Selasa, 31 Januari 2012

How to Change Crown Victoria Rear Brake Pads

The Ford Crown Victoria is one of the longest-tenured vehicles in the history of Ford Motor Co. It has featured rear disc brakes since the early 1980s, though the car also has been available with rear drum and shoe applications. There are slight variations in the procedure to replace the rear brake pads, depending on the year and the version, but most of the process is the same. Since the rear brake pads account for only about 25 percent of the full-framed sedan's braking capacity, the front disc brakes usually need repairs more often.

Instructions

    1

    Open the trunk and turn off the air-ride suspension if it is equipped. The button is on the passenger side of the fender wall. Not all Crown Victorias have air-ride suspension, so if the switch is not present, you're clear to lift the rear axle.

    2

    Remove the hubcaps if applicable. Place the bottle jack or floor jack under the frame until it supports the vehicle but leaves pressure on the rear tires. Loosen the lug nuts with the wheel nut lug wrench. Lift the car high enough to insert a jack stand under the frame in front of each rear tire. Remove the lug nuts and wheels.

    3

    Remove the two caliper slide bolts. Depending on the year of the car, you may encounter a variation of slide or guide bolts. Recent models require a 10-mm box-end wrench to remove them. Some older versions may require a 15-mm open-end wrench to stabilize the guide bolt retainer along with the 10-mm box-end wrench to remove the guide bolt. Even earlier versions call for a 6-mm hex bit that can be used with a ratchet to remove the slide/guide bolts.

    4

    Swing the caliper upward off of the caliper bracket and then use a length of wire to attach it to the rear suspension or the frame. Letting it hang from the brake hose can damage the hose.

    5

    Remove the old pads from the caliper housing by releasing the retaining tabs (on older models) or remove them from the caliper bracket connected to the knuckle (newer models). Inspect the rotor for signs of damage such as grooves, rust pits, heat spots or scoring. If necessary, replace the rotor.

    6

    Compress the caliper piston using a caliper retracting tool or a 6-inch C-clamp. Some versions of the Crown Vic that integrate the rear parking brake require a notched caliper piston tool that can be used with a ratchet to screw in the rear caliper piston in the clockwise motion.

    7

    Place silicone lubricant along the pad hardware clips, wiping off any excess that gets on the rotor. Install the new pads. Place the caliper over the rotor. Clean and lubricate the non-threaded part of the slide bolt. If guide bolts are used on the older versions, you'll need to pop out the internal slides of the calipers to clean and lubricate them. Replace the guide/slide bolts, making sure to align them properly into their seats. Tighten the bolts.

    8

    Replace the tire and lug nuts. Repeat the process for the other side. Lower the Crown Vic and then torque the wheel nuts to 100 foot-pounds with the torque wrench and suitable socket. Turn the air-ride suspension switch back to the "on" position and then pump the foot brake pedal several times to seat the pads to the rotors. Test drive.

How to Repair Antilock Brakes

How to Repair Antilock Brakes

Antilock brakes help prevent your motor vehicle's brakes from locking up. Lockup may occur when you push too hard and fast on the brakes -- especially in less-than-ideal road conditions such as icy or slick roads. An antilock brake system seldom requires maintenance. However, routine checks of your general braking system will help keep your antilock brakes working fine. Although major repairs might require professional help, you can perform some brake maintenance at home.

Instructions

    1

    Attach a computer code reader to your car's computer plug, generally located near the dashboard, when the "ABS" light goes on. (See your vehicle's owner's manual for the exact location of the plug.)

    2

    Seek specific actions depending on the code. If the code indicates that your antilock braking system (ABS) has a mechanical part issue, you may need professional help. Other codes may indicate a circuitry error -- generally the cause of the ABS light coming on.

    3

    Park your vehicle on level ground, put it in park and raise it with a jack.

    4

    Go underneath your car, and locate the brake line -- generally near your brake pedal. (See your vehicle's owner's manual for the exact location.)

    5

    Check for leaks in the brake line. Put the canister underneath the brake line to see whether brake fluid is dripping into the canister. If the brake line is broken, you may need to seek professional help to replace the brake line.

    6

    Bleed your brake line: Disconnect it -- usually by just unscrewing the line from the hydraulic unit above it -- and let all the brake fluid drain out into a large canister or plate.

    7

    Reattach the brake fluid lines.

    8

    Open your hood, and locate the brake fluid holder -- generally near the front of the driver-side area under the hood.

    9

    Add brake fluid. Clean and new brake fluid allows your antilock brakes to work with a healthier braking system.

DIY Rear Brakes on a 1991 Ford Explorer

DIY Rear Brakes on a 1991 Ford Explorer

The rear brake pads on your Explorer wear down over time just as the front pads do. Damage to the pads unrelated to natural wear occurs often from excessive towing. The rear pads in a typical driving scenario act as a leveler. Their job is to help stop the truck levelly and evenly. Towing increases the rear-end weight to level and effectively causes rapid wear of the rear brake pads. With a few tools, you can replace the rear pads on your 1991 Ford Explorer right at home. The complete do-it-yourself repair should take 50 minutes to do.

Instructions

    1

    Park the 1991 Explorer on level ground and align the front tires in the straight forward position -- toward the radiator. Turn the engine off and remove the ignition key. Place a wheel block securely in front of the driver's side front tire.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the Explorer's rear passenger side tire with a lug wrench. Raise the truck with your hydraulic jack on the right side of the tire using the frame as a lifting point. Place a jack stand of equal height on the side of the hydraulic jack to help support your Explorer.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts from their studs and pull the truck's tire from the vehicle. Temporarily store the lug nuts in a cup or within the vehicle to keep them free of dirt.

    4

    Observe the brake caliper before you remove it. The caliper secures in place by two bolts on the inner side of it. The Explorer's caliper also mounts over each of the rear brake pads. The outer brake pad mounts on the caliper by two spring clips. The inner brake pad has a metal clip attached to the bottom of it. At the rear of the inner brake pad, notice a round metal cylinder. This is the piston, the inner brake pad's clip pushes down into the piston.

    5

    Place your 8-inch C-clamp around the body of the Explorer's brake caliper. Begin winding the screw portion of the clamp closed until it touches the top of the outer brake pad. The piston that an inner brake pad mounts upon must be compressed all the way down or you won't be able to mount the new pads over the rotor.

    6

    Twist the C-clamp closed while you observe the inner brake pad. Once you see that the pad sits flat against the inner surface of the caliper take the C-clamp off.

    7

    Loosen the two brake caliper bolts with a socket wrench. Completely remove the bolts by hand and place a 5-gallon bucket next to your Explorer's caliper. Lift the caliper off the rotor and set it down on the bucket with the outer pad facing up.

    8

    Remove the inner brake from the piston. Grasp it on either side and pull it up out of the piston. Install the new inner brake pad by pushing its metal clip down into the piston. Remove the outer brake pad from your caliper. Push the pad outward off the caliper to release its metal clips. Install your new inner pad in the opposite manner.

    9

    Lift your Explorer's brake caliper from the bucket and place it down over the rotor into mounting position. Install and tighten both of your caliper's mounting bolts by hand. Tighten the caliper's bolts to 20 foot lbs. with a 3/8-inch drive torque wrench.

    10

    Mount the tire back onto the Explorer and tighten each of the lug nuts until they're snug with your lug wrench. Remove the jack stand and begin lowering the truck until the bottom of the tire meets the ground. Reset the torque wrench to 99 foot-lbs and completely secure the lug nuts.

    11

    Lower the Explorer down completely and remove the hydraulic jack. Pump the brake pedal slowly until it feels stiff beneath your foot. Remove the wheel block and place it in front of the passenger's side front tire. Repeat this entire process to remove and replace the brake pads on the driver's side rear tire.

How to Choose Disc Brake Pads

Everyone knows that owning an automobile requires ongoing maintenance, but brakes are particularly important to maintain. The brakes help you stop in day-to-day driving conditions, but you'll appreciate the importance of good disc brake pads when faced with an emergency. In addition to making it difficult to stop, poor brake pads smoke, are noisy, and can damage the hubs of your car. If you follow a few simple guidelines, you'll find choosing disc brake pads an easy process.

Instructions

Instructions

    1

    Decide what type of disc brake pads you need. For instance, you can select from four types of brake pads: semimetallic, fiber, low-metallic, and ceramic. Semi-metallic pads get their stopping power from mixing iron or other alloy particles with adhesive. At prices ranging from $15 to $25 per pad, semi-metallic pads cost less than other pads, but they wear down quickly and make noise. Fiber pads consist of a variety of materials including glass, metal, or rubber. They do not create much noise, but they do emit dust. Low-metallic pads consist of copper or steel alloys. They can create noise and dust. Ceramic pads brake well under pressure, create little noise, and cost about as much as other pads.

    2

    Look for Brake Effectiveness Evaluation Procedures (BEEP) certification. BEEP certification ensures the brand of brake pads have passed independent, third-party performance testing. BEEP certification does not provide ratings per se, but a BEEP certification label on the package ensures quality disc brake pads.

    3

    Compare prices. Prices for brake pads range from $25 to $65 per pad. Even a modest 5% or 10% discount adds up.

    4

    Look for a type of pad that dissipates heat well. When you apply the brakes, heat from friction builds across the surface of the disc brake pad. This heat can cause glazing, which makes the pad slick and unable to stop the car. Disc brake pads that dissipate heat well absorb the heat and keep the pad from glazing. Semi-metallic pads work worst. Ceramic pads dissipate heat the best.

    5

    Look for quiet pads. Noisy brake pads screech under pressure, especially if they get wet. Ceramic pads consistently perform silently. Semi-metallic pads make a lot of noise.

    6

    Look for a reputable dealer. For instance, many chain automotive shops will not use customer-purchased parts. Consequently, you never actually see the product you purchase. Shady dealers sometimes use worn brake pads.

Senin, 30 Januari 2012

How to Remove Frozen Brake Bleeder Screws

How to Remove Frozen Brake Bleeder Screws

Brake bleeder screws typically mount on brake calipers. The screws can freeze, or become stuck, when calipers are exposed to moisture and other corrosive elements, such as road salt. The corrosive elements might cause rust to form between the bleeder screw threads and the caliper. To break the seal formed from the rust, use an oil penetrating product such as Liquid Wrench, WD 40 or Marvel Mystery Oil. These products are low-viscosity oils that penetrate rust and lube bleeder screw threads for easy removal.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen and remove the brake line, which is located at the rear of the caliper, with a ratchet or a wrench. Drain any fluid inside the caliper through the hole where the bolt secured the brake line.

    2

    Spray the frozen bleeder screw with the oil penetrator to loosen any rust that might be binding the screw. Apply the product to a rag or paper towel liberally, then wrap the saturated material around the bleeder screw. Let the material remain on the screw for as long as the product's manufacturer recommends.

    3

    Secure the caliper to a solid work area, such as a work bench, with a c-clamp to free both your hands and prevent the caliper from slipping.

    4

    Attach an appropriate-sized socket to a long-handled ratchet. Connect the socket to the bleeder screw. Turn the ratchet counter-clockwise to loosen the screw.

    5

    Tap the back end of the ratchet handle with a hammer or mallet while turning the ratchet in a counter-clockwise direction. This action will help loosen the bind between the screw threads and the caliper if needed.

How to Install Rear Brakes on a 1996 Camaro

How to Install Rear Brakes on a 1996 Camaro

Installing rear brakes on the Chevy Camaro is not difficult. You can in fact, change the brakes in your driveway, eliminating the need of taking the car to a repair garage. It takes about an hour to change drum brakes on the Camaro. When you change the brake shoes, you need to also thoroughly inspect the brake drum to make sure it has no damage such as cracking or grooves from over-worn brake shoes. If there is any damage present, you will need to have the drums resurfaced, or replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Camaro on a level surface and turn off the key. Do not set the parking brake or you will not be able to change the brake shoes. Place a set of wheel chocks in front of the front tires. Raise the Camaro with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the car near the jacking point and raise it to the frame.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts with the lug wrench and remove the wheel from the car on the side you are starting with. Pull the brake drum away from the axle. You may have to strike the drum several times with the rubber mallet to break it loose if it does not come off easily.

    3

    Remove the return springs from the brake shoes using the brake tool. Remove the hold-down springs from the primary and secondary shoes by using a pair of pliers to grasp the spring and turn it one-quarter turn while pushing it in. Remove the actuator pivot by unhooking it from the assembly. While lifting the actuator pivot off, remove the actuator link.

    4

    Remove the actuator return spring using the brake tool to unhook it. Remove the shoe guide, the parking brake lever, and the parking brake strut by unhooking them from the secondary shoe. Remove the brake shoes from the backing plate along with the parking brake rear cable.

    5

    Remove the adjusting screw assembly from the brake shoes. Apply a light coat of oil to the threads and turn the adjuster all the way in. Disengage the parking brake cable from the parking brake lever by unhooking it. Remove the parking brake lever from the brake shoe by prying open the retaining ring using the pliers.

    6

    Clean all brake parts thoroughly using an approved brake cleaner. If the brake drums are new, you need to make sure that you thoroughly clean the protective coating from them. Install the parking brake lever to the secondary brake sure and secure it with a new retaining ring.

    7

    Install the secondary shoe to the backing plate. Secure the secondary shoe with the retaining spring by grasping it with the pliers and turning it one-quarter turn while pushing it in. Connect the parking brake cable to the lever by hooking it on to it. Place the primary shoe on the backing plate and secure it by grasping the retaining spring with the pliers and turning it one-quarter turn while pushing it in.

    8

    Place the self-adjuster between the brake shoes in the notches. Install the parking brake strut and the spring. Install the actuator lever and lever-return spring. Install the actuator pivot and hold down springs using the brake tool. Hook the actuator link into the lever while holding the lever up. Install the return springs using the brake tool.

    9

    Place the brake drum on the wheel assembly. Install the tire and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the Camaro. Lower the car to the ground and repeat the procedure on the other wheel.

Abs Vs. Standard Brakes

Abs Vs. Standard Brakes

Since the advent of the Anti-lock Brake System, or ABS, the debate has raged over whether a car is safer with or without this system. While on the surface, the question seems simple, it's actually quite complex. Some argue that people rely on ABS too much and take chances they otherwise would not have taken. Others argue that ABS function saves lives by allowing the driver to maintain directional control when he otherwise would not have it.

Advantages of ABS

    Early studies demonstrated an increase in single driver accidents on ABS-equipped cars and light trucks and was attributed to driver error in brake application. The common technique of pumping the brake pedal when the wheels lock up, and the early ABS push back on the driver's foot contributed to this increase. There has been a substantial decrease in the numbers of these types of accidents in later studies.

    Where the ABS-equipped vehicle has the advantage is in maintaining directional control and stability. The ability of anti-lock brakes to allow the driver to steer around an object is what the system was designed to do. So the primary advantage is the ability to steer out of an accident, instead of locking the wheel and skidding into an accident.

Disadvantages of ABS

    While many people believe stopping distances are shorter with ABS, studies have shown there is no significant decrease in most cases. The exceptions are loose gravel and snow, where conventional brakes stop slightly better due to the loose material wedging in front of the tires.

Standard Brakes

    The big advantage of non-ABS cars is the reduction in cost. Non-ABS cars have significantly lower repair costs over ABS cars. The fact that many ABS cars require special equipment and training to properly bleed air out of the system, and the added complexity and expensive parts, causes repair cost to be substantially higher.

    With the standard brake system, directional stability and control during a panic stop are its weaknesses.

The Human Factor

    In a NHTSA test analysis dated August 2000, no correlation was found to indicate a change in driver behavior due to ABS. The study concludes that 44 percent of drivers in non-ABS-equipped vehicles were unable to avoid an accident as apposed to 20 percent in the ABS-equipped vehicle. No appreciable change in driver reactions was noted.

    However, due to misconceptions about ABS, driver confidence in a decrease in stopping distance may lead to increases in accidents. The answer to this problem will be in driver training to overcome those misconceptions and train new drivers in proper use of ABS.

Conclusion

    The conclusions we can draw from the statistics are that earlier ABS suffered from a lack of driver training, and since prior driver training taught techniques counterproductive to ABS function, an increase in accidents was observed. But as driver training comes inline with ABS function, a decrease in accidents is being observed and will likely continue to improve.

Minggu, 29 Januari 2012

How to Change Brakes on a 1999 Dodge Van

How to Change Brakes on a 1999 Dodge Van

The braking system on your 1999 Dodge van includes the brake pads, brake rotors and the brake caliper. The brake caliper is the main component that pushes the back of the outer brake pad against the back facing of the brake rotor. As the outer brake pad compresses onto the brake rotor, the inner brake pad pulls to the front facing of the brake rotor. The friction from the brake pads sliding against the turning brake rotor is what stops the van. Inspect the brakes for replacement between 30,000 and 40,000 miles.

Instructions

    1

    Park your 1999 Dodge van on a level surface. Then push the parking brake in.

    2

    Loosen all of the lug nuts from the front driver's side wheel as well as the front passenger's side wheel with a tire tool or lug wrench. Turn the lug nuts counterclockwise to loosen them.

    3

    Jack the front end of your 1999 Dodge van up. Set a jack stand under the side frame on both sides of the van. Be sure to position the stands near the front wheels so that the weight of the front end sits evenly on the stands.

    4

    Lower the jack to the top of the safety stands. Inspect the van to make sure it is safely and securely on top of the stands. Leave the jack in place.

    5

    Unscrew all of the lug nuts from both front wheels and pull them off. Set the wheels in a flat position to prevent rolling.

    6

    Move to the front driver's side wheel and locate the two slide bolts in the back of the brake caliper. One of the slide bolts is at the top of the caliper, and the other slide bolt is at the bottom of the caliper. Loosen and remove the slide bolts with a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket.

    7

    Insert a small pry bar into the access hole on the side of the brake caliper. Pry the outer brake pad back and forth towards the back of the brake caliper until the caliper becomes loose.

    8

    Pull the brake caliper from the side of the brake rotor. If the caliper is still tight, use the small pry bar to pry the bottom of the caliper off. Then, pull the caliper off of the rotor. Hang the caliper on one of the steering components behind the wheel hub assembly with a piece of rope. The front strut and the front spring are good places to hang the brake caliper.

    9

    Pry the inside brake pad out of the metal retaining clip on the inner part of the brake caliper with the small pry bar.

    10

    Position a C-clamp into the caliper so that the adjusting rod is facing the outside brake pad. Then compress the outside brake pad towards the caliper cylinder. Continue to compress the outside brake pad against the caliper cylinder until the cylinder is flush with the outside of the brake caliper. Loosen the C-clamp and remove it from the caliper.

    11

    Pry the outside brake pad out of the metal retaining clip with the small pry bar. Then install the new replacement brake pads into the retaining clips. Remove the rope and hang the caliper back onto the side of the rotor. Push both slide bolts into the rear of the caliper and screw the slide bolts in until tight. Then tighten the slide bolts with the ratchet and socket.

    12

    Slide the wheel back onto the hub and screw all of the lug nuts onto the lugs. Tighten the lug nuts until the wheel turns. Move to the other wheels and follow the same directions, as above, for replacing the brakes. When finished replacing the brakes on each wheel hub, jack the van back up and slide the stands out. Slowly lower the van to the ground. Then pull the jack out from under the van.

    13

    Crank the engine of your 1999 Dodge van and give the brake pedal a few pushes in and out to properly seat the brake pads near the facing of the brake rotors. Turn the engine off and close the hood.

How to Release a Frozen Emergency Brake

How to Release a Frozen Emergency Brake

A vehicle's emergency or parking brake can usually be found to the right of the driver's seat near the floor. If the brake becomes frozen, the vehicle will be difficult to move. Unlike the hydraulic brakes that are used with a vehicle's brake pedal system, the emergency brake uses a combination of levers and cables to render the vehicle's tires immobile. If frozen due to cold temperatures, freeing the brake takes time but causes little more than a brief headache. A broken cable, however, needs to be replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Pull up the emergency brake and release it quickly. If you believe your vehicle's emergency brake is stuck due to freezing cold, the quick pulls and releases could knock any ice from the cables, allowing the mechanism to move smoothly. Continue pulling and releasing the brake multiple times. If these movements do not free the brake after a couple of tries, you may have to thaw the braking mechanism.

    2

    Start the vehicle's ignition and let the engine run. The heat created by the engine and distributed through the exhaust system should warm the parking brake mechanism enough to thaw the ice and allow the emergency brake to work as designed. To quicken the process, push or shovel snow up to the sides of the vehicle to stop the warm air from escaping from under the vehicle.

    3

    Drive the vehicle into a heated parking garage if possible. Although it is not advisable to drive your vehicle with the emergency brake on, if you are parked close to a heated location, it might be the easiest option. Your vehicle will move if you drive with the brake on, but you may feel some resistance on the accelerator.

    4

    Shift the vehicle in reverse and try driving backwards. The opposite motion of the tires could free a stuck emergency brake.

How to Replace Rear Brake Pads on 2003 VW Beetle

How to Replace Rear Brake Pads on 2003 VW Beetle

Replacing the brake pads on your 2003 Volkswagen Beetle is a fairly easy and economical do-it-yourself repair that will save you a few dollars. Brakes are composed of friction pads that pinch the brake disc, or drum, when you apply the pressure to them. Replace the brake pads before they wear beyond 1/4 inch. Failure to replace brake pads at this time significantly increases the risk of damaging your Beetle's brake discs and rotors.

Instructions

    1

    "Break" the lug nuts, turning them with a lug wrench just until they are loose, and then jack up the rear end of your Beetle. Remove the lug nuts and the tire.

    2

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts of your 2003 VW Beetle with the lug wrench, and slide the caliper off the disc rotor. Remove the brake pads from the caliper, including any old springs or shims.

    3

    Place the shims on the outside of each brake pad, and insert the pads into the caliper bracket.

    4

    Turn the caliper piston clockwise, using a piston caliper tool, while pressing it into the caliper bore. Place the caliper over the brake pads, then tighten the caliper mounting bolts.

    5

    Replace the tire and lug nuts, and lower your 2003 VW Beetle from the jack.

Kamis, 26 Januari 2012

How to Change the Front Brakes on a 1998 Nissan Maxima

How to Change the Front Brakes on a 1998 Nissan Maxima

Nissan began production of the Maxima in 1981 as the highest trim level for the Nissan 810. In 1982, Nissan dropped the 810 name altogether and named all of its large sedans Maxima. The 1998 Maxima has a 190-horsepower, 3.0-liter V-6 engine and ventilated disc brakes on the front wheels. Over time, the brake pads on the front will wear out and need to be replaced. The interval between front brake pad changes is usually 25,000 to 35,000 miles, depending on your driving habits.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of the Maxima and remove the lid from the master cylinder reservoir. That's the plastic container on the rear driver's side of the engine compartment. Siphon half of the fluid from the master cylinder reservoir, using the turkey baster, and transfer that fluid into a small clean container for reuse.

    2

    Loosen the Maxima's front lug nuts, but do not remove them.

    3

    Place the floor jack beneath the front of the Maxima and raise it from the ground. Place the jack stands beneath the vehicle to secure it.

    4

    Remove the front lug nuts and pull the wheels from the Maxima.

    5

    Loosen and remove the lower caliper bolt on the rear of the brake caliper, using the ratchet and socket. Loosen but do not remove the upper caliper bolt, using the ratchet and socket.

    6

    Swing the caliper upward, using the upper bolt as a pivot point. Connect the caliper to a suspension component using the bungee strap.

    7

    Grab both the inner and outer brake pads and pull them from the caliper bracket, the large metal component the caliper bolts to. Take note of how the pads are positioned prior to removal, as the new pads must be placed in the same position.

    8

    Place the C-clamp over the caliper so that the fixed portion is contacting the rear of the caliper and the screw portion is lined up with the caliper piston, the cylindrical object inside the caliper.

    9

    Position the old inner brake pad between the caliper piston and the C-clamp's screw to prevent damage to the piston. Tighten the C-clamp and observe as the caliper piston begins to descend into the caliper body. Continue tightening the C-clamp until the top of the piston is flush with the caliper's body.

    10

    Loosen and remove the C-clamp and the old brake pad.

    11

    Place the new brake pads onto the caliper bracket, in the same position the old pads were in.

    12

    Remove the caliper from the bungee strap and swing the caliper down and over the new brake pads. Hand-tighten the upper and lower caliper bolts.

    13

    Tighten the caliper bolts to 16 to 23 foot-pounds, using the torque wrench and a socket.

    14

    Repeat Steps 4 through 13 for the brake pads on the other side of the Maxima.

    15

    Remount the wheels on the front of the Maxima and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Remove the jack stands from under the car and carefully lower it to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts -- in a star pattern -- to 90 foot-pounds, using the torque wrench and a socket.

    16

    Check the fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir by looking at the "Min" and "Max" lines on the outside of the reservoir. If the fluid level is not between those lines, add fluid from the small container of saved fluid until the level is between the lines. If no fluid is needed, dispose of the fluid in the small container properly. Most auto parts stores will dispose of old fluids free of charge.

    17

    Place the lid back on the master cylinder reservoir and close the Maxima's hood.

    18

    Press and release the brake pedal until it feels firm. This process pushes the caliper piston out and against the new brake pads.

2000 Silverado Clutch Line Removal

The clutch system in your Chevy Silverado truck uses a hydraulic line that is very much like the brake system. The pedal, when pressed, sends the hydraulic fluid from the master cylinder through the line to the slave cylinder. If this line becomes damaged, you need to remove it for replacement. It can be a big issue in places where the roads have to be salted frequently. Removing a clutch line is different than a brake line, as it requires special tools.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the truck's front end using a floor jack and support it on jack stands placed under the frame rails.

    2

    Disconnect the battery's negative cable by loosening the nut on the side of the black cable's clamp using a wrench; this clamp connects the cable to the negative terminal.

    3

    Unscrew and remove the under-dash trim panel on the left side of the truck using a screwdriver. Pry out the heat/air conditioner duct behind it; use a flat screwdriver or similar tool if you can't get it out by hand.

    4

    Grab hold of the hydraulic line fitting at the slave cylinder, which is at the transmission end. This requires a quick-disconnect tool from an auto parts store for the line's fitting. Grip the fitting's shoulder with the tool's jaw-like end.

    5

    Push on the clutch line's fitting using the quick-disconnect tool and pull the line out of the fitting by hand.

    6

    Grip the fitting at the clutch line's other end--the end connected to the master cylinder--using the quick-disconnect tool. Push on this fitting and disconnect the line from the master cylinder to remove the line.

How to Change the Transmission Filter in an 03 Trailblazer

All Chevy Trailblazers are equipped with automatic transmissions, which use filters to clean the impurities in the the transmission fluid. You need to change your car's transmission filter at the same time that you change the transmission fluid; for the 03 model, you need to do this job every 30,000 miles or 30 months. The transmission fluid pan on the Trailblazer is more or less centered on the undercarriage, making it slightly difficult to reach.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the car with the jack and support it on four jack stands. Place a drain pan underneath the transmission fluid pan and check to see if the pan has a drain plug.

    2

    Disconnect the shift linkage that runs along the driver's side of the transmission pan--disconnect the cable end from the ball stud and then remove the bolts that mount the cable bracket to the transmission--this is needed to access some of the transmission pan bolts.

    3

    Unscrew and remove the drain plug, using a flare-nut wrench, and let the fluid drain into the drain pan.

    4

    Remove the mounting bolts for the transmission pan, using the wrench, then carefully pry off the pan with a flat-head screwdriver. If the pan doesn't have a drain plug, remove all but the corner bolts and then slowly remove the front bolts, so that the fluid drains into the drain pan.

    5

    Pull the transmission filter straight down to remove it from the valve body inside the transmission.

    6

    Clean off all traces of gasket sealant from both the transmission and pan, using solvent and a rag. Dry the surfaces with compressed air.

    7

    Install the new filter in the transmission with a new seal; the seal is often pre-installed on most replacement filters.

    8

    Attach a new gasket onto the flange of the transmission pan, and then install the pan back on the transmission with its bolts. Tighten each bolt a little bit at a time, working around the pan's circumference.

    9

    Reconnect the shift linkage, using its bolts, and connect the cable end to the ball stud.

    10

    Lower the vehicle off the jack stands.

    11

    Fill the transmission with four quarts of Dexron III automatic transmission fluid through the filler tube at the right rear end of the engine compartment. Use a funnel to aid in pouring the fluid.

Power Brakes vs. ABS in Cars

Power Brakes vs. ABS in Cars

Power brakes and antilock brakes are not a new form of braking technology -- both braking systems simply enhance drum- or disc-operated brakes. Because vehicle owners prefer better braking and safety features, car manufactures often pair ABS and power brakes as standard or optional equipment to supplement regular braking capabilities.

Power Brakes

    Bendix patented a power-brake system in the 1950s. As the name implies, power brakes assist the vehicle's braking system by providing added braking power. Most power brake systems use a vacuum-boost design; however, Hydro-Boost and electrohydraulic systems are also available. Power brakes essentially use a vacuum and air pressure to provide added braking power. The size of the power-brake diaphragm and amount of intake vacuum decides the intensity of the power-brake assist, for instance, 20 inches of engine vacuum with an 8-inch booster provides about 240 lbs. of brake assist.

ABS

    Compared to power brakes, antilock brakes are a more contemporary technology. In 1978, Mercedes-Benz became the first automotive company to make ABS available on its vehicles in the United States. Antilock brakes provide an extra layer of control to standard braking systems. ABS essentially uses sensors and an onboard computer to control and avoid problems with braking. It does this by pumping the brakes faster than humanly possible.

Benefits of Power Brakes

    When Bendix introduced power brakes in the 1950s, it enhanced the efficiency of braking systems. Prior to power brakes, bringing a vehicle to a stop could require a large amount of human power. An illustration shows that power brakes can be operated by anyone -- even a 98-lb. little old lady, who, with a light caress of her foot on the brakes, brings two tons of Lincoln Town Car to a quick halt. However, if power-braking systems fail, braking can become difficult. At high speeds, power brakes can lockup, possibly causing a driver to lose control.

Benefits of ABS

    When a driver travels at high speeds and slams on the brakes, he runs the risk of causing the brakes to lockup. Applying ABS decreases the likelihood of a vehicle's brakes locking up and skidding, causing the driver to lose control of the automobile. ABS does not engage in normal braking conditions below highway speeds. More advanced ABS applies braking pressure selectively -- decreasing braking pressure on a certain wheel to prevent lockup and promote proper rotation.

How to Replace a Brake Line in a Dodge Caravan

Brake lines run from the master cylinder to each brake and are usually one of the most durable parts on the vehicle. Dodge Caravan model years 2000, 2001 and 2002 are more likely rub together and corrode. If you decide to replace your brake lines, consult with a mechanic first.

Instructions

Preparation

    1

    Raise the vehicle on jack stands that will support a Dodge Caravan. Remove the wheel corresponding to the brake line you need.

    2

    Open the hood and locate the brake master cylinder at the back right of the engine compartment. It's a metal cylinder with a plastic reservoir tank on top. Trace the brake lines that run from it and to each wheel.

    3

    Look over the whole brake line. It may be divided into sections where only once piece may need replacing. Each line will also be connected to a hose near the caliper.

    4

    Note how the line is bent and coiled in multiple places. This reduces the strain on the line. Bend the replacement line in the same way.

    5

    Measure the length of the old brake line and compare it to the new. You need to cut it to the original line's length if the replacement pipe is longer. Then, flare the end so it fits the connector bolts.

Replacement

    6

    Remove the brake line by removing the connector bolts. Start at the end closest to the brake hose, then remove the end near the master cylinder. Use two line wrenches because there will be two bolts on each connector.

    7

    Support any piece of the line still on the van by tying it to the chassis with a strong wire. This is especially true of pieces connected to the brake hose. Don't let anything hang from the hose or you could damage it.

    8

    Plug the holes in the brake line on the van so you won't lose or contaminate the brake fluid. Use rubber, non-absorbent cloth or any clean material that won't absorb the fluid.

    9

    Attach the new brake line pipe. Screw the bolts on by hand and then tighten them with your wrenches. Start with the end closest to the master cylinder, then to the hose.

    10

    Bleed the brake system of air. Open the bleeder valve on the caliper, attach a vinyl tube to it and place the tube's other end in a container of brake fluid. Have another person press on the brake pedal to remove the air.

    11

    Place the wheel back on and lower the vehicle. Repeat this process for as many sections of the van as needed.

Rabu, 25 Januari 2012

How to Replace the SHO Brakes in a Ford Taurus

The Ford Taurus SHO---"Super High Output"---made it debut in 1988 as one of Ford's high-performance automobiles. As an upgraded model of the Ford Taurus Sedan, it received an upgrade in its brake package. The SHO was given the option to have disc brakes on all wheels, which makes them easier to change and makes for more uniform and consistent braking. SHO brakes operate like other braking systems in that hydraulic fluid pushes against a caliper, which forces a pad against a rotor. The friction creates heat, but also slows the vehicle down. Over time, the pad material is thinned out from the friction and must be replaced. When you feel vibration in the steering wheel or when the pad material is 1/8 inch thick, you must replace the SHO brakes in your Ford Taurus.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the front wheel lug nuts by turning them 1/4 turn counterclockwise.

    2

    Place the floor jack under the vehicle and jack up on the front jack point of the Taurus located behind the radiator.

    3

    Place jack stands underneath the front pinch welds of the vehicle and lower the SHO onto the jack stands.

    4

    Repeat steps 1 through 3 for the rear of the vehicle. Jack up on the rear jack point located near the trunk area; use the rear pinch welds for the jack stands.

    5

    Continue removing the lug nuts on all wheels once the Taurus is on jack stands. Then pull the wheels off the hub assembly.

    6

    Unbolt the upper and lower caliper mounting bolts.

    7

    Pull the caliper off the rotor and secure it to the coil springs above the brake assembly.

    8

    Remove the brake pads from the SHO's caliper by tapping them from the back with a rubber mallet.

    9

    Compress the caliper piston back into the caliper assembly by placing the face of a brake pad over the piston and forcing the pad against the piston with a c-clamp until the piston has been pushed all the way back into the caliper housing.

    10

    Pull the rotor straight off the hub assembly. You may need to tap it with a rubber mallet to knock the rotor loose.

    11

    Slide the new rotor over the hub assembly.

    12

    Insert the new brake pads into the caliper assembly and reassemble the caliper over the rotor.

    13

    Place a small amount of thread locker onto the threads of the caliper mounting bolts before re-tightening them on the caliper mounting bracket. Tighten the bolts until you feel significant resistance, then turn the caliper bolts an additional 1/4 turn.

    14

    Spray the entire brake assembly down with brake parts cleaner. Remove all brake dust and residue that may have accumulated while you were working.

    15

    Put the wheel back on the hub assembly and tighten the lug nuts.

    16

    Repeat steps 5 through 14 for all wheels.

    17

    Lower the Taurus to the ground and torque the lug nuts to 100 pound feet.

Selasa, 24 Januari 2012

How to Fix the Brakes on a 2004 Mercedes S430

The braking system on a 2004 Mercedes S430 uses a four-wheel caliper and rotor system for maximum clamping force during braking. Hydraulic fluid is forced through steel tubing and into a mechanical caliper mechanism. The caliper forced a brake lining against the rotor, which is a disc connected to the axles and wheels. This clamping force against the rotors is what slows down and stops the Mercedes S430. The brake lining is designed to convert motion into energy (heat) through this clamping force. As this happens, the lining disintegrates. When your pad lining is 1/8-inch thick, you'll need to fix the brakes in order to continue driving your Mercedes safely.

Instructions

    1

    Place the tire wrench over the end of the lug nuts and break them loose on all of the wheels. You should only need to give the wrench 1/8 to 1/4 turn to break the lug nuts free. Do not unseat the wheel from the wheel hub as this could damage the wheel studs and the wheel as well as the brake system.

    2

    Put the floor jack under the front jack point and lift up on it. The jack point is an extension of the frame. Place jack stands under the front pinch welds located underneath the driver and passenger side door. Lower the S430 onto the jack stands.

    3

    Repeat step 2 with the rear of the Mercedes. Make sure you use the rear jack point and rear pinch welds to support the vehicle.

    4

    Finish removing the lug nuts and pull the wheel off the hub.

    5

    Visually inspect the brake lining. The brake lining is the brake pad that sits inside the caliper that covers the brake rotor disc. The lining should be more than 1/8 inch thick. If it is not, then you must replace the lining. You will also want to visually inspect the brake rotor surface. If the rotor surface is scored or pitted, replace the rotor.

    6

    Remove the top and bottom caliper mounting bolts and pull the caliper off the rotor assembly.

    7

    Secure the caliper to the Mercedes' coil spring assembly directly above the brake assembly with zip-ties. Make sure that you do not tangle or damage the rubber brake hose attached to the brake caliper assembly.

    8

    Remove the old brake linings from the caliper assembly by gently tapping them from behind with a rubber mallet.

    9

    Place the face of one of the brake pads over the caliper piston. Place a c-clamp over the top of the brake lining and the caliper assembly. Force the piston back into the caliper by tightening the old brake lining against the caliper piston. Do not twist the boot in this process. The piston boot should fold back into the caliper assembly "accordion style".

    10

    Insert the new brake pads into the caliper assembly. They will only fit one way.

    11

    Slide the rotor off the hub assembly. It should slide right off, but you may have to persuade it with a rubber mallet.

    12

    Slide a new rotor onto the hub assembly, cut the zip-ties with a wire cutter, and slide the caliper assembly over the rotor.

    13

    Place a small dab of thread locker onto the threads of the caliper bolts and tighten the caliper mounting bolts down clockwise. Once you feel resistance, give the caliper bolts an additional 1/4 turn.

    14

    Re-mount the Mercedes' wheel and tighten the lug nuts down.

    15

    Repeat steps 4 to 13 for all of the S430's wheels.

    16

    Lower the Mercedes to the ground and set the torque wrench to 100 foot-lbs. Turn each lug nut until the torque wrench clicks, indicating that the proper torque value has been reached.

How to Change Nissan Quest Front Brake Pads

Although the Nissan Quest has been around since 1993 and endured three generational designs, replacing the front brake pads has remained virtually unchanged. Since the Quest's front brake pads accommodate 75 percent of the braking capacity on the minivan, replacing the pads more frequently than the rear brakes is not uncommon. Depending on braking habits and quality of replacement pads, a set should last 20,000 to 30,000 miles.

Instructions

    1

    Remove one-third of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using a brake syringe and then discard the fluid. Apply the parking brake and place a wheel wedge or wood block behind one of the rear tires.

    2

    Crack the lug nuts loose on one front wheel using the lug nut wrench. Lift that corner of the Quest with a jack and then place a jack stand underneath the front frame rail. If desired, repeat the procedure for the other front wheel. Finish removing the lug nuts and then wheel(s).

    3

    Remove the caliper bolts using a Torx T-40 bit and a ratchet. Turn the bolts counterclockwise to remove them and then set them aside. Use a screwdriver to pry the caliper and pad assembly off of the rotor and then use a length of mechanics wire to support the caliper to the coil spring of the strut. This will prevent the caliper from hanging from the brake hose to not incur damage to it.

    4

    Using a screwdriver, release the outboard brake pad retainer and then with another screwdriver, pry the pad off of the caliper housing. Before removing the inboard pad, use a caliper piston retractor tool or a large C-clamp and compress the caliper piston inward until it bottoms out. The inboard pad will act as an anchor for the retractor or clamp. Pull the inboard pad out of the caliper piston.

    5

    Inspect the condition of the rotor. Any scores or grooves present on the inboard or outboard surface of the rotor indicate a need to replace it.

    6

    Remove any dirt or rust present on the inside of the caliper around the brake pad contact area using a wire brush. Spray the same area of the caliper with brake clean and allow it to dry. Apply a light coat of anti-seize compound to the pad to caliper mating surfaces. Be careful not to place too much and prevent getting the compound on the rotors. If necessary, use a rag and some brake-cleaning spray to remove any compound that gets on the rotor.

    7

    Install the new pads by placing the inboard pad into the caliper piston first and then installing the outboard pad. Be sure the clips are properly seated or the caliper and pad assembly will not fit over the rotor properly. Replace the caliper over the rotor. Clean the caliper bolts with a wire brush and then apply a light coat of compound on the non-threaded area of the bolts before replacing into the caliper guides. Tighten the bolts to 25-foot pounds using a torque wrench and the Torx T-40 bit -- an adapter may be necessary depending on the square-drive size of the torque wrench.

    8

    Replace the wheel and lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts flush to the hub as much as you can with the wheel suspended, and then lower the front corner of the Quest. Retighten the lug nuts to 85-foot pounds using the torque wrench and a suitable socket. Repeat the pad replacement procedure for the other front wheel.

    9

    Pump the brake pedal several times until it feels firm. This will seat the new pads to the rotor. Check and adjust the brake fluid level of the master cylinder using new brake fluid only. Release the parking brake and then remove the wheel wedge or wood block before test-driving the minivan.

How to Replace Rotors on a Mazda B2500

How to Replace Rotors on a Mazda B2500

The rotors are the heart of the front disc brakes of the Mazda B2500. If the rotors are bad, they will not work properly to stop the truck. Changing the rotors is straightforward and you can complete the project in your garage or driveway. The job requires no special tools and most toolboxes will already contain the things you need. If you're replacing the rotor, you should take advantage of the repair to replace the brake pads, too. Plan for it to take you about 45 minutes to complete each wheel.

Instructions

    1

    Open the engine compartment and prop the hood using the prop rod. Remove the lid from the master cylinder by twisting it counterclockwise. Insert the turkey baster and siphon one-half of the brake fluid from the cylinder, if you are planning on changing the brake pads as well as the rotors. Place the fluid in the drain pan for recycling.

    2

    Place a set of wheel chocks behind the rear wheels of the B2500. Raise the front of the automobile on the side that you are starting with, using the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the truck near the jacking point and raise it to the frame. Loosen the lug nuts with the lug wrench and remove the wheel from the Mazda.

    3

    Loosen the caliper retaining bolts using a socket and ratchet. Remove and discard the brake pads, if you are going to change them. Push the caliper piston inside the caliper housing. Secure the caliper to the strut using a wire tie. Do not allow the caliper to hang by the brake hose or you will stretch and damage it. Remove the brake rotor from the wheel assembly and discard it.

    4

    Install a new rotor on the wheel assembly. Cut the wire tie securing the brake caliper to the strut with a pair of pliers. Install a new set of brake pads into the caliper. Place the brake caliper on the mounting cradle and secure it by tightening the retaining pins with a socket and ratchet.

    5

    Install the wheel on the truck and tighten the lug nuts using the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the Mazda and lower the truck to the ground. Repeat the procedure on the other wheel. When the project is complete, add enough brake fluid to bring the master cylinder to the proper level. Pump the brakes several times until the pedal feels firm in order to seat the brake pads on the rotors.

Senin, 23 Januari 2012

How do I Install Brake Rotors for a Chevy 3500?

The brake rotors on the Chevy 3500 series trucks, like the Silverado 3500HD, create great stopping power. The brake calipers hold the brake pads, and when you step on the brake pedal, the pads grab onto the rotors and stop the Chevy. The large rotors located behind the wheels last upwards of 50,000 miles before you need to replace them, depending on driving conditions and your personal driving style. Chevy rotors are straightforward and relatively easy to replace. Complete this process with each of the four brake rotors on the Chevy 3500 series truck.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood and remove the cap from the master cylinder. The master cylinder is located on the fire wall on the driver's side of the vehicle. It is a white plastic container with a black cap.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on each tire using the lug nut wrench supplied with the Chevy. Do not remove them, just loosen.

    3

    Place a jack under the front frame of the vehicle using the jack supplied with the Chevy. Jack the vehicle up and place it on jack stands. Repeat this process with the rear of the vehicle.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts from the Chevy with the lug nut wrench and pull the wheels off the vehicle.

    5

    Remove the two bolts threaded into the backside of the brake caliper using a socket and ratchet. The bolts secure the caliper to the caliper-mounting bracket.

    6

    Lift the brake caliper off the rotor and suspend it from the coil or shock with a wire tie. Do not let the caliper hang off the rubber brake line. It could tear the rubber.

    7

    Locate the retaining clip on one of the wheel studs that protrudes from the brake rotor. Pry the retaining clip off the rotor using a small flat head screwdriver.

    8

    Pull the rotor off the wheel studs. If the rotor is stuck on the studs, tap the backside of the rotor with a rubber mallet until it breaks free from the studs.

    9

    Slide the new rotor onto the wheel studs and secure it by pressing the retaining clip back onto one of the wheel studs.

    10

    Place a pair of vice grips over the brake pad that rests against the brake piston. Squeeze the brake pad into the piston to force the piston back into the caliper.

    11

    Remove both brake pads from the brake pad holder and replace them with new brake pads.

    12

    Place the caliper back onto the rotor and line up the mounting holes in the caliper with the mounting holes on the brake caliper mounting bracket.

    13

    Thread the bolts back into the brake caliper and tighten them with the socket.

    14

    Turn the vehicle on and press on the brakes after you replace the other three rotors.

    15

    Close the cap on the master cylinder.

    16

    Place the wheels back onto the Chevy, thread the lug nuts onto the wheel studs and tighten the lug nuts with the lug nut wrench.

How to Replace the Rotor in a Dodge Caravan

When the rotors on your Dodge Caravan get warped or worn down, you might notice a pulsing or shuddering coming through the brake pedal when you hit the brakes. Replacing the rotors is easier than you might think, and with the right tools and a little know-how, you can do the job yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Buy rotors online or from your local auto parts store. Be sure to replace all of the rotors at once for even braking performance, or at least change the front or rear pairs together. If your brake pads are worn down, go ahead and replace those as well to get the most out of your new rotors.

    2

    Raise the van using jacks and jackstands and be sure to block the wheels to keep the van from moving while you work. Next, remove the lug nuts and wheel assembly with a socket wrench and set this aside.

    3

    Loosen the two mounting bolts that hold the caliper adapter with the caliper to the steering knuckle. Be sure to avoid disconnecting the attached brake hose as you do this. Use mechanic's wire to hold the caliper and adapter safely out of the way.

    4

    Unscrew the retainer clips and then pull the old rotor off of the mounting studs. Clean the area with a damp cloth to remove any debris or corrosion.

    5

    Install the new rotor and retainer clips. Then slide the caliper adapter and caliper back into place and replace the mounting bolts onto the steering knuckle using a torque wrench. Torque to 125 ft. lbs. (169 Nm).

    6

    Replace the wheel assembly and tire. Move on and repeat this process for each additional rotor. When you've finished, lower the vehicle, tighten the lug nuts with a torque wrench or air ratchet with an appropriate adapter, and then road test your Dodge Caravan to make sure everything is working properly.

What Could Be Causing a Squelching Noise on the Front Brakes on a 2007 Honda Civic EX?

The 2007 Honda Civic was a year removed from a drastic redesign that took the conservative-looking Civic and gave it an ultra-modern design. The 2007 Civic EX came standard with a 1.8-liter four-cylinder engine that produced 140 horsepower. The 2007 Civic EX also came standard with four-wheel ventilated disc brakes. There are four main causes for a squealing or squelching sound from the front disc brakes on the 2007 Civic EX.

Brake Hardware

    The front brake pads on the 2007 Civic EX have two thin metal components, known as pad retainers. These hold the pads tight, while allowing them to move in and out with the caliper. Damage sometimes occurs to these retainers, bending them inward. If they bend far enough inward, they can cause a loud screeching sound from the front brakes. In this situation, replacing the retainers will rectify your problem.

Brake Pads

    The front brake pads on the 2007 Civic EX have a service limit of 0.06 inches. When the pad lining gets to or below this thickness, a small metal tab -- called a wear indicator -- lightly touches the rotor. This light contact causes a high-pitch squeal from the Civic's front brakes. In this case, replacing the brake pads will rectify the noise from the front brakes.

Glazed Rotors

    Stopping your 2007 Civic EX creates a lot of heat between the brake pads and the rotor. The constant heating and cooling can create a smooth glaze on the rotors, giving them a mirror-like shine. The brake pads work best when they have a rough surface to grip; a smooth surface can cause the pads to vibrate at a high rate of speed. This vibration causes a high-pitch squeal from the front of the Civic. Having the rotors resurfaced or replaced can rectify this problem.

Brake Dust

    The brake system creates a lot of dust when used. If enough of this brake dust lodges in the pads, this can cause a lot of noise to come from the front of the Civic. Having the brakes disassembled and cleaned may rectify this problem. You can also use a high-end ceramic brake pad to lower the chances of this happening.

Minggu, 22 Januari 2012

How to Remove Jeep Wrangler Brake Pads

The procedure to remove the brake pads on a Jeep Wrangler has remained virtually unchanged for years. Whether you're removing the pads to clean and lube the front brakes or if you're replacing the pads, you can save a lot of money on labor charges by doing the project yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Jeep Wrangler on a paved level surface. Apply the parking brake. Place a wheel chock behind one of the rear tires.

    2

    Break the lug nuts loose on the front left wheel using the breaking bar and a socket.

    3

    Lift the left front quarter of the Wrangler with the floor jack and place a jack stand under the control arm to support the Jeep. Remove the lug nuts and wheel.

    4

    Place the small pry bar into the front caliper porthole and pry the outboard pad against the rotor to relieve tension from the caliper piston. Pry enough to loosen the pressure and allow the caliper to move freely on the slides.

    5

    Locate the two caliper bolts (on the backside of the caliper); remove the upper one first then the lower one using the ratchet and a socket.

    6

    Remove the caliper. The pads are clipped to the caliper. Bend the coat hanger to make a makeshift hanger and support the caliper to the chassis of the Wrangler so it does not dangle from the brake hose.

    7

    Remove the outboard pad first by prying the clips off of the outside caliper housing. If you're reusing the pads, be careful not to bend the clips. If you're replacing the pads, bend the clips to make it easier to remove.

    8

    Remove the inboard pad by pulling its hardware clips from the inside bore of the caliper piston.

    9

    Compress the caliper piston into the caliper housing until it bottoms out using a C-clamp if you're replacing the pads. Clean the caliper bridge points where the backing plate of the pads contact it and apply a coat of brake lubricant. Use the acid brush and be careful not to get the lubricant on the surface of the rotor.

    10

    To replace pads, reverse the process. Repeat the steps for the right side if desired. Torque the lug nut bolts to 100 foot pounds when the Wrangler is back on the ground. Pump the foot brake pedal before driving to restore the hydraulic pressure back to the compressed caliper pistons. Remove the wheel chock.

How to Fix the Back Brakes on a Jeep Cherokee

The jeep Cherokee uses drum brakes on its rear wheels, which use brake shoes instead of pads. These brake shoes need to be replaced over time, and they need to be replaced on both sides together. Fixing drum brakes and replacing the shoes is not easy, however. The drum brakes contain multiple springs, cables and retainers that must be removed from the assembly to change the shoes.

Instructions

    1

    Raise and support the Cherokee's rear end on jack stands, then remove both rear wheels. Block the front wheels.

    2

    Remove the spring nuts securing the brake drums to the wheel studs and remove the drums. If the drums are stuck, retract the brake shoes by removing the access plug on the rear of backing plate and using a brake tool and screwdriver to back off the adjuster screw.

    3

    Disconnect the U-clip and washer that secures the adjuster cable to parking brake lever, then remove the return springs (primary and secondary) from the anchor pin. Remove the hold-down springs with their retainers/pins, and place clamps on the wheel cylinders to keep the pistons in place.

    4

    Remove the adjuster lever, adjuster screw and spring from the assembly, followed by the adjuster cable and cable guide. You can now remove the leading and trailing brake shoes along with the parking brake strut. Remove the parking brake lever by disconnecting its cable.

    5

    Clean and lubricate the anchor pin and shoe contact surfaces on the support plate using a high-temp multipurpose grease. Lubricate the adjuster screw, adjuster cable guides, parking brake lever and lever pivot pin with the same grease.

    6

    Connect the parking brake lever to the new trailing brake shoe using a new washer and U-clip. Remove the clamps on the wheel cylinder, attach the parking brake lever to its cable and install the new shoes to the plate. Use new hold-down springs, retainers and pins with the shoes.

    7

    Reconnect the parking brake strut and spring, the guide plate and adjuster cable onto the anchor pin, and the return springs onto the plate. Connect the adjuster cable guide onto the trailing brake shoe.

    8

    Lubricate the adjuster screw and assemble it into its star wheel socket. Re-install the screw, along with its spring and lever, and connect it to the adjuster cable.

    9

    Adjust the brake shoes until they fit just within the brake drum, then re-install the drum. Pull the hand-brake cable gently to compress the shoes.

    10

    Put the Jeep in neutral, making sure the front wheels are still securely blocked. Rotate the drum by hand and listen for the shoes dragging against the drum surface. Adjust the star wheel by inserting a brake spoon into the backing plate's adjustment opening until you only hear a slight drag.

How to Replace the Brake Pads on a Probe GT

The brake pads on a Ford Probe GT are mounted in the brake caliper, which mounts around the brake rotor. When you hit the brake pedal, the caliper closes, clamping the brake pads down onto the brake rotors and slowing the car. Over many thousands of stops, the pads start to break down, and the brakes will make a squealing sound when you stop. To fix the problem, you need to replace the brake pads with new ones, which should take about an hour to do.

Instructions

Front Brakes

    1

    Lift the car with the jack and put jack stands underneath the jack points on all four corners of the Probe so that the wheels are off of the ground. Unbolt all of the wheels with the tire iron.

    2

    Unbolt the lower mount on the brake caliper using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket. Lift the bottom of the caliper off of the rotor and pull the brake pads and brake pad shims out of the caliper, taking note of their location for reassembly.

    3

    Place the C-clamp around the brake caliper so that the threaded end of the C-clamp goes into the center of the circular piston in the middle of the caliper. Tighten the C-clamp.

    4

    Install the replacement brake pads and shims into the brake caliper in the same orientation as the original pads, then lower the caliper down and bolt it in place using the ratchet.

Rear Brakes

    5

    Unbolt the parking brake from the bracket on the side of the rear suspension using the ratchet. Unbolt the lower brake caliper bolt from the brake caliper bracket using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket and lift it up. Remove the old brake pads and shims, taking note of their locations.

    6

    Clamp down the piston in the center of the caliper using the large C-clamp. Reinstall the brake pads and shims in the same order as the stock pads. Reinstall the caliper to the bracket with the ratchet.

    7

    Reinstall the wheels with the tire iron and lower the car off the jack stands with the jack.

Types of Brake Line Flares

Types of Brake Line Flares

As the name implies, brake line flaring is the practice wherein the mechanic adds a flare at the end of the brake line to ensure a leak-proof connection. Think of the brake line flare as the flare at the bottom of a pair of jeans: With flaring, the end of the tube opens wider, and allowing the connection to slip in deeper and with more ease. It takes quite an amount of practice and knowledge to determine the types of brake line flares in order to get it perfect for the automobile in question.

45-Degree Double Flare

    The 45-degree double flare is a male threaded tube nut that connects directly to the outside diameter (OD) of the flared tube. Those performing the flaring need a double flare to help control the galling (friction wear) that may result from cracking right at the flare.

Bubble Flare

    A bubble flare, used together with a male swivel nut, seals the bottom of a tapped and drilled hole culminating in an angled end. Bubble flares normally allow for resealing, but they have a reputation for a limited lifespan, and you cannot recover them from the deformation that occurs during the first seal.

ISO Bubble Blare

    ISO bubble flares are essentially the same components as plain bubble flares; the difference between the two types lies in the fact that ISO bubble flares have pipes and threads measured in metric sizes rather than in inches.

AN Flares or 37-Degree Single Flares

    These flares, often known for their incorporation in most non-British race cars, have a 37-degree single flare that you can combine with a nut to accept double flares. The 37-degree flare became standard during World War II for the use in army and navy aircrafts.

Sabtu, 21 Januari 2012

How to Replace GMC Brake Rotors

How to Replace GMC Brake Rotors

GMC is a manufacturer of trucks and sport utility vehicles. The brake rotors ensure the brake pads have a smooth surface to apply pressure, when the brakes are engaged. A warped rotor will cause the vehicle to vibrate when coming to a stop. Replacement of the rotor will not take long, once the truck is raised.

Instructions

    1

    Ensure the truck is parked on a level surface. Set the parking brake, and chock the back wheel.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the front wheels with a tire tool. Do not remove the lug nuts, until the truck is raised off the ground.

    3

    Place a jack under the cross member of the front of the truck. Raise the truck high enough to place the jack stands under the front crossmember. Lower the truck on to the jack stands.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts from the wheel. Take the wheel off, and place it to the side.

    5

    Locate the caliper, resting on the top of the rotor. Loosen the bolts at the back of the caliper with a socket wrench. Pull the caliper off the back of the rotor, by hand, after the bolts are removed.

    6

    Pull the brake pads out of the holder by hand. Unbolt the brake pad holder with a socket wrench. Pull the holder off the rotor.

    7

    Pull the rotor off the hub assembly by hand. Tapping the rotor with a hammer will loosen it, if it is stubborn.

    8

    Slide the new rotor on to the hub assembly. The rotor will rest on the studs.

    9

    Bolt the brake pad holder over the rotor with a socket wrench. Insert the brake pads onto the holder.

    10

    Rest the caliper over the brake pad holder. Tighten the bolts with a socket wrench, to secure it in place.

    11

    Place the wheel back on to the axle. Repeat steps to replace the remaining rotor.

    12

    Tighten the wheels, by tightening the lug nuts with a tire tool. Tighten them in a crisscross pattern, to ensure the wheel is tightened correctly.

    13

    Raise the truck, and remove the jack stands. Lower the truck to the ground.

    14

    Double check all the lug nuts, to ensure they are all tight. Check both wheels.

    15

    Test drive the truck, to ensure the truck brakes smoothly and without any vibrations.

How to Change the Brake Shoes on a Honda CRV

How to Change the Brake Shoes on a Honda CRV

The brake shoes on the Honda CRV's rear brakes work with the parking brake. The rear wheels on the car also use brake discs with calipers, so you need to get around these brakes in order to work on the shoes. You don't need to remove the brake drum, but changing the brake shoes is still a complex task involving multiple springs and rods.

Instructions

Accessing the Shoes

    1

    Block the CRV's front wheels to keep it from rolling. Raise the car's rear end, support it on jack stands, release the parking brake and remove both rear wheels; loosening the lug nuts prior to lifting the car makes the wheels easier to remove.

    2

    Remove the rear brake calipers by removing the mounting bolts with one wrench while holding the caliper pins with another wrench. Support the calipers with a strong wire or coat hangar so they don't hang by the hoses; don't disconnect the hoses.

    3

    Take off the brake discs by removing either the lug nuts with a wrench or the two retaining screws with a screwdriver. If the disc is stuck to the hub, thread two bolts into the holes in the disc and tighten them back and forth until the disc is free.

    4

    Clean the entire brake assembly with an aerosol brake cleaner; don't use compressed air. Place a drain pan under the assembly to catch the residue.

Removing Old Shoes

    5

    Remove the two upper return springs from the brake shoe assembly. You should need pliers to grasp and pull the springs.

    6

    Push the hold-down clips on the shoes and turn the pins 90 degrees so you can remove the clips.

    7

    Disconnect the connecting rod and rod spring. Remove the lower return spring. Pull back the leading shoe and remove the adjuster screw.

    8

    Pry the U-clip and washer off the top of the rear shoe using diagonal cutters; the clip is on the backing plate side of the shoe.

    9

    Disconnect the parking brake lever from the rear shoe and remove the shoe.

Installing New Shoes

    10

    Lubricate the areas on the backing plate that come into contact with the brake shoes; lightly apply high-temperature brake grease. Clean and lubricate the adjuster bolt and clevis.

    11

    Assemble the parking brake lever to the new rear shoe, lubricating the brake lever pin with the grease. Place the shoe against the stationary stop at the top of backing plate, insert the hold-down pin through the backing plate and install the hold-down clip.

    12

    Install the adjuster and lower return spring onto each of the new brake shoes. Position the front shoe onto the backing plate using its hold-down pin and clip.

    13

    Place the rod spring onto the connecting rod and separate the shoes so you can install the connecting rod. Connect the two upper return springs to the shoes; you will likely need pliers to stretch and position the springs in their holes.

    14

    Re-install the brake disc and caliper. Tighten the caliper mounting bolts to 17 foot pounds.

    15

    Turn the adjuster star wheel to adjust the brake shoes; use a screwdriver inserted through the adjusting hole. Turn the wheel until the shoes drag on the brake drum as you rotate it. Then back off the star wheel until the shoes don't drag any more.

    16

    Re-connect the wheels and lower the car once you've changed the brakes on both sides.

Jumat, 20 Januari 2012

Brembo Specs

Brembo is a brake manufacturer for all types of commercial, private and racing vehicles. The specifications of the brakes change depending on size and model, each type taking a different amount of heat and pressure without breaking or wearing down unevenly. Brembo also manufactures safety gear for motorcyclists.

Car Brakes

    Brembo manufacturers two types of passenger vehicle brakes: traditional aluminium discs and ceramic discs for high powered engines. The aluminum discs and matching brake pads come in thousands of different combinations to fit different vehicles produced across the years world-wide. The aluminium discs weigh approximately 4 pounds each and measure 2 inches thick. The diameter of the disc depends on the make, model and year of the vehicle it is being installed on. These specifications are identical for the ceramic discs, though they weigh in 2 pounds heavier at 6 pounds.

Motorcycle Brakes

    Brembo supplies many manufacturers of motorcycles with brake constructions for floor models and factory models, including BMW and Harley Davidson. Except for high-end motorcycles that require very specific parts, most Brembo motorcycle brakes are interchangable for discs and brake pads. A high-quality aluminium-ceramic alloy is used to make the discs. Pads are made of steel. The discs of these brakes are 8 inches in diameter, are 2 inches wide and weigh approximately 2 pounds each.

Commercial Brakes

    Brembo manufacturers commercial truck brakes for vehicles as small as six-wheel trucks and as large as 18-wheeled trucks and trailers. Air brakes and traditional brakes are available, with emergency "run-away-truck" brakes available for installation on 18-wheeled trucks. Air braking system are usually used in a quick-stop situation and pump almost 100 pounds of force per square inch to try to slow and stop the vehicle. Traditional brakes for these vehicles come only in an aluminium-steel alloy disc and ceramic brake pads. These discs measure from 6 to 12 inches thick, with diameters of up to over a foot. These are very heavy braking discs, weighing at least 15 pounds each. Emergency brakes freeze the truck's driving wheels, forcing the vehicle to skid to a quick stop. These emergency brakes are solid steel clamps that are located within the wheel.

Racing Brakes

    Racing brakes must be of high quality to withstand the severe heat and pressure that they endure during such high speeds. Brembo manufactures brake pads for racing purposes, which are made primarily of carbon, and which differ in size and thickness depending on the type of vehicle they are fitting.

Rabu, 18 Januari 2012

How to Change the Rotors on a Mitsubishi Galant

You don't have to pay outrageous labor charges if you have some tools and some mechanical skill. Changing the rotors on your Mitsubishi Galant should take about an hour of labor per rotor. Multiply that by two and add the price of the rotors and that's what you're going to spend for a mechanic. But if you grab some tools, you can do the job yourself in the comfort of your own driveway or garage.

Instructions

How to Change the Rotors on a Mitsubishi Galant

    1

    Apply the parking brake and release the hood latch with the Galant parked on a flat paved surface to work on. Lift the hood and suck out half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir using the turkey baster. Discard the fluid. Secure the master cylinder cover.

    2

    Break the lug nuts loose on the two front tires using the breaking bar and a 21-millimeter socket.

    3

    Place a wheel chock behind one of the rear tires and lift the front of the vehicle with the floor jack. Place the jack stand under the front frame rail. You can lift one side at a time if you want or both sides if you have two jack stands.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts and wheel.

    5

    Remove the two caliper slide bolts using the ratchet and a socket. Pry the caliper off of the pads and rotor using the flathead screwdriver and support to the frame or coil spring using the bungee cord. Compress the caliper piston using the C-clamp and tighten it slowly.

    6

    Pry the pads from the caliper anchor but place them in a manner where you remember to replace them into the anchor the exact same way they were removed. If you're replacing the pads as well, then you don't have to worry about that step.

    7

    Remove the two caliper bridge bolts using the ratchet and a socket. The bolts will be tight and it might help to break them loose using the breaking bar first and then switch to the ratchet to speed up the procedure.

    8

    Spray the two bolt holes on the hub face of the rotor with a lubricant. Thread in the two 8x1.25 millimeter bolts by hand until they bottom out on the hub. Tighten each one a couple of turns with the ratchet and a socket and alternate between the two bolts until the rotor breaks free from the hub. In the event the threads or bolts strip, put on the safety glasses and strike the plated fin of the rotor with a ball peen hammer to break it free from the hub.

    9

    Spray the new rotor with brake clean spray on the front and back sides. Be liberal and clean off all of the oily coating on it. This coating is a rust preventative and should be cleaned off thoroughly. Wipe the surface of the rotor dry with a shop rag.

    10

    Place the rotor back onto the hub and thread on one lug nut to hold it flush to the hub. Replace the caliper anchor and bolts and tighten tightly. Replace the pads and caliper and tighten the caliper slide bolts. Replace the wheel and lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts snug and re-tighten with the adjustable torque wrench set at 80-foot pounds when the Galant is lowered to the ground.

    11

    Repeat steps four through 10 for the other side. Pump the foot pedal when through to restore pressure to the compressed caliper pistons. Recheck and add new DOT 3 brake fluid to the master cylinder and replace the cap securely. Remove the wheel chock, release the parking brake and test drive.

Minggu, 15 Januari 2012

How to Replace 2004 Chevrolet Trailblazer 6 Cylinder EXT Disc Brake Pads

How to Replace 2004 Chevrolet Trailblazer 6 Cylinder EXT Disc Brake Pads

The 2004 Chevrolet Trailblazer six-cylinder EXT uses front disc brake pads and either rear disc brake pads or rear drum brakes (which uses brake shoes as friction material). The braking system is quite similar to the S-10 Chevrolet Blazer, Oldsmobile Bravada, the GMC Jimmy and Envoy and the Buick Rainier. While these vehicles use different brake pads in the four-wheel and two-wheel drive models, the procedure to replace them is basically the same.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Trailblazer on a hard, level surface and then open the hood and remove half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using a brake fluid turkey baster. Discard the old fluid and then apply the parking brake. Replace the master cylinder cover securely.

    2

    Place a wheel wedge behind one of the rear tires.

    3

    Remove the lug nut caps with the Trailblazer's lug wrench.

    4

    Loosen the lug nuts with a the lug wrench by turning them counterclockwise just enough to break them loose on the lug studs away from the rims.

    5

    Hoist the SUV with a hydraulic jack placed under the front frame rail and then lower it onto a jack stand. Repeat for the other side so the front end of the Trailblazer is elevated.

    6

    Turn the ignition key one click forward to unlock the steering wheel without activating the electrical components (which may kill or drain the battery if left turned on during the brake pad replacement). Turn the steering wheel all the way to the right to replace the left front brake pads first (and then reverse the wheel when it's time to replace the right front brake brake pads).

    7

    Remove the lug nuts and then remove the wheels.

    8

    Place the C-clamp over the caliper housing so the top of the clamp is on the inside caliper housing and the drive of the clamp is located on the backing plate of the outboard pad. Slowly tighten the clamp until the piston of the caliper is fully seated in the piston bore.

    9

    Use the ratchet and a 3/8-inch hex-head socket bit to remove the upper and lower caliper guide bolts by turning them counterclockwise.

    10

    Remove the caliper and rest it on top of the knuckle so it does not hang from the rubber brake hose.

    11

    Remove the outboard pad (it may fall out of the caliper housing) and then remove the inboard pad by pulling the retaining clip and pad from the hollow caliper piston.

    12

    Insert the new inboard pad (with retaining clip) into the hollow piston of the caliper and then insert the outboard pad into the inner housing of the caliper.

    13

    Place the caliper and pads assembly over the rotor and caliper mount assembly and allow it to rest in place.

    14

    Clean the smooth section of the caliper guide pins on a wire brush wheel of a bench grinder and then align them through the caliper and hand-thread them into the knuckle. Tighten the caliper guide bolts with the 3/8-inch hex-head socket bit and a torque wrench to 45 ft-lbs.

    15

    Repeat steps 8 through 14 (after turning the steering wheel as illustrated in Step 7) on the other front wheel and then replace the tires and lug nuts. Snug the lug nuts to the rim and hub assembly with the lug wrench.

    16

    Lower the Trailblazer one side at a time (after using the jack to kift it high enough to remove each jack stand) and then tighten the lug nuts with the torque wrench and a socket in a star pattern to 100 ft-lbs. Replace the lug nut caps.

    17

    Pump the foot brake pedal until it feels firm and then check the fluid level in the master cylinder. If necessary add new DOT3 brake fluid to the fill lines of the dual-chambered master cylinder. Replace the cap.

    18

    Release the parking brake, remove the wheel wedge and then test-drive the Trailblazer for proper braking response.

How to Change the Rear Brakes in a 2003 Saturn Ion?

The Saturn Ion was manufactured by GM Motors from 2003 through 2007. It replaced the S-series Saturns, and was eventually replaced by the Saturn Astra. The Ion was available as a four-door sedan or a two-door coupe. It also features two different types of rear braking systems. While the rear disc brake were becoming more popular, the Ion was still available with rear drum brakes as well.

Instructions

Rear Brake Pads

    1

    Suspend the rear axle on a lift or jack stands and then remove the rear wheels.

    2

    Remove the two caliper bolts using a hand wrench and set them aside. Use a pry tool to remove the caliper from the rotor, being careful not to pinch the caliper bolt boots and damaging them. Suspend the caliper to the chassis with mechanics wire so it does not hang from the brake hose.

    3

    Use the caliper piston driver tool or spanner wrench to turn the piston clockwise into the caliper bore. Do not use a C-clamp or channel locks. The rear calipers on the Ion have a screw-in bore. Find the suitable adapter for the driver tool or spanner wrench and turn the shaft of the tool with a ratchet and a socket until the slots of the piston are perpendicular to the replacement pads. Lift the edge of the rubber piston boot to release any trapped air and assure it collapses back into place below the piston face.

    4

    Remove the old pads from the caliper support. Remove the old pad clips from the support and clean them with a small wire brush and denatured alcohol. Clean the surface of the caliper support in the same manner. Spread a light layer of brake silicone lube to the caliper support beneath the clips. Replace the clips and then apply another layer of lube on the clips where the pad tabs sit. Install the new pads making sure the wear sensor indicator is on the outboard pad.

    5

    Make sure the piston slots are aligned properly to accept the pads.

    6

    Remove the mechanics wire from the caliper and place it over the pads and rotors.

    7

    Place a coating of brake lube on the non-threaded section of the caliper bolts and insert them into the caliper. Torque the bolts to 27 foot-pounds with a torque wrench.

    8

    Replace the wheel and torque the wheel nuts to 90 foot-pounds. Repeat the procedure for the other side.

    9

    Pump the foot brake several times to seat the pads to the rotors after the Ion has been lowered to the ground.

Rear Brake Shoes

    10

    Lift the Ion and remove the rear wheels. Remove the rear drums. Leave one side of the rear brakes intact at a time to reference their position. This will help after removing the shoes and then putting them back together.

    11

    Remove the lower return and adjuster springs using a pair of brake shoe pliers. Be careful not to damage them by over-extension if you plan to reuse them.

    12

    Press the head of the holding pin of the forward shoe using a finger. It is located on the backside of the backing plate. Use the brake shoe spring tool to compress the spring and then turn the cup to align with the slot of the holding pin. Decompress the spring to remove the spring, cup and holding pin.

    13

    Remove the adjuster star-wheel assembly by pulling the forward shoe towards the front of the Ion. If necessary, turn the star-wheel to shorten the adjuster length. Reposition the forward show towards the rear of the Ion and release tension on the upper return spring. Slightly twist the shoe to separate it from the spring.

    14

    Disengage the upper return spring from the rear parking brake shoe and then set it aside. Remove the hold-down spring and pin from the parking brake shoe as you did to the forward shoe in Step 3. Push the lever of the parking brake shoe into the cable spring to disengage the cable from the end lever and then remove the parking brake shoe along with the lever and cable spring. Spread the retaining clip of parking brake shoe with a straightedge screwdriver carefully and then remove the clip and the wave washer.

    15

    Disassemble the brake adjuster socket, screw and nut, then clean the components in denatured alcohol. Inspect the assembly, making sure the screw threads smoothly into the adjusting nut over the full threaded length.

    16

    Disassemble the brake adjuster assembly and clean them with denatured alcohol and a small wire brush. Apply a liberal coating of silicone brake lube to the treads and reassemble.

    17

    Clean the six shoe contact points on the backing plate with a piece of emery cloth and then lubricate the points with the silicone brake lube.

    18

    Reverse the procedure to reassembly the rear brakes, referring to the other side if necessary. Do not replace the drum onto the side you complete first so you can refer to it for the other side to reassemble.

    19

    Turn the star-wheel adjusters enough to allow the drums to fit snugly after both sides have been reassembled. Turn the drums on the hubs to ensure they do not travel one full revolution when spinning. If they do, turn the star-wheel adjuster out more and try it again.

    20

    Replace the rear wheels and wheel nuts and torque the nuts to 90 foot-pounds with a torque wrench.

Jumat, 13 Januari 2012

Do It Yourself Brake Line Repair

You should inspect the brake line pipes and hoses every six months for damage. Common problems on hoses include hardness, cracking, fraying or chafing. Pipes can suffer mainly from corrosion and dents. Any damaged components need to be replaced, though a little corrosion can simply be scraped off. Generally, hoses will need replacement more often than pipes.

Preparation

    To prevent loss of fluid when removing the lines, siphon out the fluid from the master cylinder using a siphoning tool or clean, unused turkey baster. You can also remove the reservoir cap and seal the opening with cellophane to prevent air from getting in (this won't completely prevent fluid loss but will keep it to a minimum). Clamping the hoses shut will help so long as they are still attached; use a pair of self-locking pliers or brake hose clamps and place them as close to the pipe as you can. Clean away all dirt from the ends of the hoses to keep it from getting inside the hoses during removal.

Removing/Replacing the Lines

    The brake lines are often connected to the hoses with two union nuts. Grab the nut at the hose's end with one wrench to hold it in place while you turn the nut at the pipe's end with another wrench. Use flare nut wrenches to avoid stripping the nuts at their corners; this isn't as important if the pipes are being replaced.
    Once the nuts are loosened at both ends of the pipe, pull out the retaining clips attaching it to the fittings to remove the pipe.
    If you are removing and replacing a hose, disconnect the banjo bolt attaching it to the caliper at the hose's other end. You will use the same bolt when connecting the new hose but with new sealing washers.
    When replacing the brake line pipe, use prefabricated steel pipes (not copper) from an auto parts store. If the pipe needs to be bent before installation, use the old pipe as a guide and bend with a proper bending tool. Fit the pipe into the retaining clips at the fittings and tighten the nuts. Make sure the hoses are not twisted or kinked at all and both the pipes and hoses are clear of any moving or heated parts on the vehicle.

Bleeding

    You must bleed the brake system of air after working on the lines. Make sure the master cylinder reservoir is filled first. There is a bleeder valve on each caliper. Remove the cap on one caliper's valve, turn the valve screw slightly and place a piece of clear tubing on the valve. Place the tubing's other end inside a clear container partially filled with brake fluid. While another person pushes down on the brake pedal, turn the bleeder screw more to allow air and fluid to flow through the tube. When you get a clear stream of fluid, close the valve.
    Start this procedure with the right rear wheel and then move to left rear, right front and left front. Refill the master cylinder reservoir with fresh fluid after bleeding all four brakes and make sure the pedal feels firm and not spongy.

Selasa, 10 Januari 2012

How to Remove Brake Rotors from a Ford Expedition

Replace, or resurface, your brake rotors when you replace the brake pads in your Ford Expedition if you experience a shaky, bouncy feeling when you apply the brakes. Rotors that are severely gouged will require replacement, but rotors without this problem can be turned at an automotive machine shop to resurface them. Replacing the brakes yourself can save you a lot because there are no labor costs.

Instructions

    1

    Jack one corner of the Expedition up until the tire is at least 2 inches off the ground. Place a jack stand securely under the jacked-up vehicle. Repeat on the other side of the truck.

    2

    Use the lug wrench to remove the tires.

    3

    Remove the two Torx bolts holding the caliper to the spindle. These are located on the back of the caliper just inside the rubber boots that protect the bolt heads.

    4

    Pry the caliper away from the rotor and lift off. It may be necessary to pry the caliper slightly sidewards to compress the caliper piston a small amount to allow the brake pads to come off with the caliper.

    5

    Tie the caliper out of the way with a piece of wire or rope. Do not let the caliper hang from the flexible brake hose.

    6

    Remove the caliper bridge from the spindle. There is a 22-mm bolt at the top and bottom on the inside of the bridge that must be removed.

    7

    Pull the caliper straight off the wheel studs. If it does not easily pull off, spray the area where the rotor joins the hub with penetrating oil. Then place a 4-inch long 1/2 diameter bolt through each of the caliper bridge mounting bolt holes and screw into a nut placed between the spindle and the rotor. Hold the nuts with a wrench and tighten the bolts with a second wrench until the bolts are very tight against the rotor. On the opposite side of the rotor, hit the inside surface of the rotor with a hammer until it is loose. It may be necessary to tighten the bolt a second or thrid time before the rotor comes off.

How to Bleed a Lucas Girling

How to Bleed a Lucas Girling

The term sounds like more like sinister medical experiment seen in a low-budget horror movie, but those familiar with vehicle brakes know that bleeding a Lucas Girling refers to the process of eliminating air bubbles in the brake lines of a particular brand of brakes. The name Lucas Girling refers to two British companies that merged in 1938. Lucas manufactured vehicle components. Girling manufactured brakes. Brakes may need to be bled when the pedal feels spongy and almost touches the floor when you depress it. When brake pads wear thin, the brake fluid drops too low, allowing air bubbles to get into the brake lines. Bleeding the brakes will flush that air out.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the vehicle up in the air and remove all the wheels, exposing the brakes.

    2

    Loosen the bleeder bolts but dont take them off.

    3

    Look under the hood of the vehicle and locate the brake fluid reservoir. Remove the cap and suck out as much of the old fluid as you can with a turkey baster or syringe. Clean any dirt out of the reservoir with a clean rag.

    4

    Fit one end of plastic tubing over the bleeder bolt at the right rear of the vehicle. Put the other end of the tube into a plastic bottle with an inch or two of new brake fluid. This will prevent air from being sucked back into the brake cylinder.

    5

    Put a block of wood under the brake pedal to prevent the pedal from travelling when the line pressure is released.

    6

    Fill the reservoir with new brake fluid and put the cap back on.

    7

    Depress the brake pedal. This is the step that needs an additional person while you work the bleeder bolt.

    8

    Turn the bleeder bolt a quarter-turn. The old brake fluid will trickle down the tubing into the bottle. When the trickle stops, close the bleeder bolt completely.

    9

    Ease up on the brake pedal. Repeat this process until the brake fluid runs clear.

    10

    Repeat the entire process for the left rear and front brakes.