Senin, 31 Oktober 2011

How Does a Clutch Brake Work?

How Does a Clutch Brake Work?

What Does a Clutch Brake Do?

    The clutch brake, or clutch, of a car is responsible for allowing you to stop without the engine dying. The car's engine can keep running while your car is at a complete stop, and when you start moving again the engine can pull the car forward. As long as a car is on, the car's engine is always turning. When you are moving forward, the wheels are connected to the engine and are turning, too. However, when you stop, the wheels stop turning but the engine doesn't. If the wheels stayed connected to the engine, they would cause the engine to die because it could not turn. The clutch allows you to disconnect the transmission from the engine so it doesn't die when you stop.

Engaging the Clutch Brake

    The clutch connects two shafts in the car. One that lets the engine turn and one that lets the transmission turn. When the car is in motion they're both connected and the wheels and engine work together. To engage the transmission and engine, you must release the clutch pedal and brake, or in an automatic car release the brake. A piece called the flywheel connects to the engine while another piece known as the pressure plate connects to the transmission. When you release the clutch and/or brake, the pressure plate connects the transmission to the engine and they begin to spin together, causing the car to move forward.

Disengaging the Clutch Brake

    When you apply pressure to the clutch and/or brake in your car, cable or hydraulic pistons will apply pressure to a release fork which, in turn, will press a throw-out bearing into the center of the diaphragm spring. The diaphragm spring is pushed in and it pulls the pressure plate away. Once the pressure plate has enough pressure applied to it, it becomes completely disconnected and the engine and transmission are no longer spinning together. Slight pressure will only disconnect it slightly, causing the car to slow. Once full pressure is applied, the car stops completely and will not move until the clutch and/or brake is released and the pressure plate reconnects the transmission and engine. The brake pedal of the car also applies pressure to the wheels of the car to make sure it stops quickly.

How to Measure the Size of the Brakes and Rotors

How to Measure the Size of the Brakes and Rotors

Brake pads and rotors are some of the more common items to replace on a vehicle. Brake pads need replacement every 25,000 to 35,000 miles, while rotors typically last 50,000 miles. These intervals may become shorter, depending on driving styles, heavy hauling or stop-and-go traffic, all of which can impact the intervals greatly. It is recommended to check the brake pads and rotors at every oil change interval. Many times, inexperienced mechanics will gauge the brakes by simply looking at them, but the proper way to check is to remove and measure the pads and rotors.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen, but do not remove, the lug nuts from the wheels whose pads and rotors you are checking, using the ratchet and socket.

    2

    Raise the front or rear of the vehicle --- depending on the pads and rotors that need to be measured -- and secure the vehicle with the jack stands.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels from the vehicle.

    4

    Look on the rear of the brake caliper and locate the two caliper bolts: one upper and one lower.

    5

    Loosen, but do not remove, the upper caliper bolt, and loosen and remove the lower caliper bolt, using the ratchet and socket.

    6

    Pivot the caliper upwards, exposing the brake pads.

    7

    Grasp the inner and outer brake pads by hand, and pull them from the brake assembly. Place the brake pads on the ground (back side down), leaving the pad material facing upward.

    8

    Close the jaws of the electronic caliber and press the "Zero" or "Reset" button. This recalibrates the caliber so that the measurement is accurate.

    9

    Open the caliber's jaws and look for a pin-like object that protrudes from the bottom of the caliber.

    10

    Place the pin-like object on the brake pad so that it contacts the back of the brake pad. Press the caliber downward, until it contacts the brake pad material. Observe as the pin-like object goes back into the caliber -- this is measuring the thickness of the pad's material or lining.

    11

    Read the measurement on the LCD screen -- brake pads are measured in thousandths of an inch.

    12

    Compare this measurement to the "brake lining thickness" specification in the repair manual. Replace the brake pads if they fall below this specification.

    13

    Open the caliber's jaw and place the open jaws over the disc portion of the rotor -- the flat metal surface that the pads were contacting.

    14

    Close the caliber over the disc and take the reading from the LCD screen on the caliper (the rotor measures in thousandths of an inch).

    15

    Spin the rotor approximately 180-degrees, then repeat steps 13 and 14.

    16

    Compare the lowest of the two measurements to the specifications -- "minimal machining thickness" and "discard thickness" -- listed in the repair manual.

    17

    Repeat steps 4 through 16 to measure the brake pads and rotors on the other side of the vehicle.

Minggu, 30 Oktober 2011

How to Make Parking Brake Adjustments in a Kia Spectra

Make a simple parking brake adjustment while driving your Kia Spectra. This unique process helps break in the shoes and make your parking brake safe. Do the project at home instead of going to the mechanics shop and save yourself time and money. Use this for years 2000 through 2006. This technique does not require any special tools and you can even make the adjustment while stuck in traffic. Gain a sense of accomplishment by adjusting your own car.

Instructions

    1

    Push in on the parking brake pedal with your foot. Apply 22 lbs. of pressure or make the parking brake adjustment click three times.

    2

    Drive your car about a third of a mile, at a speed of approximately 37 miles per hour. This makes the adjuster reset itself.

    3

    Repeat Steps 1 and 2 approximately three times. This ensures the parking brake adjusts itself.

    4

    Hold onto the parking brake when going up an incline 30 percent or greater. The parking brake helps to prevent the car from slipping backward.

How to Adjust a Brake Switch

The most common use for a brake switch is the activation of the the brake lights when you depress the brake pedal. Other typical uses include the activation and deactivation of systems such as cruise control, antilock brakes and traction control. Many brake switches are adjustable to allow compensation for wear of components such as the pedal pivot pins and rubber cushions on the pedal assembly. Properly installing a new switch on these systems will allow the brake lights to come on under light brake pedal pressure without allowing the lights to stay on when you release the pedal.

Instructions

    1

    Locate the brake switch on the upper portion of the brake pedal under the driver side of the dash. Loosen the jamb nuts on the switch---typically, using a 13-mm wrench.

    2

    Unplug the electrical connector on the back of the switch to avoid twisting the wiring when making the adjustment. Screw the switch into the mounting bracket to delay activation and prevent sticking lights; unscrew it from the mounting bracket to activate the lights sooner. The threads on the switch are fairly fine, and the switch is extremely sensitive; you can usually make the adjustment with one or two turns of the switch.

    3

    Plug the electrical connector back into the switch, and tighten the jamb nuts. Test the brake light activation several times to verify the switch works properly. The lights should come on when you push the pedal down about an inch and go off when you fully release the pedal.

How to Replace the Brake Pads for a 2000 Toyota Avalon

How to Replace the Brake Pads for a 2000 Toyota Avalon

Toyota began selling the Avalon model in 1995. This car sat atop Toyota's lineup as a larger luxury option to the popular Camry. The 2000 Toyota Avalon came standard with a 3.0-liter V-6 engine that produced 210 horsepower and 220 foot-pounds of torque. The 2000 Avalon also came standard with four-wheel disc brakes and anti-lock brakes. The Avalon's brake pads should be checked at every oil change interval and must be replaced when the thickness of the pad lining drops below 0.039 inches.

Instructions

    1

    Open the Toyota's hood and remove the lid from the brake master cylinder. Siphon out about half of the brake fluid in the master cylinder, using a turkey baster, and transfer this fluid to a container.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts from the wheels you intend to replace the brake pads on, using a ratchet and socket.

    3

    Raise the Avalon with a floor jack and slide the jack stands under a secure part of the vehicle. Lower the jack until the vehicle's weight is supported only by the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels from the Avalon.

    4

    Remove the two bolts from the rear of the brake caliper and pull the caliper from the torque plate -- the metal bracket that the caliper bolts to -- with a ratchet and socket. Suspend the caliper from the strut spring with a bungee strap; never allow the caliper to hang by its hose.

    5

    Pull the anti-squeal springs -- the W-shaped metal springs -- from the top of the brake pads. Save these springs for reuse.

    6

    Pull the old brake pads from the torque plate. Place the old inner brake pad on the caliper piston -- the metal cylinder inside the caliper -- and place the C-clamp over the caliper with its screw part touching the old brake pad. Tighten the C-clamp to press the piston into the caliper, making room for the new brake pads.

    7

    Attach the shims to the rear of the new brake pads, if not pre-assembled, by laying the shim on the rear of each pad and pressing the shim until its tabs snap into place on the pad.

    8

    Close the jaws of the micrometer and press the "Reset" button to calibrate it. Open the jaws and close them around the disc portion of the brake rotor and read the measurement. Perform this measurement in four areas of the rotor and make a note of each measurement taken. If the rotor is below 1.024 inches thick on the front or 0.413 inches on the rear, it must be replaced. If the four measurements taken vary by more than 0.002 on the front and 0.006 on the rear and the rotor is above the measurement where it must be replaced, remove the rotor and have it resurfaced at a machine shop.

    9

    Remove the rotor, if needed, by removing the two bolts securing the torque plate to the steering knuckle with a ratchet and socket, pulling the torque plate from the steering knuckle and pulling the rotor off the Avalon's hub.

    10

    Place the new or resurfaced rotor on the vehicle's hub and reinstall the torque plate, if removed. Tighten the two bolts to 73 foot-pounds on the front brakes and 34 foot-pounds on the rear with a torque wrench and socket.

    11

    Coat the brake pad plates -- the metal pieces in the torque plate that hold the pads -- with a light coat of brake pad grease. Apply a thin coat of brake pad grease to the rear of the new brake pads.

    12

    Slide the new brake pads into the torque plate, with the squeal indicators on the top. Insert the anti-squeal springs into the holes on the pads and place the caliper over the pads.

    13

    Tighten the caliper bolts to 25 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket. This torque value applies for both the front and rear calipers.

    14

    Repeat Steps 4 through 13 for the brake pads on the other side of the Avalon.

    15

    Reinstall the wheels on the Avalon and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the vehicle off the jack stands, using a floor jack, and pull the jack stands from under the car. Lower the Toyota to the ground.

    16

    Tighten the lug nuts, in a crisscross pattern, to 76 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and a socket.

    17

    Check the fluid level in the brake master cylinder. It must be between the "Min" and "Max" lines on the master cylinder reservoir. Add fresh fluid from a new bottle of the type specified in the owner's manual as needed, and close the lid.

    18

    Pump the brake pedal until it feels firm and recheck the fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir. Add fluid, as needed, and close the Avalon's hood.

DIY Brake Shoe Cleaning Solution

In the early 1980s, asbestos was banned from brake pad and shoe friction materials to help prevent lung damage and disease. Cleaning and adjusting your rear drum brakes--or cleaning brake dust from the front disc brakes--doesn't have to involve breathing airborne brake dust or chemicals from an aerosol brake parts cleaner. A simple-to-make cleaning solution can provide both cleaning and particle suspension, making brake services cleaner and less hazardous.

Instructions

    1

    Unscrew the spray nozzle from the bottle, and remove it from the bottle. Fill the bottle with 1 quart of clean water.

    2

    Add 1 tablespoon of liquid dishwashing soap. Use a liquid soap designed for hand washing dishes and not soap designed for use in a dishwasher.

    3

    Insert the spray nozzle into the bottle, and screw it on tightly. Shake the bottle to mix the soap and water thoroughly. This solution is safe to use on all automotive brake systems and will remove brake dust and oil, suspending it in the solution so it can be wiped off.

How to Bleed Brakes on a 2000 Ford Explorer

How to Bleed Brakes on a 2000 Ford Explorer

The brake system on your 2000 Ford Explorer is one of the most important systems on your vehicle. To ensure the proper operation of your brake system, the brakes should be bled to remove air bubbles after any service to the system. Properly bleeding the brake system will help to ensure consistent and reliable operation. With a few simple tools and the help of an assistant, bleeding your brakes is a task that you can easily accomplish in your own garage or driveway.

Instructions

Preparation and Brake Bleeding

    1

    Park your 2000 Ford Explorer on flat, level ground. Set the parking brake and securely chock the wheels.

    2

    Pull the hood release located on the driver's side kick panel and open the hood by pulling up on the hood latch located above the center of the front grill.

    3

    Clean the top of the brake-fluid reservoir and check the fluid level. If the fluid level is low, remove the filler cap and add DOT-approved brake fluid to the appropriate level. During the bleeding procedure, it may be necessary to add additional fluid.

    4

    Locate the bleeder screw on the back of the rear-passenger-side brake caliper. Place the clear plastic tube over the end of the bleeder screw. Place the other end of the plastic tube in the clear plastic container. Fill the container with enough brake fluid to fully submerge the end of the tube.

    5

    Ask your assistant to pump the brake pedal and then hold the brake pedal down. Use the openended wrench to open the bleeder screw by turning it counterclockwise. Watch the stream of brake fluid as it comes through the plastic tube and note when the brake fluid runs as a smooth stream, free of air bubbles, Close the bleeder screw by turning it clockwise.

    6

    Repeat Steps 4 and 5 on the rear driver-side caliper, front passenger-side caliper and front driver-side caliper.

How to Change Chrysler Sebring Brakes

The Chrysler Sebring may have had different incarnations, but some components, like the brakes, remain essentially the same. The pads on the Sebring's front brake discs need to be changed at a maximum of 60,000 miles, possibly even sooner.

Instructions

    1

    Siphon brake fluid out of the master cylinder, drawing out the fluid with a clean siphon tube or turkey baster, until its reservoir is no more than half full. The master cylinder is located on the engine near the firewall on the driver's side, near the strut tower. The reservoir you will siphon from is on top of the cylinder.

    2

    Raise the front end of the car on jack stands and remove the wheels. Place the lug nuts from the wheels onto the wheel studs and tighten them lightly to keep the brake discs in place.

    3

    Disconnect the brake caliper from its mounting bracket by removing the guide pins with a ratchet wrench. Hang the caliper somewhere away from the brake disc using a strong wire. Don't hang the caliper by its brake hose.

    4

    Grasp and remove the brake pads, followed by their shims, from inside the mounting bracket. Discard the old pads and clean the shims with brake cleaner. Lubricating the backing plates with a high-temperature grease will also help. Install the new brake pads with the shims.

    5

    Compress the caliper's pin back into its bore with a C-clamp. This will send extra fluid back into the master cylinder, which is why the siphon was needed. Install the caliper back on the mounting bracket, then lubricate and tighten the guide pins.

    6

    Replace the wheels on the car after changing the brakes on both sides, then lower the vehicle. Refill the master cylinder with as much fresh fluid as needed.

    7

    Seat the new brake pads on the disc by pressing on the brake pedal until it feels firm.

Sabtu, 29 Oktober 2011

How to Adjust the Rear Brakes on a 1985 Cadillac Seville

How to Adjust the Rear Brakes on a 1985 Cadillac Seville

Cadillac introduced the Seville into the Cadillac lineup in 1956. The first Sevilles were two-door coupes called the Eldorado Seville. The 1985 Cadillac Seville had a 4.1-liter V-8 engine or a 5.7-liter V-8 (350 cubic inches), and was a sedan, as are today's Sevilles. The front brakes on the 1985 Seville were disc brakes, while the rears were standard drum brakes. You can adjust the rear drum brakes to allow for more even braking throughout the whole car and to decrease the wear on the front brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the rear of the Seville. Place a jack stand underneath both ends of the rear axle housing, about 6 inches in from the back of the wheels. Remove the wheels from your Seville.

    2

    Remove the drum from the rear brakes, by hand if possible. If the drum resists or seems to be stuck, spray penetrating lubricant on the center of the drum, where it mounts onto the axle shaft. Gently tap the sides of the brake drum, while simultaneously pulling with your other hand, until the brake drum comes free of the vehicle. Use a pry bar between the drum and the brake backing plate for leverage, if necessary.

    3

    Spray the complete inside of the brake drum, as well as all of the rear brake hardware and components with brake cleaner spray. Spraying the parts will remove excess brake dust, dirt and debris that can hinder your rear brakes from performing properly.

    4

    Locate the "star-wheel adjuster," or brake adjuster wheel, at the bottom of the rear brake components. The adjuster is a metal rod that attaches to the brake shoes at either end and has a star-shaped gear vertically in the middle.

    5

    Turn the adjuster upward or downward, using a small, flat-head screwdriver. Turning the star wheel adjuster will either tighten or loosen the rear brakes by manually moving the brake shoes in or out. The brake shoes press against the drums in an outward motion to allow the rear of the vehicle to stop.

    6

    Place the brake drum back on the rear brake assembly. The brake drum should provide some amount of resistance when you attempt to reinstall it. If the brake drum slides on with no resistance, remove it and adjust the brakes outward. If the brake drum refuses to go on at all, without the use of a hammer, remove the drum and adjust the brakes inward. The ideal resistance will be between 15 and 20 foot-pounds for the best adjustment settings.

    7

    Repeat steps 2 through 6 to complete the rear brake adjustment on the second side of the Seville. Replace the wheels on the Seville only when you have completely adjusted both sides of the rear brake system. Tighten the wheel nuts between 95 to 110 foot-pounds of torque.

    8

    Lower the vehicle and depress the brake pedal several times before attempting to drive the car. Pumping the brake pedal will ensure that all of the brakes are functioning prior to driving.

Jumat, 28 Oktober 2011

Step-by-Step: How to Replace Brake Pads on a 2006 Dodge Caravan

Step-by-Step: How to Replace Brake Pads on a 2006 Dodge Caravan

While the 2006 Dodge Caravan features front brake pads on all models, it may or may not feature rear disc brake pads as well. Replacing front or rear disc brake pads on the 2006 Caravan employs a similar procedure. The main difference is the location of the caliper and pad assembly. The front disc pads and caliper are located to the rear of the brake rotors while the rear disc brake pads are located on top of the rear brake rotors.

Instructions

    1

    Place a wheel block against the outer tread of a tire on the opposite axle of the one having the brake pads replaced on the 2006 Dodge Caravan.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the wheels of the axle having the brake pads replaced using the lug wrench.

    3

    Lift the respective axle up with a jack and support the axle of the Caravan onto jack stands and then remove the lug nuts and wheels.

    4

    Remove the upper and lower caliper bolts using a closed-end wrench. Pull the caliper and pads off of the rotor and integral knuckle. Use a pry tool or screwdriver to assist in pulling the caliper off the rotor if necessary. Support the caliper to the chassis with a length of wire or a bungee cord.

    5

    Remove the outer pad by prying the clips of the pad off of the outer caliper housing. Pull the inner pad and clip assembly out of the hollow caliper piston.

    6

    Squeeze the caliper piston inward using the C-clamp.

    7

    Brush the mating edges of the caliper and knuckle with a wire brush to clean off any rust or other corrosives. Apply a level coating of brake caliper lubricant to both the caliper and knuckle mating surfaces.

    8

    Insert the inner replacement pad and clip into the hollow piston of the caliper by pushing it inward.

    9

    Clip the outer pad to the outer caliper housing.

    10

    Remove the caliper from the wire or bungee cord and reinstall it over the brake rotor.

    11

    Replace the caliper bolts and tighten them with the torque wrench and socket to 45 foot-pounds (front brakes) or 30 foot-pounds (rear brakes).

    12

    Replace the wheels and lug nuts and tighten the nuts with the lug wrench in a star pattern as tight as possible with the wheels elevated.

    13

    Lower the axle of the Caravan back to the ground surface.

    14

    Tighten the lug nuts again using the torque wrench at 100 foot-pounds and a suitable sized socket.

    15

    Remove the wheel block and then pump the brake pedal until it feels firm under foot before test driving the Caravan for braking response.

How to Bleed the Brakes on a Toyota Camry

How to Bleed the Brakes on a Toyota Camry

Toyota markets the Camry as a compact economy vehicle. The Camry was introduced in 1983, and it replaced the rear-wheel-driven Corona. The Camry evolved from a simple drive line using front disc and rear drum brakes to the 2010 versions with options to use braking system involving front and rear vented disc brakes. Camry bleed screw locations differ slightly from year to year as a result of body changes. But bleeding the brakes on any model year Camry can be acheved in about an hour with the aid of an assistant.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the Camry's passenger rear tire off of the ground with a jack. Place a jack stand under the vehicle's jack point as outlined in the manual or directly beneath the axle. Remove the tire using the lug wrench to loosen and remove the lug bolts. Set the tire aside.

    2

    Locate the bleed screw. On drum brakes, the screw usually is on the back side of the drum just above the axle. On disc brakes, the screw is closer to the engine on the back side of the caliper. Loosen the screw with a wrench to make it easier to loosen and tighten rapidly, but don't leave it so loose that fluid drips out.

    3

    Attach the rubber tubing to the bleed screw. Submerge the other end of the tubing into a clear plastic bottle partially filled with DOT-3 brake fluid.

    4

    Open the hood of the vehicle. Locate the brake fluid reservoir, which usually is on the driver's side of the firewall toward the top of the firewall. Clean the reservoir top and remove it. Fill the reservoir to the fill line with brake fluid. Do not let the fluid level in the reservoir drop beneath half full while bleeding the brakes. Fill the reservoir as necessary. Top off the reservoir and replace the cap when you complete the bleeding process.

    5

    Instruct an assistant to depress the brake pedal firmly and hold it in position. Loosen the bleed screw for a few seconds. Watch for air bubbles or fluid flowing in the plastic container. When the flow stops, tighten the bleed screw. Instruct the assistant to release the pedal. Repeat this process until no air bubbles come out of the tube. Repeat the process three more times. Tighten the bleed screw completely.

    6

    Replace the tire and lug nuts. Raise the vehicle using a jack to remove the jack stands. Lower the vehicle to the ground with the jack. Tighten the lug nuts to factory specifications.

    7

    Repeat steps one through six for the driver rear brake, the passenger front brake and the driver front brake. Check the reservoir and fill it as necessary with DOT-3 brake fluid. Replace the cap on the reservoir. Test your brakes when all four brakes have been bled. If you notice further problems, contact a professional for additional testing.

Kamis, 27 Oktober 2011

How to Change the Brake Pads of a 2002 Escape

How to Change the Brake Pads of a 2002 Escape

The 2002 Ford Escape is equipped with four-wheel disc brakes. The self-adjusting disc brake systems offer better braking performance and longer-lasting brake pads and rotors. While this will prolong the time between brake services, you’ll still need to replace the brake pads sooner or later. It’s best to have the pads inspected every 5,000 to 6,000 miles during your normal tire rotations. If the pads measure at a thickness of 3 mm or less, you should replace them immediately to avoid damage to the rotors.

Instructions

    1

    Turn the lug nuts on the front wheels counterclockwise until they are finger-tight using the lug wrench. Place the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels and then lift the front end with the floor jack. Lower the Escape onto the jack stands, placed under the front frame on both sides.

    2

    Remove the front lug nuts and wheels by hand. Put your safety glasses on.

    3

    Place the drip pan underneath the right-front brake assembly and rinse all the brake dust off the brake rotor, brake caliper and hub, using the brake cleaner.

    4

    Unbolt the right-front brake caliper using the socket set. Pull the brake pads out of the caliper by hand. Rinse the brake dust, road dirt and old grease out of the caliper with the brake cleaner. Lubricate the caliper slide pins with the white lithium grease.

    5

    Retract the caliper pistons into the caliper with the caliper piston tool. Insert the brake pads by hand and then lower the caliper back over the rotors. Bolt the caliper back in place with the socket set.

    6

    Move to the left-front and repeat steps 3 through 5.

    7

    Reinstall the front wheels and lug nuts by hand. Lower the front end off the jack stands using the floor jack. Move the wheel chocks to the front side of the front tires.

    8

    Lift the rear end with the floor jack and then lower it onto the jack stands placed under the rear frame on both sides.

    9

    Remove the rear wheels and lug nuts by hand. Repeat steps 3 through 5 on the right-rear and then the left-rear brake assemblies. Reinstall the rear wheels and lug nuts when done.

    10

    Lower the Escape off the jack stands. Tighten all the lug nuts to 100 ft-lbs. with the torque wrench. Move the wheel chocks before driving the Escape.

How to Rebuild a Brake Master Cylinder

How to Rebuild a Brake Master Cylinder

The master cylinder is an integral part of the braking system in your car. When you press down on the brake pedal, you create force. The master cylinder takes that force and converts it into hydraulic pressure that powers the brakes on your car. There are two basic parts to the master cylinder: a reservoir, where the break fluid goes, and a piston and cylinder system where pressure can be generated. A master cylinder rebuild kit is needed to refurbish a master cylinder.

Instructions

Remove the Master Cylinder

    1

    Locate the reservoir lines. These are the lines leaving the master cylinder which are attached with hose clamps

    2

    Disconnect the reservoir lines. Loosen the hose clamps with a flat screwdriver. Pull the lines off carefully.

    3

    Find the appropriate wrenches for your model of car to unhook the brake lines. If you have a line wrench in the correct size, choose that to remove the lines.

    4

    Remove the brake lines. Fluid may drain from the lines after you remove them.

    5

    Drain the fluid from the reservoir. You can try to suck most of the fluid out of it before removal by using a turkey baster. If you choose to remove the unit then drain it, be careful to not spill brake fluid on painted surfaces.

    6

    Use a socket to remove the two mounting bolts which hold the master cylinder in place. Remove the master cylinder.

Disassemble the Master Cylinder

    7

    Use snap ring pliers to remove the snap ring which holds the rest of the assembly inside the master cylinder.

    8

    Remove the rest of the parts from the master cylinder.

    9

    Track the order in which the parts come out of the master cylinder You will have to reassemble it in the exact same way. The different types of master cylinders means that the parts can differ slightly, so you need to pay attention to each cylinder you take apart.

Clean the Master Cylinder

    10

    Use brake cleaner to clean out the cylinder.

    11

    Blow the unit dry with low pressure air.

    12

    Check for scratches on the inside of the cylinder. If there are shallow scratches, you will have to hone the cylinder with a honing tool. If there are any deep scratches, cracks or gouges on the cylinder, the job is done. You must throw the cylinder away and replace it with a new part. Do not attempt a rebuild.

Rebuild the Master Cylinder

    13

    Replace the O-ring in the reservoir. Be careful not to over tighten the clamp that connects the reservoir to the master cylinder.

    14

    Put back each part in the order that you took it out of the cylinder. Use the part provided in the rebuild kit to replace each original part that you removed from the cylinder. This will at least include a new rubber cup, spring and piston. Many more parts may be included depending on the type of cylinder, and the type of rebuild kit that was purchased. Make sure that you replace every part that you removed with its corresponding part from the rebuild kit.

    15

    Seal the new assembly in place with the new snap ring from the rebuild kit.

    16

    Remount the master cylinder.

How to Remove the Rear Drum Brakes From a 1985 Toyota Truck

Drum brakes used to be the best technology available back in the 40s and 50s, but since then, brakes have come a long way. Although they have many issues when used as a front brake, when used in the rear, they do an excellent job of stopping a truck or car plus functioning as a parking brake. On a 1985 Toyota truck, the drum brakes on the rear axle are a bit complicated to remove, but it can be done at home.

Instructions

    1

    Use the jack to lift up the truck by the rear axle, then support the axle on jack stands. Unbolt the rear tires using the tire iron and set them to the side.

    2

    Look at the backside of the drum and locate the drum shoe adjusting brake, which is a little screw at the top of the drum's backside. Turn this screw counterclockwise to loosen the pressure from the drum brakes to the drum. Then hold the face of the drum brake using your hands and pull it off of the axle with your hands.

    3

    Remove the springs securing the inner brake shoes to the brake backing plate using the brake spring pliers. Then pull the brake shoes off of the rear end.

2005 Dodge Grand Caravan Rear Disc Brake Rotor Removal

2005 Dodge Grand Caravan Rear Disc Brake Rotor Removal

By 2005, the Dodge Grand Caravan had replaced its smaller counterpart, the Caravan. It most commonly featured both front and rear disc brakes. While both front and rear disc brakes are very similar to replace, the rear disc brake rotors on the Grand Caravan use the protruding hub as a brake drum to cover the parking brake shoes. These shoes work similarly to drum brakes, but only when the parking brake is applied. To successfully extract the rotor without damaging the parking brake shoe assembly, a little more skill is required.

Instructions

    1

    Place a wheel block in front of one of the front tires of the Grand Caravan on a level, hard surface. Assure the parking brake is not engaged.

    2

    Crack the lug nuts loose using the lug wrench prior to lifting the rear tire or tires.

    3

    Lift the rear of the minivan with the jack and support it safely onto a jack stand. If you're doing both sides, repeat this step for the other side. Finish removing the lug nuts and wheels once the rear of the van is raised.

    4

    Place the small pry bar into the pads window of the caliper (located on top of the rear brake assembly). Pivot the pry bar between the outboard pad backing plate and against the rotor to compress the caliper piston enough to allow movement of the caliper back and forth. Do not over compress or you will damage the outboard pad retaining spring.

    5

    Remove the front and rear caliper guide bolts with the 7 mm hex-head wrench or bit with ratchet assembly. Pull the caliper and brake pad assembly up off the rotor and stick it behind the backing plate so no damage will come to the brake hose.

    6

    Spray a generous amount of lubricant spray on the junction of the center rotor hole and the hub face. Allow five minutes or so for the lubricant to penetrate.

    7

    Set up the drum and rotor pulling tool so the three teeth grab the inside edge of the rotor in a triangular pattern. Place the center of the puller against the hub facing and tighten the handle clockwise to slowly pull the rotor off the hub and parking brake shoe assembly until the rotor breaks free.

    8

    Remove the puller and then remove the rotor.

How to Change the Brakes on a 2000 Firebird

Worn brake pads will cause unusual braking noise and weak braking. Worn pads also will eventually damage other brake components. The brakes on your 2000 Firebird should be inspected every 10,000 miles, when the dash warning panel indicates brake wear, or whenever trouble is suspected. Replacement pads can be purchased or ordered from most auto-parts stores. Expect the process of replacing the brake pads to take about 20 minutes per wheel.

Instructions

Front Brakes

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on a front wheel. Raise the front wheel with a jack, then lower the vehicle securely onto a jack stand. Remove the wheel. The lift point is directly behind the wheel, at the outside edge of the frame cross-member. Refer to the diagram and detailed instructions in your Firebird's owner's manual if you are unsure how to lift your car.

    2

    Remove the two mounting bolts from the back of the brake caliper, then slide it off the rotor. Hang it from a length of wire to keep it from stretching the brake lines.

    3

    Pry the retaining spring on the outer pad upwards and remove the pad.

    4

    Compress the pistons into the brake cylinders by pressing in on the inner pad with a C-clamp. Pull outwards on the pad to pop it free of the pistons.

    5

    Pop the replacement inner pad into place. Install the outer pad, snapping the retaining spring over the lug in the center. Bolt the caliper into place, torquing to 23 ft.-lbs. Slide the wheel onto the hub and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Lower the car and tighten the lug nuts fully. Repeat on the other side.

Rear Brakes

    6

    Loosen the lug nuts on a rear wheel and lift the car, placing it securely on a jack stand. Remove the wheel. The lift point is on the frame, several inches ahead of the rear wheel. See your owner's manual for a diagram.

    7

    Install two lug nuts to hold the rotor in place. Compress the brake cylinder by placing one end of a C-clamp on the outer pad, using the access hole in the caliper housing, and the other on the bolt directly opposite it. Tighten the clamp until the piston is entirely within its bore.

    8

    Remove the upper bolt and guide pin that retain the caliper. Loosen the lower bolt and pivot the caliper outwards. Slide the pads out of the bracket.

    9

    Install the replacement pads in the bracket. Pivot the caliper into place, ensuring that the springs on the outer pad do not show through the hole in the housing. Replace the upper bolt and tighten both bolts to 23 ft.-lbs. of torque. Install the wheel and lower the vehicle. Repeat on the other side.

Rabu, 26 Oktober 2011

How to Change the Brake Pads on a 1989 Jeep Cherokee

How to Change the Brake Pads on a 1989 Jeep Cherokee

The 1989 Jeep Cherokee comes equipped with front and rear brake pads. When the brake pedal is pushed in, the brake fluid travels to the brake caliper and compresses the brake pads to the brake rotor to stop the Cherokee. The brake fluid pushes the caliper cylinder inward. The caliper cylinder then pushes the brake pads to the facing of the rotor to stop the Jeep. The brake rotors will also need to be turned or replaced when changing the brake pads.

Instructions

    1

    Park the 1989 Jeep Cherokee on a level surface and open the hood. Secure the hood in place with the locking rod.

    2

    Remove the lid from the brake fluid reservoir with your hand so that the air can escape when compressing the brake caliper with the C-clamp.

    3

    Loosen all of the lug nuts on all four wheels with the lug wrench.

    4

    Jack up the front of the 1989 Jeep Cherokee and put the jack stands under the side rail on both sides of the Jeep. Put the jack stands as close to the back side of the front tires as possible so that the front of the Jeep will sit evenly on the top of the jack stands.

    5

    Lower the front of the 1989 Jeep Cherokee onto the jack stands. Pull the jack out from under the Jeep and position the jack under the rear of the Jeep. Jack the rear of the Jeep up and put the jack stands under the side rail on both sides of the Jeep. Maker sure that the rear jack stands are also positioned close to the rear tires. Lower the Jeep onto the jack stands.

    6

    Unscrew all of the lug nuts from all four wheels with the lug wrench. Remove all four wheels from the Cherokee and put the wheels to the side.

    7

    Locate the brake caliper that is sitting on top of the front driver-side brake rotor. Slide the large flat-head screwdriver into the top of the brake caliper and pry the caliper back and forth to loosen the caliper from the rotor.

    8

    Remove the two bolts that are holding the caliper to the caliper bracket with the 1/2-inch drive ratchet and a socket.

    9

    Pull the caliper off the top of the rotor. Hang the caliper to the front spring or the frame rail of the jeep with the small rope. Remove the old brake pads from the caliper.

    10

    Compress the caliper cylinder inward with the C-clamp until the cylinder is completely inside of the brake caliper.

    11

    Put the new brake pads into the brake caliper. Position the brake caliper back over the top of the brake rotor and line the caliper mounting-bolt holes back up. Screw the caliper bolts back into the rear of the caliper and tighten down with the 1/2-inch drive ratchet and a socket.

    12

    Put the front driver-side wheel back on and screw the lug nuts back onto the lugs. Tighten the lug nuts down tight with the lug wrench. Follow the same exact steps above for replacing the brake pads on the other brakes of the Jeep.

    13

    Jack the front of the Jeep up and remove the jack stands and lower the front of the Jeep to the ground. Then, jack the rear of the Jeep up and remove those jack stands and lower the Jeep to the ground.

    14

    Crank the Jeep and pump the brake pedal up and down about six or seven times to line the new brake pads up with the brake rotor. Turn the engine off.

    15

    Check the brake fluid level and add DOT-3 brake fluid if low. Then, put the lid back on the brake fluid reservoir and close the hood.

About Brake Rotors

About Brake Rotors

The ability to rapidly bring your car to a stop in a controlled manner is one of the most important safety features on any vehicle. At the turn of the last century, most cars used a system of hand levers to apply friction to the wheel in order slow down and stop. Today, most automobiles manufactured in the United States rely on the disc braking system that is composed of a brake rotor, a caliper and a brake pad.

History

    The disc braking system is not a new invention. Frederick Lanchester patented the first such device shortly after the turn of the 20th Century. Drum brakes remained state of the art for the auto industry however, for the next 50 years. High performance vehicles started using brake rotor technology in the 1950s, but it wasn't until the 1970s that the use of front disc brakes became widespread on American cars. Today most cars come with standard front disc brakes and many use brake rotors on all four wheels.

Significance

    The ascendancy of disc brakes over other types of braking systems can be attributed to one single factor-safety. Since most of the stopping power in any vehicle is provided by the front wheels, the front disc braking system was the first brake rotor system to be adopted by US auto manufacturers. Because disc brakes use a rotor that is exposed to the outside air, they do not build up heat to the same extent as drum brakes, significantly reducing the likelihood of the brakes fading or even failing due to overheating.

Features

    All braking systems operate by applying friction to the wheels causing them to slow down and eventually stop. Disc brakes use a system which forces fluid into the caliper causing it to expand, which in turn forces the brake pads on either side of the rotor to contract against the brake rotor creating friction which slows and stops the vehicle. While some brake rotors may be made of solid cast iron, most are composed of space age metal alloys and vented to allow for rapid heat dissipation.

Benefits

    The most common disc brake design used on modern American cars is the single-piston floating caliper. The rotors on these brake systems quickly and efficiently dispel heat providing a safer driving experience, particularly in high stress situations, such as long downhill grades or emergency braking events. In addition to being vastly superior to drum brakes in stopping power, these brakes are also much easier and less expensive to service; with proper maintenance brake rotors should never have to be replaced.

Prevention/Solution

    Disc braking systems rely on brake pads to apply friction against the brake rotor to slow and eventually stop the car. This friction creates brake dust than can accumulate on the rotor or in the caliper. Regularly spraying the wheels when you wash your car will help to remove brake dust from your rotors. Rotors may also be scarred if the pads are allowed to wear down too far before they are replaced. It may be possible for a machine shop to resurface the rotors, but if they are badly scarred they should be replaced.

What is a Brake Master Cylinder?

The master cylinder converts the force a driver applies to a brake pedal into hydraulic pressure in a dual braking system. Modern cars feature a dual master cylinder which means that there is a separate section for the front and rear brakes, although both are contained in a single unit.

Master Cylinder in Modern Cars

    Older cars had master cylinders with one piston to accommodate all four brakes. Current safety laws have made these obsolete, according to Puhn. These are now found only on race cars. Today's modern cars use tandem master cylinders with two pistons, and each section acts a single cylinder. According to Puhn, the piston closest to the brake pedal is the primary piston, which usually operates the front brakes, and the other is called the secondary piston, which operates the rear brakes.

Operation

    According to "High-Performance Brake Systems," by James Walker, Jr., the simplest master cylinder design "uses a single piston acting against a fluid-filled cavity in a machined body." As part of a hydraulic braking system, when a driver's foot hits the brake, the piston moves forward in the master cylinder by a pushrod attached to the brake pedal. In the simplest terms, fluid is then pushed out of the master cylinder into the brake line to the caliper and against the brake pad to stop the car.

Reservoir

    The master cylinder is comprised of a hydraulic fluid reservoir usually directly above the piston, according to the "Brake Handbook" by Fred Puhn. Inside the reservoir there are two holes, called the fluid-inlet port and the compensating port, that allow fluid to enter the cylinder. On older cars, a reservoir diaphragm covers the opening and a cover with a cover bail. Newer cars have a polymer reservoir topped with a plastic cap with rubber seal.

Piston, Seals and Return Ring

    The pressure from the master cylinder piston, which is usually made out of aluminum, is regulated by the master cylinder seals. These seals, also called cup seals, act as one-way valves according to Walker, to "capture pressure downstream of the piston during use, but allowing for rapid return flow to the master cylinder when the brakes are released." The return spring forces the piston back to its original position when the brakes are released.

Dual and Triple Master Cylinders

    Dual master cylinders are used only on race cars and are arranged side-by-side. One cylinder controls the front brakes, while the other controls the back brakes. This configuration requires the installation of a racing brake pedal.
    Triple master cylinders are also used on race cars. According to Walker, "the concept is that brake line pressure cannot only be adjusted between the front brakes and the rear brakes, but also independently between the left front and right front wheels to help the vehicle turn while braking." This is useful because race cars go fast, turn left and repeat.

Optimizing the Master Cylinder

    Many owners change the size of the master cylinder pistons to get more control over braking capability. According to Puhn, a smaller diameter piston will reduce pedal effort. Alternately, Walker states that installing a larger diameter master cylinder will not necessarily increase braking power due to the fact that a bigger piston requires more force to push it.
    Other optimization techniques include adding a balance bar attached by a balance bar to dual master cylinder configuration. The balance bar, according to Puhn, "proportions the force from the brake pedal to the two master cylinders." Using dual cylinders allows for greater freedom in determining piston size in each cylinder, and allows the driver to customize his braking experience.

Selasa, 25 Oktober 2011

How to Replace the Rotor in a Toyota Tacoma

If your Toyota Tacoma seems to be shaking and shuddering to a halt, chances are it's time to replace the rotors. Rotors don't need to be replaced often, but if they get worn down or warped from hard braking and can't be resurfaced, then they must be replaced. Luckily, the installation is simple and you can do it in your own garage.

Instructions

    1

    Raise your Tacoma using jacks and jack stands. Block the wheels. Remove the first tire and wheel assembly.

    2

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts. Slide the caliper off of the old rotor being careful not to disconnect the brake line. Hang the caliper and attached brake line from the undercarriage of the vehicle using mechanic's wire.

    3

    Pull off the anti-squeal spring (if equipped) and then remove the brake pads. Now you can remove the old rotor and set it aside. Clean the area around the hub with a damp cloth to remove corrosion and debris.

    4

    Install the new rotor into the hub. Replace the brake pads, anti-squeal spring, caliper and mounting bolts with a torque wrench or an air ratchet with an appropriate adapter.

    5

    Make sure that the caliper boot isn't wedged before you replace the wheel assembly and tire. Repeat this process for each additional rotor.

    6

    Lower your Toyota, tighten and torque the lug nuts and then pump the brake until you get a firm pedal. Be sure to road test your Tundra to make sure the installation was successful.

How to Take Off a Brake Rotor From a '91 Nissan Truck

How to Take Off a Brake Rotor From a '91 Nissan Truck

Removing a brake rotor from a Nissan truck is not difficult. While you would usually change a rotor when you are replacing the brakes, there may come a time in which you only replace the rotor for one reason or another. Each wheel will take about 30 minutes to do. You can save your money and replace the rotor yourself since the cost of labor is high at the repair shop.

Instructions

    1

    Place a set of wheel chocks behind the rear wheels of the truck.

    2

    Jack the truck up with the automobile jack and place a jack stand under it near the jacking point. Raise the jack stand up to the frame.

    3

    Remove the wheel from the truck.

    4

    Remove the brake caliper using a socket and ratchet. Secure the brake caliper to the strut using a wire tie.

    5

    Remove the grease cap from the wheel hum by prying it off with the screwdriver. Pull the cotter pin out of the shaft using the pliers. Remove the castellated nut using a socket and ratchet.

    6

    Remove the wheel hub and rotor disc. Remove the rotor from the wheel hub by tapping the wheel lugs with the rubber mallet.

How to Bench Bleed a Master Cylinder in a VW Jetta

The VW Jetta is a versatile car and the most popular Volkswagen model sold in the U.S. When replacing the brake master cylinder in a VW Jetta, you should bench bleed the new one before installing it to ensure there isn't any air in the system that can get into the brake lines. The process only takes about 10 minutes; these directions apply to a VW Jetta from any year.

Instructions

    1

    Remove your old master cylinder before you bench bleed and install the new one. The brake master cylinder of a VW Jetta is generally located up against the driver's side firewall, behind the tube coming from the air filter. You may need to remove the top of the air filter as well as the tube to remove and install the master cylinder.

    2

    Set your new VW Jetta master cylinder in a bench vise; if you don't have a bench vise, you can use a clamp-on vise and an old table. Clamp the cylinder firmly into place, making sure that it's level. Open up the bench bleed kit and have it close by.

    3

    Put the old reservoir into the new master cylinder, if you're reusing it. Be sure you dry off the reservoir completely, since brake fluid absorbs water and can damage your brake system, and then install it into the top of the new master cylinder. If a reservoir came with your new VW Jetta master cylinder, you can skip this step.

    4

    Find the two fittings that came with your bleeder kit. Thread them onto the outlets located on the side of the cylinder. Take the two lengths of hose that came with your kit and insert them into the fittings. Bend the hoses up, so they're aimed into the fluid reservoir.

    5

    Cut the hoses, if necessary, so they stick point-down into the reservoir and extend about halfway into it. Use a clip to secure the tubes to the side of the reservoir and keep them in place. You don't want them to come loose and allow air into the system or spray brake fluid around.

    6

    Fill the VW Jetta's reservoir with fresh brake fluid. Pour enough into the reservoir to fill it just shy of the maximum fill line. The plastic hoses will extend down into the fluid, creating a closed hydraulic system.

    7

    Pump the piston on the brake master cylinder to move the fluid through the unit and into the hoses. Use a Phillips screwdriver to do this by putting it into the cylinder and pushing it firmly against the piston to start pumping.

    8

    Watch for air bubbles coming out of the hoses and into the fluid in the reservoir. Keep pumping until all the air is out of the cylinder and you don't see any more bubbles. Consider buying clear hoses if the ones that come with your kit are black, so you can see the air bubbles better.

    9

    Leave the two hoses in the reservoir and slowly remove the cylinder from the vise. You can now install the primed master cylinder into your VW Jetta.

Senin, 24 Oktober 2011

How to Check a Brake Power Booster

A brake power booster is a vacuum operated device which reduces the effort needed to press the brake pedal and apply the brakes. In most cases the vacuum is created by the running engine and air is drawn from the booster through a rubber hose connected to the intake manifold. Diesel engines do not produce much vacuum and may employ a vacuum pump. High pedal effort and poor braking action indicate a problem with the booster or the vacuum system.

Instructions

    1

    Depress the brake pedal repeatedly with the engine off.

    2

    Continue to hold the brake pedal down and start the engine. The brake pedal should be pulled down slightly after the engine starts. A problem with the brake booster or the vehicle vacuum system is indicated if the pedal does not pull down slightly.

    3

    Connect a vacuum gauge to the hose from the engine to the brake booster and start the engine. A reading of 16 inches or more of vacuum rules out a problem with the vacuum system and indicates the need to replace the brake booster.

Minggu, 23 Oktober 2011

How to Join a Brake Line

How to Join a Brake Line

A bad section of brake line can be cut out and replaced with a new factory-made line if the remaining sections of the old line are not pitted or rusty. The two cut ends of the old line that remain must be cleaned, fitted with flare nuts and flared. A lot can go wrong repairing an old line using this method. It is much safer to remove an entire line section and replace it.

Instructions

    1

    Inspect the damaged brake line and locate the threaded flare nuts that join the brake system on both ends.

    2

    Spray penetrating oil on the flare nuts at each end.

    3

    Unscrew the flare nuts of the damaged line and remove the line.

    4

    Bend the new brake line into the same shape as the old one so it fits the vehicle in the same way. Use the old line for comparison.

    5

    Join the new brake line by threading the flare nuts into the unions where the damaged line was removed. Tighten the nuts.

Sabtu, 22 Oktober 2011

How to Ground a Parking Brake

Car stereos have come a long way in the past few years. Now it seems like every car has a monitor, and they even come as standard features on some cars. So what does that have to do with grounding a parking brake? Well in most states, it's illegal to have a monitor forward of the driver's seat that plays moving images, with the exception being GPS systems. As a result, car stereo manufacturers make systems that require the parking brake to be engaged (which it uses a ground signal for) before the monitor activates. If your parking brake isn't grounded, then you're not going to get that aftermarket monitor working, and if your ground is broken, then you won't be able to use your current stock setup either. Grounding your brake pedal is easy, and only takes a few minutes. For this example, we'll be using a 1995 Chevrolet Silverado as our project truck.

Instructions

    1

    Locate the wire stud coming off the parking brake pedal. It's at the top of the assembly, underneath the dashboard.

    2

    Strip the end of the wire using a wire stripper.

    3

    Crimp the female spade terminal onto the stripped end of the wire. Then place that end onto the stud on the parking brake pedal assembly.

    4

    Find a section of sheetmetal on the kickpanel area which is easily accessible. Sand the metal so that the paint is gone and there is just bare metal to work with. A 1-inch square should do it.

    5

    Cut the wire to length with the wire cutters and strip the end of the wire. Crimp the ring terminal onto the end of the wire.

    6

    Insert the self-tapping screw into the hole on the ring terminal. Drill it into the bare metal area that you just cleared with the sandpaper. Make sure the screw is tight. The pedal is now grounded.

How to Replace Drum Brakes on a Nissan Sentra

How to Replace Drum Brakes on a Nissan Sentra

The Nissan Sentra was manufactured with rear drum brakes on some models, and these use a hydraulic wheel cylinder to apply friction to a spinning drum. The parts of this system could leak and wear out, requiring replacement. The average backyard mechanic can replace the drum brakes on a Sentra in about an hour.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheel on the side of the car you're going to replace the brake drums on first.

    2

    Lift that side of the Sentra by placing the floor jack underneath the frame rail directly in front of the rear wheel and pump the lever until the wheel is in the air. Do not place the floor jack head against the Sentra's body or suspension, place it directly against the frame rail. When the car is high enough, place a jack stand under the frame rail.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts, wheel and tire and place them away from the work area.

    4

    Remove the drum by turning the keeper screw counterclockwise. The keeper screw is located on the front of the drum, a bit off-center, and holds the unit together when the wheel is removed. Pull the drum directly away from the brake assembly, sliding it out over the shoes. Check the drum and brake assembly for debris or obvious leaking or damage.

    5

    Remove the brake shoe's long retracting springs by levering them off with a screwdriver or a specialized brake tool. The brake tool is essentially a screwdriver with a notch cut into the tip to hold the spring. The springs can be replaced at this time, or unhooked and removed.

    6

    Turn the primary spring bolts counterclockwise and slide the shoes out. Replace the shoes with new units by sliding them into the brake assembly and turning the primary spring bolt clockwise on each shoe.

    7

    Reattach the long springs and check the adjustment bolt at the bottom for play. Check the wheel cylinder for damage or leaking at the rubber gaskets on each side.

    8

    Resurface or replace the drum with a new unit, then slide the drum over the shoes all the way to the backing plate. Tighten the keeper screw, turning it clockwise.

    9

    Replace the wheel and tighten the lug nuts, first by hand, then with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand and lower the Sentra. Repeat the entire procedure on the opposite side.

How to Change the Brakes on a Toyota Matrix

How to Change the Brakes on a Toyota Matrix

Toyota considers the Matrix part of its Corolla line of vehicles, so the process of changing the brakes on the models is similar. Replacement parts such as pads and discs are typically available at local auto parts stores. Basic tools should be adequate for the procedure, and basic knowledge of vehicle parts and how to operate a jack are necessary.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle on a flat surface and engage the parking brake.

    2

    Jack the car up and secure onto the axle stands. Be sure not to leave the car raised on the jack itself.

    3

    Unscrew the lug nuts and remove the wheel.

    4

    Loosen the bolts from the caliper bracket just enough the remove the caliper, but do not detach the bracket itself.

    5

    Remove the caliper from the bracket.

    6

    Detach the old brake pad from the caliper bracket.

    7

    Wipe any dirt or rust from the caliper with a wire brush.

    8

    Disengage the caliper bracket.

    9

    Remove the brake disc.

    10

    Clean all dirt and rust from the brake hub using the wire brush.

    11

    Install the new brake disc on the hub.

    12

    Replace the caliper bracket without fully tightening the bolts. The caliper will need to fit before tightening the bracket.

    13

    Insert the caliper into the bracket and adjust it to fit over the brake pads.

    14

    Replace the wheel and tighten the lug nuts.

    15

    Refit the wheel until it is properly aligned.

    16

    Repeat steps 3-14 to change brakes on opposite side of the vehicle.

    17

    Raise the vehicle with the jack and remove the axle stands.

    18

    Lower the car to the ground with the jack.

    19

    Pump the brake pedal several times.

Jumat, 21 Oktober 2011

Materials Used in Brake Pads

A quality set of brake pads is essential for auto safety. Worn brake pads can limit your car's ability to stop and may wear down the rotors, leading to expensive mechanic's fees.

Function

    Brake pads provide the friction that stops a car. The pads are attached to the inside of the brake caliper. The caliper squeezes tightly against the rotor to bring the vehicle to a stop.

Asbestos

    Asbestos used to be the material of choice for brake pads because of its ability to withstand high temperatures. Asbestos brake pads are no longer produced now that the health risks are known.

Ceramic

    Ceramic brake pads last longer than most metallic compounds. They are quiet when braking and will not leave as much brake dust as the other materials.

Carbon

    Carbon-based semi-metallic brake pads are more abrasive than ceramic formulations. They generate more noise, and wear down the rotors faster.

Warning

    Always wear a face mask when working with brake pads. Inhaling brake dust can be very hazardous to your health. Do not use compressed air to clean out brakes because this will blast large amounts of brake dust into the air.

Kamis, 20 Oktober 2011

How to Change the Drum Brakes on a Honda Civic

How to Change the Drum Brakes on a Honda Civic

One of the most vital systems on your Civic is its brakes. Failure to maintain the brakes on your Civic can greatly impact your safety as well as others on the road. Like many cars, the brakes used on the Civic's rear wheels are drum brakes. This is a braking system where the brake pads are located inside a drum and push out against the drum when the brakes are engaged. You can change the drum brakes yourself with the right tools and knowledge.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Civic on a firm, flat surface. Engage the emergency brake and shift the car into "Park" if it's an automatic or in second gear if it's a stick shift.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels but do not remove them.

    3

    Raise the rear of the Civic with a jack and place jack stands underneath the outer frame. Slowly lower the car onto the jack stands.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts from the rear wheels with a lug nut wrench and take the tires off of the car. Work on one side of the car from this point forward.

    5

    Screw two 8 mm bolts into the holes on the front of the brake drum. Alternate turning each bolt two revolutions at a time until the brake drum comes off of the wheel hub.

    6

    Clean the brake drum and wheel hub with brake wash. Wear safety goggles and gloves and avoid direct contact with the dirt from the brakes as it may contain asbestos.

    7

    Disconnect the springs that hold the brake pads onto the wheel hub. Start with the bottom spring: press down on the spring and turn the pin that holds the shoes in place with a screwdriver and a pair of needle-nose pliers.

    8

    Remove the front brake shoe from the wheel hub. Disconnect the rear brake pad from the parking brake cable.

    9

    Remove the U-clip that connects the parking brake arm to the brake shoe by prying it off with the needle-nose pliers. If the hardware is too damaged to use the pliers on it, grind it off with a Dremel drill but do not grind down the pin.

    10

    Clean the wheel hub with brake wash. Apply brake grease to the locations on the wheel hub where the brake shoes make contact.

    11

    Slide the new brake pads into position on the wheel hub.

    12

    Reassemble the brake by reversing the process that you used to disassemble it. Repeat this procedure on the wheel on the other side of the car.

    13

    Remount the tires onto the wheel hubs then tighten the lug nuts with the lug nut wrench.

    14

    Raise the Civic off of the jack stands with the jack, remove the stands then slowly lower the car to the ground.

Selasa, 18 Oktober 2011

How to Change Drum Brake Pads

How to Change Drum Brake Pads

Drum brakes are a dying breed, so when they are encountered by a mechanically inexperienced person their repair can seem daunting. Drum brakes are not necessarily any more difficult to repair, they just have more parts to manipulate. Knowing the basic steps and tips to replace them will keep the task as easy as possible.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts using a ratchet and socket, but do not remove them.

    2

    Jack up the rear of the vehicle and secure it with jack stands. Remove the lug nuts the rest of the way and remove the wheels.

    3

    Tap the drum with a hammer to loosen it and pull it off by hand.

    4

    Remove the shoe hold-down spring using the drum brake spring tool. To remove it, press the spring with the tool and turn it to line up the notch with the tab on the post. Simply pull the cap off and remove the spring at that time. There will be one spring on each shoe.

    5

    Remove the two return springs from the top of the brake shoes using the needle nosed pliers.

    6

    Remove the adjuster level spring from the bottom of the primary shoe. Now simply remove the shoes by pulling them away from the wheel cylinder.

    7

    Place the primary (front) shoe in the notch in the adjuster, then into the notch of the wheel cylinder. Connect the primary shoe spring to the top of the primary shoe and connect the adjuster lever spring to the base of the primary shoe.

    8

    Place the adjuster lever into the secondary shoe and place the upper part of the secondary shoe into the notch on the wheel cylinder. Attach the secondary shoe spring using needle nosed pliers.

    9

    Push the shoe-holding spring post through the hole in the shoe, put the spring and cap over the post and press it with the drum spring tool to lock it into place. Repeat this step for the other shoe.

    10

    Place the brake drum back over the shoes until it is fully seated on the backing plate.

    11

    Replace the wheel and lightly tighten the lug nuts. Lower the vehicle and torque the wheel, using a torque wrench, to manufacturer specifications listed in the repair manual.

What Are the Benefits of Ceramic Brake Pads?

Brake pads are critical parts of a vehicle's braking system. Brake pads provide the gripping force that slows down and ultimately stops a vehicle's movement. Although brake pads come in many different varieties, ceramic brake pads are among the best types of brake pads available, offering superior stopping capabilities as well as quieter braking function.

Increased Stopping Ability

    Ceramic brake pads offer increased stopping ability compared to standard semi-metallic brake pads. Ceramic brake pads dissipate heat better and have a more dense, fibrous composition than do traditional brake pads, both of which allow ceramic brake pads to offer increased stopping ability.

Quiter Braking Action

    Because ceramic brake pads generate less wear particles, they produce less-abrasive brake pad particulate material that can lodge between the brake pads and the brake rotors and cause brake squeaking and chirping.

Less Brake Dust

    Due to their increased durability and resistance to wear, ceramic brake pads generate less brake dust over time, a benefit that results both in less brake pad noise and a cleaner brake system. Cheaper, lower-quality brake pads chip and wear much easier than ceramic brake pads and create more brake dust.

Longer Brake Pad Life

    Due to their increased durability and resistance toward wear, ceramic brake pads last significantly longer than semi-metallic or other types of brake pads. Ceramic brake pads resist heat better and dissipate heat generated from braking much better than cheaper, lower-quality brake pads.

Longer Brake Rotor Life

    In addition to lasting longer and providing better, quieter braking performance, ceramic brake pads contribute less toward brake rotor wear and tear, which leads to a longer-lasting brake rotor life. Ceramic brake pads are smoother and less-porous than traditional brake pads, which contributes to a longer-lasting brake rotor.

How to Remove Brake Drums of a 1996 Dodge RAM

The Dodge Ram pickup left the factory with either drum or disc brakes in the rear. If you have the drum brakes, you need to remove them from the truck to access the brake shoes, springs and wheel cylinders. The drums do not wear as fast as rotors on a disc system but they can develop grooves, gouges and score marks over time. Resurfacing or replacing the drums is necessary in these situations. New drums are available at most auto-parts stores.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels of your Dodge with a lug wrench. Do not remove them from the wheel studs yet.

    2

    Raise the rear of your Dodge with a jack and support it on a set of jack stands. Position the jack stands under the rear axle tubes and lower the jack until the truck is sitting securely on the stands.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts from the wheel studs, then remove the wheels from the rear of the truck. Set the lug nuts aside in a safe spot and place the wheels out of the way for now.

    4

    Locate the adjuster hole in the backing plate from the rear of the brakes. Insert a small, thin screwdriver into the hole and wedge it between the adjusting lever and the star wheel just inside the hole. Pry the star wheel down with a brake spoon to loosen the brake shoes.

    5

    Move to the front side of the brakes, grasp the brake drum on both edges with your hands and pull it straight off the shoes and wheel studs. Repeat the process on the opposite side of the truck to remove the second brake drum.

Senin, 17 Oktober 2011

How to Tell If a Master Cylinder Is Bad

How to Tell If a Master Cylinder Is Bad

The master cylinder on your vehicle is the component that distributes and pressurizes the hydraulic brake fluid that causes your brakes to react when you step on the brake pedal. A bad master cylinder can severely compromise your braking system. Visually inspecting your master brake cylinder for signs of leakage is a good idea, but a visual inspection will not always reveal a master brake cylinder that is going bad. Applying the brakes and paying attention to specific symptoms can tell you if you need to have your master brake cylinder inspected and possibly replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Pop the hood of your car and inspect the master brake cylinder. This is typically positioned just in front of the steering wheel on your vehicle and often connects to a dome-shaped component on the back wall of your engine compartment called a brake booster.

    2

    Look for any signs of leaking brake fluid. If your master brake cylinder is leaking, you will notice fluid streaming from where the cylinder connects to the brake booster. A leaking master brake cylinder should be replaced immediately.

    3

    Close the hood and seat yourself behind the wheel of the vehicle. Apply the brakes. If the master cylinder is functioning properly, the brake pedal will depress to a certain depth and no further. If, however, the brake continues to slowly depress, then you know youve got a problem.

How to Remove the Brake Calipers on a Ford 150

How to Remove the Brake Calipers on a Ford 150

The calipers are the parts on your Ford F-150 that do the physical act of braking. By clamping the brake pads down on the rotors, they slow the car down to a stop. That clamping action is done with a hydraulic cylinder, and over time it can leak, lose pressure or stick, causing all sorts of braking issues. That's when you must pull the calipers off and replace them with new or reconditioned ones.

Instructions

    1

    Lift up the front of the F-150, using the jack, and secure the truck on jack stands. Make sure the truck is completely secure on the jack stands before you crawl underneath it. Remove the front wheels using the tire iron, and place them to the side, out of the workspace.

    2

    Place the brake line clamps onto the brake line leading into the caliper, and clamp them down onto the line until the line is collapsed. Disconnect the banjo bolt that leads into the caliper, using a 3/8-inch ratchet and socket. A little brake fluid will leak out onto the ground, so make sure it doesn't touch your skin or painted surfaces if possible.

    3

    Unbolt the brake caliper from the spindle, using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket. There are two sets of bolts on the caliper; depending on your needs, you can remove either one. The bolts on the spindle are the entire caliper, including the bracket, which you would want to remove if you were changing the entire braking system. If you're just getting new calipers or want to get yours rebuilt, you can disconnect them at the bracket, which is between the end of the caliper and the spindle.

How to Change the Rear Brakes on a Ford F-250

How to Change the Rear Brakes on a Ford F-250

If you can hear the rear brakes in your Ford F-250 squeal every time you apply the brake pedal, those are the wear indicators on the brake pads telling you it is time to change the pads. Servicing the rear brakes on time will prevent the need for high-cost repairs and, possibly, traffic accidents. Fortunately, you can perform this repair job at home yourself using some simple tools and stretch your F-250 maintenance budget at the same time.

Instructions

Remove the Old Brake Pads

    1

    Open the hood and remove at least half the brake fluid from the reservoir container on the brake master cylinder using a clean turkey baster and a small plastic bottle. The reservoir is the plastic container on top of the master cylinder attached to the brake booster -- the booster is the round, drum-like component on the firewall, on the driver's side.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on both rear wheel assemblies using a lug wrench.

    3

    Raise the rear of your F-250 with a floor jack, support it with two jack stands and block the front wheels with chocks.

    4

    Remove both rear wheel assemblies and start working on one brake assembly first.

    5

    Unfasten the two mounting bolts holding the brake caliper to the anchor plate. The brake caliper holds the brake pads in place against the brake rotor. Use a ratchet and socket.

    6

    Lift the brake caliper off the brake rotor and secure it to any suspension component with heavy wire. You want to avoid leaving the caliper hanging by the brake hose, which may be damaged.

    7

    Look at the mounting position of the two brake pads on the caliper mounting plate and the metal clips and then remove them.

    8

    Place the old brake pad against the caliper pistons inside the brake caliper and use a large C-clamp to press the pistons into their cylinders. Remove the C-clamp and the old brake pad. This will give you enough clearance to position the brake caliper with the new, thick pads over the brake rotor.

    9

    Spray brake parts cleaner around the brake assembly and wipe all the brake dust using a lint-free towel.

Install the New Brake Pads

    10

    Place metal clips and the new set of brake pads on the anchor plate.

    11

    Install the brake caliper over the new brake pads and tighten the two mounting bolts to 27 foot-pounds (36 Nm) using a torque wrench and a socket.

    12

    Replace the set of brake pads on the opposite brake assembly following steps 5 through 9 of the previous sections and reinstall the wheel assemblies.

    13

    Lower your F-250 off the jack stands and tighten the lug nuts using the lug wrench.

    14

    Refill the reservoir on the brake master cylinder with new DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid, if necessary, to bring the fluid level up to the MAX mark and tighten the reservoir lid.

    15

    Pump the brake pedal several times to seat the new brake pads against the brake rotor. Start the vehicle and double-check that the brakes are working properly. Turn off the engine.

How Do You Bleed Air From Hydraulic Lines?

How Do You Bleed Air From Hydraulic Lines?

A hydraulic system passes hydraulic fluid through lines from the component that creates the pressure (the master cylinder) to the output components or pistons that transfer the pressure to perform the required task. Examples of the hydraulic system include motor vehicle hydraulic brakes, lifting arms of excavators and motor vehicle power steering systems. Air in the hydraulic system makes the system work inefficiently or to cease functioning. Procedures for bleeding hydraulic systems vary depending on the machinery. Consult the operation manual for your vehicle or equipment for specific instructions.

Instructions

    1

    Remove panels and wheels from the vehicle or machinery to gain access to the bleeding valve of the hydraulic output component. Use lifts, blocks and other safety devices if you remove the wheels.

    2

    Attach the hose of the bleeding kit to the bleeding valve of the output component or piston.

    3

    Top up the hydraulic fluid reservoir to its maximum level.

    4

    Loosen the bleeding valve about a quarter turn to a half turn.

    5

    Action the vacuum pump on the bleeding kit to draw the fluid from the reservoir, through the hydraulic line and output component into the bleeding container. Open the bleeding valve more if you encounter strong resistance in drawing the fluid.

    6

    Tighten the bleeding valve to avoid pumping air back into the system when you return the pump to the original position.

    7

    Repeat Steps 4 to 6 until at least a half cup of fluid has bled through the system. Top up the hydraulic reservoir as you work to ensure it does not drop below its low mark.

    8

    Test the system by compressing the brake pedal several times. If it feels spongy or offers little resistance, bleed the line some more.

Minggu, 16 Oktober 2011

How to Replace the Drum Brakes on a Kia

How to Replace the Drum Brakes on a Kia

Kia Motors has been selling automobiles in the U.S. since the early 1990s. Many Kia vehicles have drum brakes on the rear wheels. While drum brakes are generally less effective than disc brakes, they have the advantage of being lighter and less expensive. It is also easy to incorporate the parking brake into a drum brake, eliminating the need for a separate parking brake mechanism. Kia owners can save themselves both time and money by learning how to service the drum brakes themselves.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on both rear wheels with a lug nut wrench. Jack up the rear of the car and set the car on jack stands. Remove the rear wheels.

    2

    Remove the four nuts that hold the drum. Pull the drum straight off the hub. If the drum is stuck, locate the two threaded jacking holes in the drum, thread two 8 mm bolts into these holes and tighten the bolts to jack the drum off of the brake assembly.

    3

    Detach the adjuster lever spring by using pliers to grip the spring end and unhook it from the adjuster lever. Remove the lower return spring in the same way.

    4

    Turn the adjuster star wheel to relieve the spring tension on the brake shoes. Remove the star wheel by moving it up from between the two brake shoes. Remove the upper return spring by gripping it with pliers and unhooking the spring ends from the brake shoes. Take care not to damage the dust cover on the brake cylinder.

    5

    Remove the two hold-down pins that hold each shoe to the backing plate. Use a large screwdriver to rotate each pin clockwise until it lines up with the groove in the hold-down pin clip then slide it straight out. Remove the hold-down pins by slipping them through the grooves in the clips then remove the hold-down pin clips.

    6

    Pull the primary brake shoe off of the backing plate then pull out the secondary brake shoe assembly. Remove the parking brake cable from the secondary shoe by removing the retaining clip with pliers then pulling the cable off. Use a large screwdriver to spread the control lever retaining clip then grasp the clip with pliers and pull it off. Pull the control lever off of the secondary brake shoe.

    7

    Measure the inside diameter of the brake drum with a drum micrometer. The drum should be round, meaning that the diameter should be the same, no matter which direction the diameter is measured. The interior surface of the drum should not have any deep grooves or cracks.

    8

    Clean the backing plate with sandpaper and brake cleaning fluid. Unscrew the halves of the star wheel, clean the parts with brake cleaning fluid and lubricate the threads with high-temperature brake grease before screwing the parts back together again. Also apply brake grease to the points where the brake shoes contact the backing plate.

    9

    Reassemble the brake with the new brake shoes by reversing the steps above. Use the wheel on the opposite side, as a reference, to help you remember where all the parts should go. Remount the wheel. Pump the brakes several times to set the self-adjusting mechanism. Repeat the procedure on the opposite wheel to complete the job then lower the vehicle.

How to Install Anti Rattle Clips on a Grand Cherokee

How to Install Anti Rattle Clips on a Grand Cherokee

The anti-rattle clips in the brake system of your Jeep Grand Cherokee keep the brake pads from vibrating. Your Grand Cherokee uses a simple wire clip design; however, if they're not properly installed, the clips can lead to brake damage or failure. As you install or replace the clips, you must secure the brake caliper properly to avoid damage to the brake hose.

Instructions

Removing the Anti-Rattle Clip(s)

    1

    Park your Jeep on a level surface and set the transmission to Neutral (N).

    2

    Drain half the fluid from the brake master-cylinder reservoir using a clean turkey baster.

    3

    Loosen the wheel lugs on the wheel assembly or assemblies you will be working on, using a lug wrench.

    4

    Lift the wheel assembly or assemblies you need to service using a floor jack and place jack stands under the frame for support.

    5

    Chock the opposite wheels to prevent the vehicle from rolling.

    6

    Remove the wheel/tire assembly or assemblies.

    7

    Working on one assembly at a time, unscrew the two brake-caliper mounting bolts with a hex wrench.

    8

    Install a large C-clamp over the brake caliper and press the outer brake pad by tightening the clamp screw until the caliper piston seats fully in its bore. (This will allow you to easily remove and reinstall the brake caliper and pads.) Remove the C-clamp.

    9

    Lift the brake caliper off the rotor and tie it to the coil spring using a wire. If you leave the caliper hanging free, the brake hose that connects to the caliper may become damaged.

    10

    Locate the anti-rattle clip on the lower end of the brake pads.

    11

    Hold the anti-rattle clip in place with your thumb and remove the outer brake pad from the caliper-mounting bracket.

    12

    Remove the inner brake pad by hand and make sure the pad has the support spring attached to the pad mounting board. If not, remove it from the caliper piston and install it on the back of the inner brake pad.

    13

    Make a note of the anti-rattle clip mounting position at the lower end of the caliper-mounting bracket. Remove the clip.

Installing the New Anti-Rattle Clip(s)

    14

    Clean the brake assembly of brake dust using brake parts cleaner and a clean, lint-free rag.

    15

    Install the new anti-rattle clip on the lower end of the caliper bracket with the split end of the clip facing away from the rotor.

    16

    Install the inner brake pad by hand on the caliper piston. The pad should seat flat against the piston.

    17

    Install the outer brake pad on the caliper-mounting bracket while holding the anti-rattle clip in position with your thumb.

    18

    Untie the brake caliper and set it in position over the caliper-mounting bracket and rotor while holding the anti-rattle clip in position with your thumb.

    19

    Wash your hands with soap and water. Apply a coat of silicone grease to the caliper mounting bolts and bolts bushings.

    20

    Line up the mounting holes on the brake caliper and caliper bracket, then start the mounting bolts by hand.

    21

    Tighten the two caliper mounting bolts with the hex wrench.

    22

    Service the other wheel assembly, if necessary, following Step 7, from the "Removing the Anti-Rattle Clip(s)" section, through Step 8 of this section.

    23

    Fill the brake master cylinder with new brake fluid up to the Full mark.

    24

    Pump the brake pedal until the caliper pistons and brake pads are properly seated against the brake rotors. (Note: if your Grand Cherokee is equipped with anti-lock brakes, turn the ignition switch to the On position before pumping the brake pedal, but do not start the engine. This will allow the booster pump to build pressure.) Turn off the ignition switch (in the case of anti-lock brakes).

    25

    Replace the wheel assembly or assemblies, and lower the vehicle.

    26

    Check the fluid level in the master cylinder and add if necessary.

How to Change Chevy Trailblazer Brake Pads

The Chevrolet Trailblazer was introduced in 2002, replacing the Blazer. The brake configuration was the same as the Blazer; and like the later model Blazers, the Trailblazer featured either rear drum or disc brakes. Replacing the rear pads on disc brake applications employed a similar procedure as the front, but the calipers and pads are much smaller, since they only provide 20 percent braking power.

Instructions

    1

    Use a brake siphon to remove half the brake fluid from the master cylinder, and then replace the cover.

    2

    Using a jack and jack stands, lift and support the axle on which you're replacing the pads. Be sure to first crack the lug nuts loose 1/8 of a turn using a lug nut wrench or similar tool. Remove the lug nuts and then the wheels once the Trailblazer's axle is raised and safely supported.

    3

    Place a 6-inch C-clamp over the caliper so the drive shaft of the clamp is on the backing plate of the outboard pad and the top of the clamp is on the inside of the caliper housing. Tighten the clamp slowly to retract the caliper piston fully into the bore. Remove the clamp.

    4

    Pull out the two caliper bolts using a ratchet and 3/8-inch hex-head socket adapter. Remove the caliper, and support it to the suspension with metal wire. Remove the inboard pad and the retaining spring, then the outboard pad. Remove the bushings and sleeves. Clean and lubricate the bushings and sleeves using a small wire brush and silicone brake lubricant, and then reinstall them into the caliper.

    5

    Spray the backing plates of the new pads with anti-squeal brake pad solution and allow a few minutes to become tacky. Inspect the rotor while you wait. If scored, heat-spotted or severely corroded, replace. Two-wheel drive models feature a bearing rotor, while the four-wheel-drive models employ a knock-off rotor.

    6

    Insert the retaining spring onto the inboard pad; then install the inboard pad into the caliper. Affix the outboard pad onto the caliper, and bend the tabs if necessary. Most quality pads will feature pre-bent tabs for the outboard pads. Place the caliper and pads over the rotor, and then replace and tighten the caliper bolts.

    7

    Replace the wheel and lug nuts, and tighten the nuts flush to the wheel hub.

    8

    Repeat Steps 3 through 7 for the opposite wheel.

    9

    Torque the lug nuts at 100 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket once the Trailblazer is back onto the ground. Pump the brake pedal until it feels firm, then check and adjust the brake fluid level in the master cylinder. Add only clean brake fluid to fill the master cylinder. Replace the cover, and test drive the Trailblazer.

Sabtu, 15 Oktober 2011

How to Change the Front Brakes on a 2003 S10 2WD

The 2003 model year was the next-to-last model year in the successful production life of the Chevrolet S-10, which began in 1982. The 2003 S-10 came in either two- or four-wheel drive and had a standard 2.2-liter engine to go along with an optional 4.3-liter V-6. Replacing the brakes on the two-wheel-drive 2003 S-10 is a fairly complex task, as it involves removing and reinstalling the wheel bearings. While you have the bearing outs, it is best to inspect them to prevent future failures.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the front wheels, using a ratchet and socket. Lift the front of the truck with a floor jack and slide jack stands under the trucks frame rails. Lower the vehicle onto the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts and pull the front wheels off the truck.

    2

    Position an 8-inch C-clamp over the caliper, so the clamps screw side contacts the rear of the outer brake pad and its fixed side contacts the rear of the caliper. Place a drain pan under the brake caliper and open the bleeder valve on the rear of the caliper with a combination wrench. Immediately start tightening the C-clamp until the clamp stops moving, then tighten the bleeder valve.

    3

    Remove the two bolts securing the caliper to the front spindle, using a ratchet and socket. Pull the caliper and brake pads upward and off the rotor as one assembly. Hang the caliper and pads with a bungee cord from the coil spring.

    4

    Pull the inner brake pad outward to disengage its retaining clip from the cavity in the caliper piston and remove the brake pad. Slide the outer brake pad toward the caliper piston to guide its retaining tabs from the grooves in the calipers body.

    5

    Line up the tabs on the rear of the new outer brake pad with the grooves in the caliper and slide the new outer brake pad into place on the caliper. Align the retaining clip on the rear of the new inner brake pad with the cavity in the caliper piston. Press the brake pad toward the caliper piston until the clip is fully inserted into the cavity.

    6

    Pry the grease cap off the center of the rotor with a flat-head screwdriver. Pull the cotter pin from the spindle shaft, using needle-nose pliers and remove the castellated spindle shaft nut with a ratchet and socket. Pull outward on the rotor to dislodge the outer wheel bearing and washer, and pull the bearing and washer from the spindle shaft.

    7

    Thread the castellated spindle nut onto the spindle shaft about three turns. Pull the rotor outward until you feel the inner wheel bearing contact the spindle nut. Pull outward on the rotor sharply to disengage the inner wheel bearing and grease seal from the rotor. Remove the rotor, spindle nut, inner bearing and grease seal from the spindle shaft.

    8

    Inspect the rotor for any defects, including deep grooves, evidence of grinding, hot spots, cracking or a mirror-like shine. If any defects exist, replace the rotor.

    9

    Clean the wheel bearings thoroughly with parts cleaner and a clean, lint-free cloth. Inspect the wheel bearings for any looseness by wiggling them back and forth, and inspect them for any resistance while spinning them. If they are loose or have resistance, replace both bearings.

    10

    Fill a bearing packing tools reservoir with new multipurpose grease and set one bearing in the reservoir. Slide the bearing packing tools plunger into the reservoir and with one smooth stroke press the plunger downward as far as it will go to pack the bearing with new grease. Remove the bearing and repeat this step on the other bearing.

    11

    Clean the hole in the center of the rotor with parts cleaner and a clean, lint-free cloth. Apply a thin coating of bearing grease to the inner and outer bearing races the new rotor comes with new races preinstalled.

    12

    Insert the inner bearing into the rear part of the hole in the center of the rotor. Set a new grease seal over the bearing and drive it in with a hammer and grease seal driver. Guide the rotor onto the spindle shaft.

    13

    Slide the outer bearing up the spindle shaft and into the center of the rotor. Guide the washer onto the spindle shaft and hand-thread the castellated spindle nut onto the spindle shaft. Spin the rotor forward as you torque the spindle nut to 12 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket. Loosen the spindle nut roughly a half turn, then hand-tighten the spindle nut.

    14

    Loosen the spindle nut until a valley on the castellated spindle nut aligns with the hole through the spindle shaft, if needed. Guide a new cotter pin through the hole in the spindle shaft and bend its legs in opposite directions to lock it into place. Set the grease cap in place on the center of the rotor and seat it by striking it lightly with a rubber mallet.

    15

    Remove the caliper and brake pads from the bungee cord and reinstall them on the front spindle. Hand-tighten the caliper-to-spindle bolts, then torque them to 38 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    16

    Repeat steps 2 through 15 to change the brakes on the other side of the truck.

    17

    Reinstall the front wheels on the front hubs and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the S-10 off the jack stands with a floor jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the truck to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts in a crisscross pattern to 100 foot-pounds.

    18

    Press the brake pedal about two-thirds of its total travel and release it. Wait approximately 15 seconds, then press and release the brake pedal again until it feels firm. Check the fluid level in the brake master cylinder and refill it to the Max level with fresh DOT 3 brake fluid.

    19

    Drive the S-10 to a road with little to no traffic. When traffic is clear, accelerate the truck to 30 mph and press the brake pedal with moderate firmness until the truck comes to a complete stop. Wait about 10 seconds and repeat this step about 20 times with a 10-second wait between each stop.

    20

    Take any old brake fluid to a nearby automotive fluid recycling center for disposal. Some auto parts stores take old fluids without charge.