before. This way, you can always use the other wheel as a reference point as you remove the rear drum brakes from your Toyota Tacoma.

Instructions

How to Remove the Rear Drum Brakes From a Toyota Tacoma

    1

    Park the Toyota Tacoma on a level paved or concrete surface.

    2

    Place a wheel chock in front of one of the front tires.

    3

    Break the lug nuts loose on both rear wheels with the breaking bar and a 21-mm socket.

    4

    Lift the rear axle on one side of the Tacoma and place a jack stand under the rear axle on that side. Repeat this step for the other side so the rear axle is suspended.

    5

    Remove the lug nuts and both tires.

    6

    Strike the flat hub face of the drum near the edge to loosen it from the hub. If it is stubborn, spray a little WD-40 into the small screw holes located near the hub. Thread in the two 8 by 1.25 mm bolts and tighten them alternately with the ratchet and a socket to pull the drum away from the hub.

    7

    Remove the drum and remove the bolts. Remove the other drum in the same manner.

    8

    Start to remove the left side brakes first. Using the brake spring pliers, remove the upper return spring connecting the two shoes together.

    9

    Remove the rear shoe (toward the rear of the Tacoma). Hold down the spring by holding the head of the pin on the back of the backing plate with a finger. Use the brake shoe retaining spring tool to twist the spring free from the hold-down pin. Remove the shoe and the anchor spring at the bottom.

    10

    Remove the front shoe hold down spring in the same manner. Disconnect the parking brake cable from the bell crank. Remove the E-clip, the automatic adjuster lever. Spread and remove the C washer with the flathead screwdriver, and remove the parking brake lever from the shoe.

    11

    Remove the front shoe with the strut intact.

    12

    Disconnect the other parking brake cable.

    13

    Disconnect the adjuster lever spring and remove the adjuster from the shoe.

    14

    To replace, reverse the order. Keep the right side intact to help you put the brakes and hardware back in the same manner they were removed.

    15

    Repeat the procedure for the right side, using the left as reference.

Senin, 12 Maret 2012

How do I Install Brakes on a 2000 Dodge Neon?

How do I Install Brakes on a 2000 Dodge Neon?

The 2000 Dodge Neon comes standard with a 2.0-liter, 132 horsepower, inline four-cylinder engine. It also come standard with front, ventilated disc brakes. The brakes operate by brake pads, which have a thin layer of friction material that presses against a spinning rotor to stop the vehicle. Over time, typically about 25,000 to 35,000 miles, the friction material on the brake pads will wear off and the pads must be replaced. Replacing the brake pads in a timely manner is important to maintain the proper operation of the rest of the brake system.

Instructions

    1

    Open the Neon's hood and locate the brake master cylinder; it's bolted to the top of the firewall on the driver's side. Remove the lid from the master cylinder and siphon out about half of the fluid with a turkey baster. Place the siphoned fluid into a small, clean container for reuse.

    2

    Loosen the front lug nuts with a ratchet and socket, and raise the front wheels off the ground with a floor jack. Place jack stands beneath the vehicle and lower the jack until the vehicle is sitting only on the stands. Remove the front lug nuts and pull the wheels from the vehicle.

    3

    Remove the two bolts on the rear of the caliper using a ratchet and socket. Pull the caliper off the caliper bracket. Notice the pads stay attached to the brake caliper. Hang the caliper, by the bungee strap, from the spring on the suspension.

    4

    Slide the flat head screwdriver under the metal clip holding the outer pad to the caliper and pry upward to release it. Pull the outer pad from the caliper.

    5

    Place a C-clamp over the caliper so that the screw portion touches the inner brake pad. Tighten the C-clamp and observe as the inner brake pad begins moving toward the inner part of the caliper. Continue tightening the C-clamp until the pad stops moving; this presses the caliper piston into the caliper body. Remove the C-clamp.

    6

    Grab the inner brake pad and pull it away from the inner part of the caliper; notice finger-like, metal prongs are attached to the back of the pad and insert into the caliper piston. Pull the pad until the fingers are completely out of the caliper piston and discard the pad.

    7

    Place the new inner pad so the metal prongs are lined up with the holes in the caliper piston. Press the pad until the prongs are fully inserted into the caliper piston and the pad is seated on the caliper body.

    8

    Place the outer pad on the caliper body and press it until the metal clip seats into the grooves on the caliper body.

    9

    Grab the rotor and pull it toward you and off the lug studs. Notice there is a small circle in the center of the lug studs that the old rotor sits on. If the rotor does not pull off easily, hit it with a rubber mallet to free it. Place the new rotor on the lug studs and push it until it seats into place on the circle in the center of the lug studs.

    10

    Place the caliper on the caliper bracket and tighten the caliper bolts to 23 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and a socket.

    11

    Repeat steps 3 through 10 for the brakes on the other side of the vehicle.

    12

    Place the front wheels back on the Neon and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the Neon off the jack stands with the floor jack, and pull out the jack stands from under the car. Lower the Neon to the ground.

    13

    Tighten the lug nuts, in a crisscross pattern, to 100 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and a socket.

    14

    Check the fluid level in the master cylinder. The level must be between the "Min" and "Max" lines. Add fluid from the small container as needed. After adding the fluid, dispose of any remaining fluid properly. Most auto parts stores will take old fluids free of charge.

    15

    Close the Neon's hood and build up brake pressure by pressing and releasing the brake pedal until it feels hard.

How to Remove the Front Rotor on a 1988 Olds Delta 88

How to Remove the Front Rotor on a 1988 Olds Delta 88

If you want your brakes to work properly on your Oldsmobile Delta 88, then you have to keep the rotors in good working condition. Damaged rotors must be machine smoothed, unless they are too thin. Installing new brake pads on your car with damaged rotors will prematurely wear the brake pads and they will have to be replaced. It only takes a few minutes to replace the brake rotors.

Instructions

    1

    Park the car on a level surface and turn off its ignition. Open and secure the hood.

    2

    Locate the brake fluid reservoir in the engine compartment and remove two-thirds of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using the turkey baster and drain pan. Recycle the brake fluid. Do not reuse it.

    3

    Place a set of chocks behind the rear wheels. Loosen the wheel's lug nuts with a lug wrench. Raise the Oldsmobile using the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the car near the jacking point and raise it to the frame.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts with the lug wrench and wheel from the Delta 88. Loosen the retaining bolts on the brake caliper with a socket and ratchet. Pull the caliper off the mounting bracket. Secure it to the strut using a wire tie. If you allow it to hang loose, you will damage the brake line.

    5

    Pull the rotor off the wheel assembly and put the new one in its place. Clip the wire tie holding the caliper to the strut with the pliers and reinstall the caliper on the wheel assembly. Tighten the caliper retaining bolts with the socket and ratchet. Replace the wheel and lug nuts on the Oldsmobile.

    6

    Remove the jack stand from under the Delta 88 and lower the vehicle to the ground. Fully tighten the lug nuts on the wheel with the lug wrench.

Sabtu, 10 Maret 2012

How to Change the Rotors on a Pontiac Vibe

The rotors on your Pontiac Vibe help you to slow down as part of the braking system. Hydraulic fluid is forced through a caliper mechanism. Inside the caliper are brake pads. These brake pads are pushed against the brake rotor to cause friction and heat. The result is that your rotor, which is attached to the drive wheels, slows down. The rotor is a disc that sits on the wheel hub and, over time, this disc has a tendency to score, warp or crack, all from being clamped down on by pads. Eventually, you'll need to replace the rotors on your Pontiac Vibe when you feel vibration feedback in the steering wheel while you brake.

Instructions

    1

    Break the front lug nuts loose by turning them 45 degrees counterclockwise with a tire wrench.

    2

    Slide the floor jack underneath the front jack point. This is located behind the radiator.

    3

    Place jack stands under each of the front pinch welds and lower the vehicle down onto the stands.

    4

    Finish removing the lug nuts and pull the wheel off the wheel hub assembly.

    5

    Loosen and remove the top and bottom caliper mounting bolts with a socket wrench by turning the bolts counterclockwise.

    6

    Slide the caliper off the rotor assembly and secure it with zip-ties to the coil springs above the brake assembly.

    7

    Pull the rotor off the hub assembly.

    8

    Slide the new rotor onto the hub assembly and put the brake system back together. Installation is the reverse of removal.

    9

    Clean the brake assembly with brake parts cleaner and allow it to dry.

    10

    Put the wheel back on, tighten the lug nuts and lower the Pontiac Vibe to the ground.

    11

    Torque the lug nuts to 100-foot-pounds.

Jumat, 09 Maret 2012

Ford Ranger Clutch Bleeding Tips

Ford Ranger Clutch Bleeding Tips

Bleeding a hydraulic clutch like those used in the Ford Ranger is necessary after any repairs have been performed on the clutch or to restore functionality. The process can be complicated, and the potential to ruin your clutch exists if you are not careful. Several strategies can make clutch bleeding in your Ranger much easier, reducing the risk of damage.

Protecting the Master Cylinder

    When you bleed the master cylinder and connecting line in a Ford Ranger, it's important that you not damage integral internal components by turning the vise that holds them too tightly. A cloth held between the master cylinder and the vise can reduce the risk of damage. Holding the master cylinder by hand on a firm surface such as the concrete floor of your garage can also work to avoid damaging the cylinder's internal components.

Reservoir Fill Levels

    The Ranger's clutch master cylinder reservoir levels should be kept full at all times during the clutch bleeding process. This is necessary to prevent air bubbles from entering the line and the master cylinder. According to Ford Ranger and Explorer website Ford 4x4, a DOT 3 brake fluid that meets Ford's specifications when poured to the master cylinder's fill line will accomplish this goal.

Use a Vacuum Pump

    Filling the slave cylinder in the clutch can involve removing it entirely from the component unless appropriate measures are taken. Using a vacuum pump to fill the slave cylinder only requires opening the bleeder screw and pushing aside one or two other parts, but no disassembling of parts is needed. Make sure to set the vacuum pump to send fluid into the slave cylinder and not vacuum fluid out of the cylinder. Removing fluid from the cylinder could force air into the component which is very bad for clutch operation.

How to Adjust a Mazda3 Emergency Brake

How to Adjust a Mazda3 Emergency Brake

You will know it's time to adjust the emergency brake on your Mazda 3 when you park downhill and it starts slipping. You don't need a mechanic to make this quick, easy and affordable repair. Check the owner's manual to make sure this adjustment is correct for your vehicle's year.

Instructions

    1

    Start the vehicle and press down and release the brakes four times. Turn off the engine.

    2

    Remove the hooks from the center console and lift off the cover. The center console is located in the inside front of the car between the driver's and the passenger's seats.

    3

    Adjust the nut under the console by tightening it with pliers.

    4

    Place wheel chocks behind the front wheels.

    5

    Lift up the parking brake handle one click. Turn the engine on and look at the control panel. You should see the parking brake light.

    6

    Release the parking brake and lift up the rear of the car with a jack. Slide floor jacks next to the two rear wheels and lower the car onto them. Spin the rear wheels forward and backwards with your hands. They should spin freely and easily.

    7

    Raise the car a bit with the jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the car to the ground and remove the wheel chocks. Hook the center console cover back in place.

Rabu, 07 Maret 2012

How to Replace Rear Wheel Cylinder

Rear wheel cylinders are the hydraulic braking component for drum brakes. Internal pistons on both sides of the cylinder extend outward from inside the cylinder when demand is placed on the braking system. The pistons contact the horns of the shoes and push them outward to contact the inside diameter of the drum and help stop the vehicle. If a wheel cylinder is slightly compromised by leaking slightly, you can replace just the cylinder without removing the shoes and hardware. If the cylinder is blown out and has contaminated the rear shoes, you'll have to replace them. Cleaning them will not remove the brake fluid contamination.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the wheel or wheels on which you're replacing the wheel cylinder with 1/4 turn with the lug wrench.

    2

    Place a wheel block in front of one of the front wheels. Lift and support the rear axle or frame using the jack and jack stands. Finish removing the lug nuts and then remove the wheel.

    3

    Spray the brake line connection to the wheel cylinder with a generous amount of penetrating lubricant. Place a drain pan beneath the wheel to catch the dripping lubricant. The older the connection, the more times you may want to repeat this procedure. Allow the lubricant time to soak in. Complete another step and then re-spray if necessary.

    4

    Remove the drum. If necessary, remove the rubber plug from behind the backing plate and readjust the brakes using a thin-bladed screwdriver and a brake spoon. This will turn the shoes inward and make the removal of the drum easier.

    5

    Use an appropriate-sized line wrench to break the brake fitting free from the wheel cylinder. This step must apply caution. The penetrating lubricant is intended to help the free-floating brake fitting move on the steel brake line. If the fitting is stuck and you do not apply enough patience, technique and penetrating spray, you can easily break the steel brake line and have to replace it. Once the brake fitting is free, use an open-end wrench to quicken the pace. Be sure the drain pan is still beneath the wheel to catch the dripping brake fluid.

    6

    Disconnect the two upper brake shoe return springs using the end of the brake shoe pliers to twist them off the seated retainer. If the shoes are contaminated, disassemble them entirely using a brake shoe spring tool. If you're not replacing the shoes, remove the two upper brake shoe return springs.

    7

    Remove the two retaining bolts or the retaining clip from the back of the backing plate holding the wheel cylinder in place. Remove the wheel cylinder. Install the new wheel cylinder and reverse the procedure to reassemble the rear brakes. Once everything is back in place, crack open the bleeder screw of the new wheel cylinder and let it gravity-bleed. As soon as brake fluid trickles steadily from the screw, close it.

    8

    Check the master cylinder for fluid level and top off with brake fluid if necessary. Replace the cap or cover to the master cylinder securely.

    9

    Employ an assistant to pump the foot brake pedal four to five times and then hold the pressure down onto the brake pedal. Crack open the bleeder screw to the master cylinder until the fluid purges from the screw. Tighten it and repeat this step as often as necessary until the brake pedal returns to its normal firmness and height. Check the master cylinder often if the brake-bleeding requires several attempts. Do not allow the master cylinder to run dry.

How to Repair Suzuki Samurai Rear Brakes

Suzuki Samurai utilize drum style rear brakes, which can wear out and require routine maintenance to operate effectively. The drum and shoes are normal replacement items, but taking the time to replace the springs and the wheel cylinder can dramatically improve braking ability. The average backyard mechanic can repair the rear brakes on a Samurai in about an hour.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the rear wheel of the Samurai by placing the jack head on a frame rail nearby and pumping the lever until the wheel is in the air. Secure the frame rail with a jack stand.

    2

    Remove the wheel by turning all lug nuts counterclockwise and pulling the wheel free. Set the wheel aside, away from the work area.

    3

    Remove the drum by sliding it away from the brake assembly. Some models could have keeper screws on the face of the drum, which come out counterclockwise. Inspect the drum surface and the brake components for damage, leaks or excessive wear.

    4

    Remove the shoes by levering off the long springs from the shoe hooks and then turning the primary spring bolt in the center of each shoe counterclockwise. The shoes will slide off, away from the backing plate.

    5

    Remove the wheel cylinder by turning the mount screws in the rear counterclockwise and then pulling the piston out of the housing. You can replace the gaskets can reassemble the wheel cylinder. Damaged pistons or cylinders could require complete replacement.

    6

    Slide new shoes onto the brake assembly and secure the primary spring bolt and long springs (with new units, if necessary). Adjust the adjustment bolt at the bottom, between the shoes, clockwise for minimum play. Replace the drum with a new or resurfaced unit by sliding it over the shoes and securing the keeper bolt.

    7

    Replace the wheel by turning the lug nuts clockwise, in an alternating pattern. Remove the jack stand and lower the Suzuki. Repeat the entire process on the opposite brake assembly.

Selasa, 06 Maret 2012

How to Change the Brakes on 1994 Ford Probe

Replacing the brakes when needed is an important aspect of caring for your 1994 Ford Probe. The Probe comes equipped with disc brakes, enhancing the braking power and safety of the vehicle. If the brake pads are not changed in time, the pads can wear down to the bare metal, damaging the rotors and other braking hardware. Changing the brakes on a 1994 Ford Probe should take no longer than 30 minutes in ideal conditions.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood and disconnect the negative cable from the battery. Locate the brake master cylinder and open the reservoir. Use a turkey baster to remove 1/3 of the fluid from the reservoir. Properly dispose of the fluid and close the reservoir.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the front wheels with a lug wrench without removing them. Lift the front end of the Probe with a floor jack and secure it by lowering it onto jack stands. Finish removing the lug nuts and pull the front wheels off of the axle.

    3

    Choose which side you want to start with first. Remember to only work on one side at a time, in order to keep track of the steps and the parts.

    4

    Remove the two caliper mounting bolts with a ratchet and socket. Lift the caliper off of the brake disc and suspend it from a suspension component with mechanic's wire.

    5

    Remove the brake pads from the caliper. Place one of the old pads against the caliper piston and use a C-clamp to push the piston back into the caliper.

    6

    Insert the new brake pads on the caliper support plates and slide the caliper over the pads and the brake rotor. Tighten the caliper mounting bolts with a ratchet and socket. Repeat the process for the other front wheel.

    7

    Remount the front wheels on the axle when finished. Insert the lug nuts onto the wheel studs by hand. Remove the jack stands and lower the front of the vehicle to the ground. Finish tightening the lug nuts with a lug wrench. Raise the rear of the vehicle with the floor jack and repeat the process for the rear brakes.

    8

    Fill the brake master cylinder reservoir to the top mark. Reconnect the negative cable to the battery and close the hood. Start the Probe and pump the brake pedal five times to seat the brakes.

Brake Shoe Rivet Tools

Brake Shoe Rivet Tools

When purchasing refurbished brake shoes at the parts store, they often charge a core fee that is refunded when you bring back the old shoes. Those old shoes are labeled, stripped, refinished, then the metal backing is lined with new friction material. On rare cars, typically antiques, the brake lining may be easy to find, but the full assembly can be nearly impossible to get. At this point you must rivet the pad lining onto the backing yourself, but you must have the proper tools.

Rivet Gun

    Rivets are straight pieces of metal when new. A tool, known as a rivet gun, is needed to properly flare out the rivet. The flaring of the rivet is what holds the brake lining to the brake shoe backing. There are several types of rivet guns: electric, pneumatic and manual.

Locking Pliers

    Locking pliers are similar to standard pliers, as they grip an object from both sides. The difference is that locking pliers actually lock onto the object so that your hand can be free. When performing this task, two sets of locking pliers are needed. These hold the lining in place as you rivet it to the backing.

Cut-Off Tool

    A cut-off tool, or commonly called a "whizzer" tool, makes use of a small cutting wheel spun at a high rate. This tool is used to cut the head off of the rivets on the old brake shoe so it can be removed. It also comes in handy if you rivet the new lining incorrectly.

Flathead Screwdriver

    A flat-head screwdriver is typically used to turn a screw. In this case it is used pry the old lining up if it is stuck to the backing, after removing the rivets.

Metal File

    A metal file is a long metal object that is cross-hatched, creating a rough surface for filing. This is used on the new brake lining material, as sometimes it has small burrs that can cause brake noise. The file works great to rid the lining of those burrs.

Senin, 05 Maret 2012

Brake System Defined

Brake System Defined

All automobiles and trucks have a brake system. This system, which begins at the pedal and ends at the brake pads, dissipates the momentum of the vehicle and either slows it down or brings it to a complete stop.

Theory

    A vehicle's brake system works on the basic principle of friction. By applying friction to moving wheels, momentum is dissipated and the wheel slows, eventually coming to a stop. This friction creates heat which contributes to system wear and failure. The rate of braking and heat dissipation depends on vehicle weight, braking force and the braking surface area.

Components of a Disc Brake System

    In a disc brake system, as force is applied to the peddle, the master cylinder distributes an incompressible hydraulic brake fluid to the brake. The fluid flows into the caliper, activating a piston that squeezes the brake pads against the disc. This friction slows the wheel and stops the vehicle. The components of a disc brake system are exposed to air and dissipate heat more efficiently than a drum system, slowing wear and prolonging system life.

Components of a Drum Brake System

    In a drum brake system, as force is applied to the peddle, the master cylinder distributes an incompressible hydraulic brake fluid to the brake. As the fluid fills the drum, the brake shoes are pressed outward, exerting friction to slow the wheels and stop the vehicle. The enclosed drum is prone to heat buildup and faster wear and failure.

Minggu, 04 Maret 2012

How to Change the Break Pads on a 2000 Nissan Maxima

How to Change the Break Pads on a 2000 Nissan Maxima

Regular maintenance, inspection and replacement of a car's brake pads are essential to safe and worry-free driving. The 2000 Nissan Maxima's brake pads are simple to remove and install.

Instructions

    1

    Park the car on a level surface that gives you ample room to work in. If the car has been recently driven, allow it to cool. The wheels, brakes and rotors may be hot from friction.

    2

    Place a wood block (wheel chock) behind each of the rear wheels to prevent the car from rolling. Ensure that the car is in park, but do not apply the emergency parking brake.

    3

    Use the tire iron to loosen the lug nuts on each of the front wheels. Do not remove the lugs, only loosen them one to two full revolutions.

    4

    Slide the floor jack under a solid section of the front-end suspension. Carefully jack up the car until you have ample room to slide jack stands under each side of the front axle.

    5

    Position the jack stands under each side of the front axle. Slowly release pressure in the jack to lower the car onto the stands.

    6

    Slide the jack out from under the car.

    7

    Remove the lug nuts from the wheels. Use the tire iron if necessary. Pull off both of the front wheels.

    8

    Unbolt the top half of the brake caliper from the bottom half of the caliper. (The caliper is the large metal piece that is slightly curved.)

    9

    Tie the top half of the caliper to the undercarriage of the car using the bungee cord or the rope. Do not dangle the caliper from the brake line (the cable coming out of the caliper); this can damage your brake line.

    10

    Pull the brake pads out of the caliper. Use the flat head screwdriver if the pads are stuck in the caliper.

    11

    Insert the new brake pads into the slots on each caliper. Ensure that the brake pad material is facing toward the rotor. (This should be the same way that the old ones were removed.)

    12

    Untie the top halves of the calipers and rebolt them to the bottom half.

    13

    Replace both front tires, then replace and tighten all lug nuts on both tires.

    14

    Repeat these steps for both of the rear tires.

Jumat, 02 Maret 2012

How to Replace Brake Rotors on an Isuzu Rodeo

How to Replace Brake Rotors on an Isuzu Rodeo

The brake rotors (also known as brake discs) on the front of your Isuzu Rodeo are responsible for the majority of the braking done by your vehicle, since the rear brakes don't carry the load. Over time, rotors will get worn down and if not properly cared for, can crack and get damaged, necessitating replacement. In this case, the project vehicle is a 2004 Isuzu Rodeo, but the process of replacing brake rotors is similar for other vehicles, as well.

Instructions

    1

    Lift up the front end of the SUV using the jack, and set the vehicle on the jack stands. Be sure the vehicle is solidly set on the stands prior to taking off the front wheels, then unbolt the wheels using the tire iron.

    2

    Unbolt the front brake caliper bracket that's attached to the steering knuckle, using the ratchet. Lift it off of the brake disc and support it on the lower control arm of the front suspension. Alternatively, support the brake disc with a metal hook, so that the brake caliper isn't hanging by the brake line.

    3

    Slide the factory brake disc off of the front wheel hub and set it aside for recycling, then slide the replacement disc onto the hub.

    4

    Reinstall the brake caliper bracket onto the steering knuckle, using the ratchet.

    5

    Reinstall the wheels, take the vehicle off the jack stands and set it on the ground, using the jack.

How to Troubleshoot Brakes on a 1997 Chevy Tahoe

How to Troubleshoot Brakes on a 1997 Chevy Tahoe

Brake problems can cause numerous safety hazards in your 1997 Chevy Tahoe. If the SUV pulls to one side, it can easily collide with another vehicle or obstacle. This is also true for a vehicle that is hard to stop. Not only can brake problems cause accidents, but the impact on your wallet can be costly as well. Know what to look for to keep your Tahoe safely on the road.

Instructions

Vehicle Pulls to One Side While Braking

    1

    Inspect the brake pads. Use a jack to raise the Tahoe then place jack stands underneath the vehicle. Remove the lug nuts with a tire tool then remove the tires. Look through the window on the brake caliper to check the pad thickness. Replace the brake pad if the thickness is 1/8-inch or less.

    2

    Tighten any loose or disconnected front suspension components with a socket and ratchet.

    3

    Remove the brake caliper. Clean the caliper with brake system cleaner. If the piston on the caliper is sticking out, then replace or overhaul the caliper.

    4

    Adjust the brake pad. Inspect the rotor for grooves. Adjust the wheel bearings.

High-pitched Squeals

    5

    Inspect the brake pads. With the Tahoe raised on jack stands, look through the window on the brake caliper to check the pad thickness. Replace the brake pad if the thickness is 1/8-inch or less.

    6

    Replace the brake pads if they show signs of glazing.

    7

    Inspect the rotor for dirt and grooves.

Excessive Brake Pedal Travel

    8

    Inspect the brake pads for excessive wear. Inspect the caliper for a stuck piston. Check for leaks or damage around the brake hose connections. Inspect the rotor for dirt or damage.

    9

    Open the brake fluid container under the hood. Add brake fluid if necessary.

    10

    Bleed the brake system. Start with the right rear brake. Loosen the bleeder screw slightly with a wrench. Place one end of a 3/16-inch plastic tube over the screw and place the other end in a plastic container. Have an assistant pump the brakes a few times to produce pressure in the system then hold the pedal firmly down. Open the bleeder screw with a wrench enough to allow fluid to flow out. Watch for air bubbles to exit. After the flow slows down, tighten the screw. Have the assistant release the brake pedal. Repeat this process on the remaining brakes.

    11

    Adjust the brake. Remove the brake pads. Push the caliper piston further out with a screwdriver. Install the brake pads.

    12

    Replace the proportioning valve then bleed the brake system. The proportioning valve limits and controls pressure to the rear wheels, when braking, to keep the rear wheels from locking up during heavy braking.

Spongy Brake Pedal

    13

    Bleed the brake system to get rid of air in the system.

    14

    Inspect the brake hoses and lines for cracks and leaks. Replace the parts as needed.

    15

    Tighten the master cylinder mounting bolts with a socket and ratchet.

    16

    Replace the master cylinder. Bleed the brake system.

    17

    Adjust the brake pads. Remove the brake pads. Push the caliper piston further out with a screwdriver. Install the brake pads.

    18

    Replace the check valve. Bleed the brake system.

Stopping Requires Excessive Effort

    19

    Replace the power brake booster. Bleed the brake system.

    20

    Inspect the brake pads for wear. Replace the brake pads if oil or grease is on them.

    21

    Examine the piston on the brake caliper. Rebuild or replace the brake caliper if the piston is stuck.

    22

    Replace the master cylinder.

Pedal Travels to the Floor

    23

    Add brake fluid to the brake fluid reservoir in the engine compartment.

    24

    Check the brake hoses for leaks and damage. Replace any damaged hoses.

    25

    Inspect the brake lines for leaks or damage. Replace any damaged hoses.

Brake Pedal Pulsates

    26

    Remove and rebuild, or replace, the brake caliper.

    27

    Replace the wheel bearings.

    28

    Inspect the rotors. Take the rotors to a machine shop to be repaired if grooves are present.

    29

    Remove the brake drums. Take the drums to an automotive repair shop to be restored or replaced.

Dragging Brakes

    30

    Remove and clean the master cylinder. Remove and replace the brake caliper.

    31

    Inspect the brake pads. Replace them if necessary.

    32

    Examine the rotor for grooves. Remove the rotor and have it serviced if damage is present.

    33

    Check the parking brake to make sure the brake is not engaged.

    34

    Replace the brake lines if they are clogged.

    35

    Adjust the wheel bearings. Adjust the brake pedal height. Adjust the brake pads.

    36

    Replace the wheel cylinder, a part of the drum brake system. The wheel cylinder places pressure on the brake shoes. The shoes then come into contact with the drum and stop the vehicle through friction.

Kamis, 01 Maret 2012

Single Vs. Double Flare Brake Line

Single Vs. Double Flare Brake Line

Passenger car braking systems operate using hydraulic pressure. A master cylinder connected to the brake pedal sends fluid through metal lines to the wheel cylinders, which operate the brakes. The metal lines between the cylinders are connected with flared fittings.

Single Flare

    Although easier to make, single flares are prone to splitting, galling and deformation, especially when serviced multiple times. For that reason, single flares are not generally used on brake lines, with the exception of the so-called Army Navy or AN-type 37-degree single flare fittings. The first step of a double flare, called a "bubble" flare, is strictly speaking a single flare, and is also used for brake lines, mainly on British cars.

Double Flare

    A double flare is accomplished using a special tool that first forms a "bubble" on the end of the metal brake line tubing, then flattens the bubble in on itself. The double thickness of metal reduces the problems associated with a single flare. This is the type of flare recommended by the Society of Automotive Engineers. A 45-degree double flare is used by the majority of American automakers.

Considerations

    Plain single flare connections are not recommended for use on brake lines. Double flare brake line connections are by far the most common. Properly made and cared for, they are sufficiently robust for most applications. Double flares can withstand several repair cycles before they should be replaced. Bubble flares work well but require frequent replacement. AN single flare fittings are part of a system designed to meet military specifications. They are by far the most robust type of brake line connections and made to endure frequent repair cycles. AN connections are the choice of the military, hot rod builders and race car mechanics.