Kamis, 29 September 2011

How to Replace the Disc Brakes on a 2000 Chevy Malibu

How to Replace the Disc Brakes on a 2000 Chevy Malibu

The 2000 Chevy Malibu comes equipped with a front disc and rear drum brake system that is similar in design to many mid-sized Chevy cars. This brake system is designed so that the front disc brakes supply approximately 80 percent of the stopping power used by the vehicle to stop. Replacing the front brake pads is a home repair project that a novice can perform in about an hour using basic hand tools

Instructions

    1

    Place the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels, then apply the parking brake. Raise the front of the car, using a floor jack positioned on the front sub-frame, until the front wheels are off the ground. Place a jack stand on each side of the sub-frame, and lower the car onto the jack stands.

    2

    Remove the front wheels, using a lug wrench to remove the lug-nuts, and place the wheels and lug-nuts aside to prevent tripping hazards.

    3

    Wedge a large screwdriver between the inside brake pad and the brake rotor. Pull on the screwdriver to pry the inside pad and force the caliper piston back into the caliper.

    4

    Remove the caliper bolts using a 14-mm wrench and slip the caliper off the caliper bracket. Remove the old pads from the caliper bracket.

    5

    Install the shims, attached to the old brake pads, on the new brake pads. Slip the new pads into place on the caliper bracket. Slide the caliper onto the caliper bracket, then secure it with the two 14-mm bolts previously removed.

    6

    Reinstall the wheels. Raise the Malibu off the jack stands using the floor jack, and remove the stands. Lower the car slowly to the ground and slide the floor jack out from under the vehicle.

    7

    Pump the brake pedal several times to expand the caliper and force the pads against the rotor. Test drive the car. The first eight stops should be moderate stops from 30 mph to nearly stopped with at least 30 seconds between stops. This burnishes the new pads and helps prevent brake noise.

How to Change the Rear Brakes on a Nissan Altima

Your Nissan Altima automobile comes standard with disc brakes on the front and rear wheels. Disc brakes use friction, produced by two pads being forced against a flat rotor, to cause the vehicle to stop. The friction causes the pads to slowly wear, and, eventually, you will need to replace them. If you drive aggressively in stop-and-go traffic, you will need to change the pads more frequently. Plan to spend approximately an hour replacing the rear brake pads.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood, and remove the cap from the brake master cylinder, located on the driver's side, near the firewall. Cover the open cylinder with a clean rag. Stuff old rags around and under the cylinder, to catch any brake fluid that overflows.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on all the rear wheel lugs. Raise the rear of the car, and support it with a jack stand on each side. Remove the lug nuts and both rear wheels.

    3

    Place a drip pan or newspapers below the brake assembly. Spray the entire front brake assembly with a liberal amount of brake cleaner, and allow the parts to dry.

    4

    Use a socket to remove the upper sliding pin bolt from the caliper. Rotate the caliper downward and out of the torque member. Use a piece of wire to support the caliber, so the brake line is not stretched.

    5

    Remove the inner and out pads, pad retainers and shims from the torque member.

    6

    Apply a coat of Molokyte grease to the back to the new pads, and attach the shims to the backs of the pads. Place another coat of grease on the back of the shims and on the inside of the retainers. A small tube of Molykyte grease should come with your new pads.

    7

    Insert the two inner and two outer pad retainers into the torque member, ensuring they are seated all the way against the back.

    8

    Insert the inner and outer pads and shims.

    9

    Press the caliper piston back into its cylinder, by attaching a large C-clamp and tightening it. This is necessary because the new pads will be considerably thicker than the old pads.

    10

    Rotate the caliper back upward, into the torque member. Replace the upper sliding pin bolt, and use a torque wrench to tighten it to 32 ft-lbs. of torque.

    11

    Repeat Step 3 through Step 10 on the opposite side.

    12

    Replace the wheels and the lug nuts. Lower the vehicle, and tighten the lug nuts. Check the master cylinder, to ensure it is still full. If fluid leaked when you depressed the piston, add new brake fluid to reach the "Full" mark. Clean any spillage, and replace the cap. Be sure to remove all rags from the engine compartment.

    13

    Take the vehicle for a drive on a straight road with minimum traffic. Accelerate to about 30 mph, and rapidly slow the car to the point just before stopping. Repeat this at least two more times. The purpose is to make sure the pads are fully seated and to smooth out any rough spots on the new pads.

How to Repair Mushy Auto Brakes

How to Repair Mushy Auto Brakes

Because brake failure can cause a lethal accident, drivers should never ignore any indication that the condition of a vehicle's brakes could be deteriorating. One such indication is a mushy or soft feel when the brake pedal is depressed. This gives the driver the alarming sensation that the vehicle might not stop.

Instructions

    1

    Check for a low brake fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir. The fluid level is normally visible through the plastic of the reservoir, and it should be up to the full mark on the reservoir side. On older vehicles with metal reservoirs you have to take the top off and look inside. If the level is low, add new brake fluid to bring it up to the full mark. A low level likely indicates a fluid leak, so carefully inspect the system for signs of leakage. Check all system components for signs of fluid on the outside. Look very carefully at the brake line connections at the master cylinder, the flexible brake lines at each wheel and the rubber seals on the caliper and brake pistons--any connection point is a likely place for a leak. If you discover a leak at a connection point try tightening the connection to stop the leak. Some connections are secured with hose clamps while other have threaded connectors. If you can't stop the leak, the line must be replaced.

    2

    Check for looseness in the pushrod linkage at the brake pedal and at the power booster and master cylinder. Tighten up any loose link points by loosening the lock nuts at either end of the pushrod that is attached near the top of the brake pedal lever, and rotate the pushrod to increase or decrease pedal height as desired. Tighten the locknuts securely when you are finished. Take care not to adjust the pedal to either end of its travel; doing so will pull the master cylinder away from its normal rest position.

    3

    Bleed the brake lines. Air trapped in the brake lines or piston cylinders will cause a mushy feeling at the brake pedal. Use a baster to remove the old brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir, then refill with new fluid. Do the back wheels first, followed by the front wheels. Working from wheel to wheel, remove the wheel and locate the bleeder connection on the brake or caliper piston. Slip a piece of thin tubing over the nipple on the connection and run the tubing to a container on the ground. Open the bleeder connection by loosening the nut at the base. Let the fluid run out until new fluid is visible (sometimes the brakes will have to be pumped a few times to keep the fluid moving). Be very careful not to let the level in the master cylinder reservoir go to the bottom. Close the bleeder connection securely, refill the master cylinder reservoir with new brake fluid and move on to the next wheel. Dispose of the old brake fluid in accordance with local regulations.

    4

    Check drum brake self-adjusting mechanisms for proper operation. Back the car up quickly and brake hard to try to coax a seized self-adjusting mechanism into working. Repeat several times, then open up each drum and inspect the star wheel and lock tab. Clean the mechanism thoroughly, apply anti-seize compound to the star wheel teeth, then lubricate the star wheel and lock tab pivot points with brake grease. Replace any defective parts.

    5

    Check the operation of the master cylinder. Remove the master cylinder reservoir cap and empty the fluid with the help of a syringe or baster. Disconnect the brake lines from the the master cylinder and plug the line connections on the master cylinder with suitable caps or plugs, taking care not to damage the soft connections. Refill the reservoir with new brake fluid and replace the reservoir cap. Start the car and press and hold the brake pedal. A firm and high brake pedal that does not sink over time indicates that the master cylinder is operating properly. If the pedal slowly sinks over time, or if it feels soft, low or mushy, the master cylinder is defective and must be replaced.

How to Fix a Low Brake Pedal

How to Fix a Low Brake Pedal

The braking system is critical to automotive safety. Our lives, and the lives of others, depend on proper functioning of the brakes on every vehicle on the road. Brake systems do fail, so you must perform regular preventive maintenance and pay attention to the early symptoms of developing problems. One such common symptom is a low or soft brake pedal. This occurs when you must depress the brake pedal much farther than expected before the brakes engage. This gives you the uncomfortable feeling that your vehicle may not stop.

Instructions

    1

    Determine if the low brake pedal is accompanied by vibration or pulsation when braking. If so, it is likely that a warped brake disk or an out-of-round rear brake drum is pushing the brake pad or shoe farther away from the braking surface than normal. This means that the brake pedal will have to be depressed farther than normal before the brakes engage, making the pedal feel soft and low. Any vibration or pulsation in the brakes is cause for an immediate complete inspection. Be sure the disks and drums are all true and round, and that the pads and shoes (and all other brake components) are in good condition.

    2

    Think about how the problem developed. Did it start suddenly, or gradually? If the problem started suddenly after brake servicing, air likely is in one or more of the brake lines. Bleed the lines to remove the air. If the problem started suddenly and nobody has serviced the brakes for awhile, the problem is likely caused by a fluid leak in the system or by a problem with the master cylinder.

    On older drum brakes, a low brake pedal can sometimes develop if the self-adjusting mechanism is corroded and sticking. If your car has older drum brakes (many low-end cars still have rear drum brakes) try backing up quickly and braking firmly. This action might loosen up the self-adjusting mechanism and fix the problem.

    3

    Check the brake fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir. A low brake pedal often means you don't have enough brake fluid in the reservoir. Look inside. You should see a maximum and a minimum level marked on the side of the reservoir. The level should be between these two marks. If the master cylinder reservoir level is low, add sufficient new brake fluid to bring the level up to about halfway between the min and max marks.

    4

    Check the appearance of the brake fluid in the master cylinder reservoir at the same time that you are checking the fluid level. The fluid should be reddish in color and it should have a clear appearance similar to most cherry cough syrups. If the fluid looks brownish, if scum is floating on the fluid surface or if the fluid looks as if it has any kind of solid or liquid contamination, drain all the fluid, flush the system and refill with new fluid.

    5

    Thoroughly inspect the master cylinder, the brake lines, and the brakes themselves for signs of leakage. If the brake fluid level is low, it must be going somewhere--and this stuff doesn't evaporate. A slightly low fluid level may simply be caused by worn brake pad or shoe linings, but a very low level or a level that keeps going low after the reservoir is topped off is surely a sign of a leak in the system. Locate the leak and deal with it accordingly. Tighten loose connections and replace leaking lines and seals. Common leak locations include the connections between brake lines and the master cylinder, the brake lines at the calipers, and the rubber caliper piston seals.

    6

    Test the master cylinder. Open the master cylinder reservoir cap and remove the brake fluid from the cylinder using a syringe or baster. If the fluid is in good condition, save it in a clean container for reuse. Carefully remove the brake lines from the bottom of the master cylinder and securely plug the line connections on the master cylinder with suitable caps or plugs. Refill the reservoir to the appropriate level, replace the reservoir cap, start the car and apply the brakes. If the brake pedal now feels firm and high, the master cylinder is functioning properly.

Rabu, 28 September 2011

How to Replace a 1993 Toyota Camry Rotor

The brake rotors on the Toyota Camry are just as important to the safety of the car as the brake pads. When the brake rotors get too thin or they sustain damage from brake pads, you need to replace them. Another problem that may occur is warping when the rotor has gotten too hot. This is evident when you depress the brake pedal and you feel a "wobbling" coming from the front wheel area of the Toyota. Replacing the brake rotors on your Camry is a fairly straightforward job that requires only a few basic tools.

Instructions

    1

    Place a set of wheel chocks behind the rear wheels of the Camry. Raise the front of the car with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the vehicle and raise it up to the frame.

    2

    Remove the wheel using the lug wrench. Remove the brake caliper from the Toyota by loosening the retaining bolts with the socket and ratchet. Secure it to the strut using a wire tie. If you allow the calipers to hang, you will damage the brake lines.

    3

    Attach two of the lug nuts to the wheel hub temporarily after you remove the wheel. Remove the torque plate from the steering knuckle by removing the bolts with a socket and ratchet. Remove the lug nuts and pull the rotor disc from the axle hub of the Camry.

    4

    Put the new rotor on the wheel and temporarily install the lug nuts. Replace the bolts using the socket and ratchet and secure the torque plate. Remove the lug nuts from the wheel lugs. Put the brake caliper on the caliper bracket and tighten the bolts using the socket and ratchet.

    5

    Replace the wheel on the car and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the car. Lower the Camry back to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel.

How to Change the Rear Brakes on a 2000 Honda Accord

The rear brakes on a 2000 Honda Accord use a caliper and piston design to apply brake pressure. You'll need a special brake tool to compress the piston on the rear caliper. This tool is available from Honda dealerships. When the pad material is 1/8-inch thick, you will need to replace the rear brake pads.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the rear lug nuts by turning them counterclockwise with a tire wrench. Only turn the lug nuts 40 degrees.

    2

    Raise the rear of the Accord onto jack stands. Lift up on the rear jack point with a floor jack and place a jack stand under each of the two rear pinch welds. Lower the Accord onto the stands.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheel off.

    4

    Remove the caliper pin bolt on the bottom of the caliper.

    5

    Remove the upper and lower caliper mounting bolts.

    6

    Slide the caliper off the rotor assembly, open the caliper and remove the brake pads.

    7

    Slide the caliper piston tool over the end of the piston. Align the notches on the tool with the grooves on the piston.

    8

    Turn the piston counterclockwise to force the piston back into the caliper.

    9

    Slide the tool off the piston once the piston has bottomed out inside the caliper.

    10

    Install the new brake pads so that the curved end of the pad is facing inward towards the caliper.

    11

    Reassemble the brakes. Assembly is the reverse of disassembly.

    12

    Spray the brake assembly down with brake parts cleaner. Make sure that there is no dirt or grease on any of the brake components.

How to Replace ABS Rear Disk Brakes

How to Replace ABS Rear Disk Brakes

Automotive braking is greatly enhanced when an anti-lock braking system is used. Known widely by the acronym ABS, the anti-lock braking system acts to keep the wheels from locking during braking, thus preventing skids and stopping the vehicle more quickly than conventional brakes. ABS consists of speed sensors at each wheel and a control module that monitors these sensors and controls the braking action. The rotational part of the speed sensors are normally embedded in the wheel hubs, and, because the disks and brake pads are actually separate from the hubs, there is no difference in disk brake replacement procedures for ABS and non-ABS disk brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle on a firm, level surface. Put automatic transmissions in the "Park" setting, and put manual transmissions in either first or reverse gear. Set the parking brake, and securely block the front wheels, to prevent accidental vehicle movement. Loosen the lug nuts about half a turn each, and jack the car. Support the vehicle, securely, on an axle stand. Completely remove the lug nuts, and pull off the wheel.

    2

    Remove the two caliper retaining bolts. Grasp the caliper, and rock it back and forth a few times, to spread the brake pads a bit. Lift the caliper off the disk. Hang the caliper out of the way, using a wire or bungee cord, taking care not to stretch or damage the flexible brake hose. The coil spring on the nearby suspension is often a good place to hang the caliper.

    3

    Slide the brake pads out of the caliper. If retaining clips are present, these can be pried off with a screw driver or pulled off with pliers. Take care not to damage clips during removal, so they can be reused.

    4

    Retract the piston back into the cylinder, by placing the spindle swivel of a large C-clamp on the piston face, hooking the frame end of the clamp on the back of the caliper, and tightening the clamp. Be careful not to pinch or damage the rubber piston dust boot.

    For rear brakes that have the emergency brake incorporated into the brake calipers, hook a large C-clamp over the back of the caliper, and position the clamp spindle swivel on the piston face. Put firm pressure on the piston, by tightening the clamp, but do not try to push the piston back. Grip the piston with large channel lock pliers, and rotate the piston, clockwise, to move it back into the cylinder. Maintain backward pressure on the piston, by tightening the C-clamp after every piston rotation. Be careful not to damage the rubber piston dust boot.

    5

    Remove any retaining screws or bolts from the disk, and pull the disk straight off the hub. If the disk is seized, tap the center part of the disk, firmly, with a hammer or mallet, taking care not to hit the friction surface or outer rim. Some disks have threaded holes in the center part of the disk. Bolts can be threaded into these holes and tightened to jack a seized disk off the hub.

    6

    Clean all parts with brake cleaning fluid. Catch the used fluid in a catch pan, and dispose of used fluid properly. Install a new disk, if needed. Liberally lubricate the caliper bolts with brake grease, before reinserting them in their mounts. Reassemble the caliper, using new pads and shims, if needed, and reinstall the caliper. Reinstall the wheel. Repeat the procedure on the other rear wheel.

    7

    Lower the vehicle. Start the engine, and pump the brakes a few times to re-extend the retracted pistons. Test the brake operation, before driving.

How to Adjust Brake Pedal Height in a GMC Sierra

In a heavy duty pickup such as the GMC Sierra, your braking system should be in good working order. Though the GMC Sierra is widely praised for having a stiff, responsive brake pedal, you may need to adjust the pedal height. Depending on the severity of the problem, you may be able to adjust the height yourself in a few minutes.

Instructions

    1

    Get a GMC Sierra owner's manual and check the brake lines for leaks. If the brake lines are still intact and not leaking, proceed with adjusting the pedal height.

    2

    Locate the brake booster rod, at the top and rear of the brake pedal lever. It's a thin rod running approximately perpendicular to the lever, with a lock nut at either end. The best way to access it is from the right hand side.

    3

    Loosen the adjuster nut, which is closest to the brake pedal lever. If you can't find the appropriate size wrench, an adjustable crescent wrench will work.

    4

    Raise the pedal height by twisting the booster rod clockwise, with a pair of pliers. Don't raise it too high, or you may cause further brake problems. To loosen, twist counter clockwise.

    5

    Tighten the lock nut. Test your adjustment out. You should have a small amount of free play, but you shouldn't notice any brake chatter or unusual sounds.

    6

    Contact a GMC mechanic if your brake pedal remains unresponsive.

Chevy Pickup Brake Line Removal

Chevy Pickup Brake Line Removal

You need to inspect the brake lines on your Chevy pickup truck every six months. If there are any leaks, corrosion or any other damage in the lines, you need to remove them for replacement. The lines are separated into metal pipes and rubber hoses, and either part may need replacing at any time.

Metal Lines and Hoses

    If you are removing the metal brake lines for replacement, make sure you have the correct type of replacement lines. You need steel brake lines from an auto parts store or your Chevy dealer's parts department--never use copper tubing. You can get prefabricated brake lines from either of these places, with the tube ends already flared and the fittings installed.
    Raise the truck (securing it on jack stands works best), and remove the wheel corresponding to the brake line you are removing. You need two wrenches to separate the brake line from the rubber hose at the bracket. Use a flare-nut wrench on the fitting nut so you don't strip the ends of the nut, and hold the hose end with an open-end wrench so you won't twist the frame bracket. Disconnect the fittings at the other end as well to remove the metal line.
    If you need to remove the rubber hose, there is a U-clip at the female fitting of the brake line on most Chevy pickup models. Remove this clip with a pair of pliers, pass the hose through the bracket and remove the bolts securing the hose brackets to the steering knuckle and upper control arm.

Replacement

    You will need the old brake line as a guide when replacing it, as the new pipe must be bent in the exact same way. Use a tubing bender to shape the brake line in this manner.
    After you connect the new brake line by tightening the fitting nuts and/or installing the U-clip, you need to bleed the air out of whichever brake caliper the new brake line is connected to. With the master cylinder reservoir filled with fluid, attach a clear tube to the caliper's bleeder valve and submerge the other end in a container of fluid. Open the bleeder valve and have an assistant repeatedly press the brake pedal to remove air until the fluid flows cleanly out the tube. Top off the master cylinder after bleeding the brakes.

How to Remove a Front Brake Rotor in a 1991 Toyota Camry

How to Remove a Front Brake Rotor in a 1991 Toyota Camry

Damage to the rotors on your 1991 Toyota Camry occurs over time, but can often be attributed to a bad brake-pad repair. Signs of damage to the rotors include a large amount of brake dust built up on your rim. The car may skip to a stop or the sound of metal grinding is heard when applying the brakes. The rotors, if inspected every 15,000 miles as Toyota recommends, should last through three sets of brake pads. Removing or replacing the front brake rotor on your Camry can be done right at home. With a few tools, it should take you 20 minutes or less to do.

Instructions

    1

    Apply the Camry's emergency brake, and firmly place a wheel block behind the rear tire diagonally from the front brake rotor you want to remove.

    2

    Loosen the tire's lug nuts slightly with a lug wrench, but don't remove them. Raise the car with your car-jack, so the bottom of the tire visually measure five inches from the ground. Slide a jack stand into position just left of the car-jack, raise the support to accommodate the car-jack's height, and then secure the support arm with its locking pin.

    3

    Remove all of the tire's lug nuts, and slide the tire off the wheel studs. Temporarily place two of the lug nuts back on, hand-tight, to hold the brake rotor in place.

    4

    Remove the two inner torque-plate bolts with a socket wrench. Do not remove the brake-caliper bolts connected to the plate; only remove the torque-plate bolts. When you are looking at the brake caliper, it appears as if it's mounted to a bracket; this is the torque plate.

    5

    Place a 5-gallon bucket right next to the brake caliper, within the wheel well. Slide the torque plate and brake caliper off the rotor using both hands. Set the assembly down on top of the bucket; you do not have to disconnect the brake line, but want to make sure it is not twisted.

    6

    Remove the two lug nuts that you temporarily installed, and pull the rotor off the hub in an outward motion. If the rotor does not pull straight off, you can use a rubber mallet to lightly tap around the rear of the rotor to free it. Installation is the reverse of the removal process, but requires a 3/8-inch-drive torque wrench. Tighten the torque plate bolts to 79 ft-lbs. and your tire's lug nuts to 137 ft-lbs.

Senin, 26 September 2011

How to Change Brakes on a 1997 Chevy Truck

How to Change Brakes on a 1997 Chevy Truck

The 1997 Chevy pickup is available in 2-wheel or 4-wheel drive, and both come with disc brakes. Changing disc brakes is a quick and simple process. If you hear a squealing or grinding sound when you apply the brakes or drive, it's time to change the brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen all of the lugs with the tire iron 1 rotations.

    2

    Place the jack underneath the support strut under the vehicle and lift it until the tires are 2 inches off the ground or more. Set the jack stands underneath the axle for stability. Finish removing the tire.

    3

    Remove the bolts on the mounting bracket using the socket wrench and remove the bracket. Slide the old brake pads out of the bracket.

    4

    Slip the new pads into the bracket. They will go in by hand.

    5

    Reattach the bracket with the bolts. Reattach the tire and lower the vehicle.

How to Change the Brakes on a Ford Explorer Xlt 4WD

How to Change the Brakes on a Ford Explorer Xlt 4WD

Some of the early 90s Ford Explorers have disc brakes in the front and drum brakes in the rear. Newer models have four-wheel drive disc brakes. Some are two-wheel drive and some are four-wheel drive. Many of them have ABS braking systems, which is an antilock brake system. The rear brake drums in the Ford Explorer were manufactured with several different sizes of brake shoes but the removal and installation procedure is the same. Drum brakes, however, must be installed using a different process.

Instructions

    1

    Place the jack under the car at the manufacturer's recommended lift points. Raise the car and place a jack stand under the vehicle to keep it from falling.

    2

    Remove the lug nuts from the wheel and then remove the wheel.

    3

    Use the ratchet and socket set to remove the two bolts holding the brake caliper on the hub. Slide the caliper off the brakes and rotor.

    4

    Remove the old brake shoes.

    5

    Using the C clamp or the caliper compressor tool, decompress the brake caliper all the way in. Be careful not to puncture the seal around the caliper piston.

    6

    Install the new brake shoes in reverse order of removal instructions. With the new brakes in place reinstall the brake caliper.

    7

    Reinstall the wheel and the lug nuts. Push the brake pedal down several times to push the brake caliper pistons back out before moving the vehicle.

Minggu, 25 September 2011

How do I Replace the Front Brake Rotors on a 2003 Mitsubishi Galant?

How do I Replace the Front Brake Rotors on a 2003 Mitsubishi Galant?

New brake pads will not fully repair your Mitsubishi Galant's brakes if the rotors are damaged. The rotors typically sustain damage long before they wear out when the brake pads are on the car are beyond their recommended replacement interval. Changing the rotors does not take long to change the rotors, and even less time if you replace them the same time you replace the brake pads. The minimum thickness for Mitsubishi rotors is 8.4 mm.

Instructions

    1

    Park your car on a level surface and turn off the ignition. Place the wheel chocks behind your rear wheels. Jack the the front of the car up with the automobile jack and place a jack stand under it near the jacking point. Raise the jack stand up to the frame and lower the car with the jack onto the jack stand. Put the jack aside.

    2

    Remove the wheel using the lug wrench to remove the lug nuts. Remove the brake caliper from the wheel assembly by pulling the locking pin with the pliers and swinging the caliper upward.

    3

    Remove the rotor retaining screws using the screwdriver and pull the rotor off of the wheel assembly. Use the rubber mallet on the rotor if it is stuck.

    4

    Put the new rotor on the wheel assembly and secure it by tightening the retaining screw with the screwdriver. Push the brake caliper down and insert the locking pin with the pliers. Replace the wheel and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

    5

    Place the jack under the vehicle and raise it. Remove the jack stand from under the vehicle. Lower the car with the jack back to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel.

How to Replace Brake Pads on a Chevy Truck

How to Replace Brake Pads on a Chevy Truck

Chevrolet kept the same brake pad replacement process on all of its trucks. The brake pads are the two main components that bring the truck to a stop. The braking system is designed to compress the inner and outer brake pads to the inner and outer sections of the brake rotor. When the brake pads have been fully applied to the inner and outer sections of the brake rotor, the truck will come to a safe and complete stop. The brake pads have to be replaced before the pads wear down to the wear indicators.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Chevy truck in a area where the surface is flat and level. Push the emergency brake in to keep the truck from rolling.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts from both front wheels with a tire tool or a lug wrench.

    3

    Slide the floor jack up under the front of the Chevy truck and jack the truck up from the front cross frame that is under the motor. When the truck is high enough, put the jack stands under the jacking points behind each front wheel on both sides of the truck. Then, lower the truck onto the jack stands and leave the jack in place as extra security.

    4

    Finish unscrewing the lug nuts from the front driver-side wheel and pull the wheel off. Set the wheel face down so that it does not roll off.

    5

    Look on the side of the brake rotor and you will see the brake caliper. Insert the small pry bar into the top window of the caliper and pry it back and forth. This will loosen the caliper's grip on the brake rotor.

    6

    Look on the rear of the brake caliper and locate the two upper and lower 3/8-inch Allen-head bolts. Some of the older Chevrolet trucks may have regular bolts. Remove these bolts with the 3/8-inch Allen wrench or the appropriate-size socket and ratchet. Then, slide the caliper off the rotor and hang it on the nearest component with a small rope.

    7

    Pull the inner brake pad out of the caliper. Then, slide the jaws of the large channel-lock pliers over the outer brake pad and the caliper housing. Compress the cylinder into the caliper housing by squeezing the pliers together. Compress the cylinder slowly so that no air will get into the brake lines.

    8

    Remove the pliers and remove any shims or other brake pad accessories. Then, install the new brake pads, shims and accessories into the brake caliper. Remove the rope from the caliper and slide the caliper back onto the side of the brake rotor.

    9

    Line up the caliper bolt holes to the caliper housing. Screw the two upper and lower bolts back into the rear of the caliper. Tighten the caliper bolts down tight with the 3/8-inch Allen wrench or the ratchet and socket.

    10

    Slide the wheel back onto the hub and screw the lug nuts onto the lugs. Tighten the lugs with the tire tool. Then, follow the same above instructions for replacing the brake pads on the front passenger side of the Chevy truck.

    11

    Jack the truck back up from the cross frame and remove the jack stands. Slowly lower the truck back to the ground.

    12

    Finish tightening the lug nuts down very tight with the tire tool or the lug wrench.

    13

    Crank the engine and slowly pump the brakes in and out six or seven times to fit the new brake pads to the brake rotor. Then, turn the engine off.

    14

    Open the hood and remove the brake fluid reservoir lid. Check the brake fluid level. If the level is low, add the brake fluid until full and then put the lid back on and close the hood.

How Hydraulic Braking Systems Work

How Hydraulic Braking Systems Work

Hydraulic braking systems are powerful, reliable systems relied on in automobiles and other vehicles. These systems generally involve a master cylinder, hydraulic fluid, hydraulic lines and one or more "slave" cylinders, which actuate each individual brake.

Theory

    An automotive hydraulic braking system translates the mechanical motion of a driver's foot on the brake pedal into hydraulic pressure, which is transmitted to individual brakes, where it is turned back into mechanical motion. The system requires a fluid, metal or rubber brake lines, smaller hydraulic "slave" cylinders at each brake and the brake itself. Each automobile has four.

Master Cylinder

    The master cylinder takes the mechanical motion from the brake pedal and converts it into hydraulic pressure. The master cylinder is basically a piston within a cylinder, filled with fluid. Modern systems have power added to them by the car and for safety also feature two separate systems, either of which will stop the vehicle. The pressure generated is distributed out to the individual brakes.

Brake Lines and Slave Cylinders

    Individual brake lines radiate out to the brakes from the master cylinder. These brake lines are generally made of high-quality steel, resistant to corrosion and built to withstand high pressures. In cars, the last foot or two of the brake line to the wheel brake will usually be high-grade rubber, as the lines needs to move with the wheels' side-to-side and up-and-down motions. The high-pressure fluid entering a wheel slave cylinder pushes a pad or disc against a machined metal surface, and the generated friction slows the vehicle.

Sabtu, 24 September 2011

How to Replace the Disc Pads on a 2000 Toyota Camry

How to Replace the Disc Pads on a 2000 Toyota Camry

The braking system on the 2000 Toyota Camry is designed to stop the car by applying the brake pads to the flat portions of the brake rotor. When the driver pushes in on the brake pedal, the brake fluid travels down through the brake fluid lines and into the brake caliper. The brake caliper then compresses the inner and outer brake pads to the brake rotors. This is the complete braking process for stopping the Camry. Many mechanics recommend that the brake rotors be machine turned or replaced when the brake pads are changed.

Instructions

    1

    Park the 2000 Toyota Camry in a safe area with a flat surface. Open the hood and locate the brake fluid reservoir just below the master brake cylinder. Unscrew the cap from the brake fluid reservoir and stick the brake fluid removal syringe inside of the reservoir. Suck out a syringe full of brake fluid and set the syringe in a safe place. Put the cap back on the reservoir. Shut the hood but do not lock it down.

    2

    Remove the hub cap from the front driver-side wheel. Loosen the lug nuts with a lug wrench or a tire tool. Move to the front passenger-side wheel and do the same thing.

    3

    Slide the jack up under the Camry and position the jack under a secure jacking point such as the cross frame below the engine. Jack the Camry just high enough to put the jack stands under the jacking points on both sides of the car. Leave the jack in the upright position.

    4

    Remove all of the lug nuts from the front driver-side wheel and pull the wheel off the hub. Lay the wheel down flat.

    5

    Slide the flat-head screwdriver into the top opening of the brake caliper. Pry the brake caliper back and forth to the loosen the caliper from the rotor.

    6

    Remove the caliper from the brake rotor by unscrewing the two upper and lower caliper mounting bolts with the 1/2-inch drive ratchet and a 14 mm socket. Pull the brake caliper off the brake rotor and hang it to one of the suspension components with a small rope.

    7

    Remove the inner brake pad from the brake caliper. Position the C-clamp inside the caliper and compress the outer brake pad towards the caliper cylinder until it is completely inside of the caliper.

    8

    Unscrew the C-clamp and remove it from the brake caliper. Pull the outer brake pad out of the caliper along with any shims and other brake pad accessories.

    9

    Insert the new brake pads along with any shims and other new brake pad accessories into the caliper. Put the brake caliper with the new brake pads back onto the brake rotor. Then, reverse the same steps above for reinstalling the caliper and the wheel.

    10

    Move to the front passenger-side wheel and follow the same above instructions for changing the brake pads. Then, jack the front of the Camry back up and pull the jack stands out. Lower the jack and slide it out from under the Camry.

    11

    Put the brake fluid back into the reservoir by squirting the brake fluid out of the syringe back into the reservoir. Put the cap back on and close the hood.

    12

    Crank the Camry up and push the brake pedal in and out five or six times to fit the new pads to the brake rotors. Then, turn the engine off.

How to Adjust Rear Brakes on a Ford Zx2

The rear brakes on the Ford Zx2 will only need adjustment after you change the brake shoes. The drums contain a self-adjuster. However, you can manually adjust the rear brakes to speed up the process. This will help the brake to "bed in" to the drum quickly and improve brake performance.

Instructions

    1

    Gently step on the brake pedal with the car turned off. The pedal pressure should be low.

    2

    Turn the vehicle on and put it into "Reverse." Back up slowly and apply the brakes. Brake response should be diminished over normal response time.

    3

    Repeat Step 2. This time, the brake pedal pressure should increase and response time should be improved.

    4

    Put the vehicle into "Drive" or first gear. Drive the vehicle up to 40 mph and apply the brakes. Slow down to 10 mph. Repeat this process two more times to fully adjust the brakes and bed them into the rotor.

Jumat, 23 September 2011

1979 Delta Master Cylinder Removal

The 1918 addition of hydraulic power to the braking system forever changed the way cars stopped. No longer did vehicles require an extravagant series of pulleys and levers to bring them to a stop; instead, hydraulic fluid took the place of these old mechanical systems. The 1979 Oldsmobile Delta 88 added a little extra innovation to Lougheeds hydraulic braking system: It used the engine's vacuum to magnify the drivers foot pressure on the brake pedal, by way of a brake booster. The Deltas master cylinder, the heart of the hydraulic brake system, mounts directly to the brake booster, making its replacement straightforward. After replacing the master cylinder, you must bleed the air from the brake system.

Instructions

Removing and Replacing

    1

    Press the metal locking wire on the master cylinder aside to unlock the lid. Pull the metal lid off the master cylinder, then pull off the rubber diaphragm under the cap. Siphon out as much of the fluid from the master cylinder as possible with a turkey baster. Transfer this siphoned fluid to a small, sealable container and seal the container.

    2

    Hold a small drain pan under the master cylinder and loosen the brake line fitting with a line wrench. Pull the brake lines from the master cylinder and allow the fluid to drain into the small drain pan. Pull the drain pan from under the master cylinder when the fluid stops draining. Immediately wrap the end of each brake line with a clean, lint-free cloth to prevent debris from entering the system.

    3

    Remove the master cylinder-retaining nuts with a ratchet and socket, and pull the master cylinder from the brake booster.

    4

    Set the new master cylinder in a bench vise fitted with rubber jaw protectors. Tighten the bench vise until it holds the master cylinder in place; do not tighten the vise too much, as it can potentially crack the master cylinder.

    5

    Remove the two plastic caps inserted in the brake line ports of the new master cylinder. Hand-thread the bleeder lines included in the master cylinder bleeder kit into the brake line ports. Snug the bleeder lines with a line wrench.

    6

    Fill the new master cylinders reservoir to the Max line with fresh DOT 3 brake fluid. Bend the bleeder lines upward and submerge their ends into the DOT 3 brake fluid in the master cylinder reservoir.

    7

    Press and release the plunger on the rear of the master cylinder with a wooden dowel rod. Watch the ends of the bleeder lines in the brake fluid and look for air bubbles coming from them. Continue pressing and releasing the plunger until no fluid comes from the ends of the hoses.

    8

    Remove the bleeder lines from the master cylinder with a line wrench and immediately press the plastic caps back into the brake line ports.

    9

    Install the new master cylinder on the mounting studs on the brake booster. Hand-tighten the master cylinders retaining nuts onto the studs. Torque these retaining nuts to 22 to 30 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    10

    Pull the plastic caps from the brake line ports. Unwrap the clean, lint-free cloths off the ends of the brake lines and insert the brake lines into the brake line ports on the master cylinder. Hand-thread the brake line fittings into the brake line ports, then torque the fittings to between 10 and 13 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and a crows foot attachment.

    11

    Add DOT 3 brake fluid to the master cylinder until the fluid level reaches the Max line on the reservoir. Proceed to the section titled Bleeding the Brakes.

Bleeding the Brakes

    12

    Raise the front of the Delta with a floor jack and position jack stands under its frame rails. Lower the front of the Oldsmobile onto the jack stands. Raise the rear of the vehicle with a floor jack and slide jack stands under the rear part of the frame rails. Lower the vehicle onto the jack stands.

    13

    Crawl under the rear of the Delta, so that you are right behind the right rear wheel. Find the brake bleeder valve -- the -inch metal valve -- on the top of the drum brake backing plate. Press one end of a -inch-diameter rubber hose onto the bleeder valve and set the other end in a clean, clear container. Fill this container with new DOT 3 brake fluid until the fluid submerges the end of the hose.

    14

    Instruct an assistant to press and release the brake pedal until the pedal feels firm -- about five to seven strokes-- then tell your assistant to hold the pedal to the floor. Turn the bleeder valve a half-turn with a combination wrench and inspect the end of the hose in the small container to determine whether air bubbles are coming from the hose. Tighten the bleeder valve and instruct your assistant to release the brake pedal. Repeat this step until air bubbles stop coming from the end of the hose.

    15

    Remove the rubber hose from the bleeder valve. Refill the brake master cylinder to the Max line.

    16

    Repeat steps 2 through 4 to bleed the remaining three wheels, in the following order: left rear, right front, then left front. When bleeding the front brakes, the bleeder valve is on top of the caliper, as opposed to the drum brake backing plate.

    17

    Raise the rear of the Delta off the jack stands with a floor jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the rear of the vehicle to the ground. Raise the front of the Delta off the jack stands with a floor jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the front of the Delta to the ground.

    18

    Insert the rubber diaphragm into the master cylinder and set the metal lid on top of the master cylinder. Pull the metal locking wire upward and press it over the lid until it seats into the groove on the lid.

    19

    Take the old brake fluid to a local used automotive fluid recycling center. Some auto parts stores take this fluid free of charge.

The Location of the Speed Sensor in a 1997 Honda Accord

The Location of the Speed Sensor in a 1997 Honda Accord

Your '97 Honda Accord's wheel speed sensors are a part of the car's anti-lock brake system (ABS). Each sensor monitors the speed of each wheel to help determine whether ABS-assisted braking should be activated during a stop. The sensors judge speed differently than the speedometer.

Wheel Speed Sensor Operation

    A toothed ring is mounted on the axle hub. As the ring turns with the wheel, its teeth help generate voltage with the speed sensor's magnetic core and coil windings. The frequency of the voltage pulse is monitored by the ABS control module, where it exists as a digital signal indicating wheel speed. A change in one wheel's speed vs. the other wheels indicates to the module which wheel is losing traction during braking, and to apply ABS-assist.

Locating the Sensors

    The speed sensors are located on the steering knuckle, behind the rotors of the wheels. They are securely attached by two bolts and connect to wire harnesses that are protected by a metal tube along the control arm.

Replacing the Sensors

    Replacing the sensors is not difficult. You can do the job yourself with basic hand tools and new wheel speed sensors. Just be sure to purchase the correct sensors for your 1997 Accord.

Kamis, 22 September 2011

How to Make Parking Brake Adjustments in a Toyota Tacoma

Adjust your Toyota Tacoma parking brake when it no longer holds your truck in park. On older trucks, models 1999 or older, this adjustment is simple and you should perform it periodically to ensure the parking brake holds. This simple adjustment saves you time and money you would spend taking your truck to the mechanic, and it gives you a sense of accomplishment when fixing your truck. You'll use another technique for years 2000 to 2006.

Instructions

Adjust From Inside on Models 1999 or Older

    1

    Remove the console cover that holds the parking brake lever on the inside of the truck. Locate this console between the driver's seat and the front passenger seat.

    2

    Adjust the nuts that hold two wire rods sticking out of the back of the metal plate. Move the nuts slightly with a wrench or pliers and then test your trucks brake. Keep adjusting until the parking brake holds the truck in park.

    3

    Replace the parking brake console cover.

Adjust Underneath the Truck on Models 1999 or Older

    4

    Raise the rear end of the Tacoma. Jack up the truck and place jack stands underneath it for support.

    5

    Locate the wire cables running from each of the rear wheels to the center of the truck. Adjust the nut that holds where these two cables come together. Use your screwdriver to adjust the nut.

    6

    Lower your Tacoma using the jack and removing the jack stand. Test your adjustment by pulling upon the hand brake lever and noticing the car sticking in park.

Adjustment for Years 2000 to 2006

    7

    Raise the rear end of the Tacoma. Jack up the truck and place jack stands underneath it for support.

    8

    Remove the rear wheels using your tire iron and locate the hole where the star adjuster nut is held. Place your screwdriver in the hole and adjust the nut until the discs do not turn anymore.

    9

    Move the adjuster nut back eight notches. Put the tires back on and lower your vehicle.

    10

    Press in on the parking brake with 33 ft-lb of torque or pressure. Drive your vehicle at 31 mph for a quarter of a mile.

    11

    Repeat Step 4 two to three times to set the parking brake. Release the parking brake fully and then set the parking brake to the tightest position. Your vehicles parking brake should hold while your vehicle is parked on a slope.

How to Replace the Parking Brake Pads on a 1998 Ford Explorer With Disc Brakes

How to Replace the Parking Brake Pads on a 1998 Ford Explorer With Disc Brakes

You can replace the parking brake pads on your 1998 Ford Explorer equipped with disc brakes in your home garage, saving yourself time and money. The parking brake pads wear down over time and with use and will need to be replaced. Set aside a couple hours of time to do the job yourself. You can get all the supplies and tools you need from your local auto parts retailer.

Instructions

    1

    Place wheel chocks in front of each of the front tires.

    2

    Put on your safety glasses and loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels with a lug wrench. Position a jack under the rear differential of the vehicle and raise it up high enough to slide jack stands under it next to each rear wheel. Lower the Ford onto the jack stands.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts on the left rear wheel and take off the wheel. Place a drip pan under the left rear wheel and spray the brake assembly with brake cleaner.

    4

    Take off the bolts on the brake caliper with a socket set. Lift the brake caliper off the rotor from the top. Place the caliper bracket onto the spring to keep it from pulling on the brake line.

    5

    Find an oval-shaped rubber plug on the inside of the backing plate and remove it with a pick. Rotate the star-shaped adjuster in an upward motion with the pick. Gently tap the brake rotor hub with a hammer then remove the drum.

    6

    Remove the return and adjuster springs with a pick by pulling them out of their respective eyelets. Take out the adjuster manually. Unhook then remove the hold-down springs for the brake shoes with the pick. Remove the brake shoes and spray the area with brake cleaner.

    7

    Reverse the above steps to reassemble the components.

    8

    Repeat Steps 3 through 7 for the other rear wheel.

    9

    Remount the wheels on the Explorer and reinstall the lug nuts. Raise the SUV, remove the jack stands then lower the vehicle to the ground with the jack. Tighten the lug nuts with a torque wrench to 100 foot-pounds.

Rabu, 21 September 2011

How to Change the Brake Pads on a Cadillac Escalade

Brake pads serve a critical function on your Cadillac Escalade. Hydraulic fluid is forced through steel tubing to brake calipers. These calipers use a piston that pushes against a brake pad. The piston is forced against the pad by the fluid. The pad material has to be hard enough to create friction, but soft enough to grip the rotor surface at cold temperatures for everyday vehicles like the Escalade. Over time the pads will wear down and need to be replaced. When the pads are 1/8 inch thick, you will need to replace them.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the front lug nuts. Turn the wrench 1/8 to 1/4 turn. Do not give the wrench more than a 1/4 turn.

    2

    Slide the floor jack under the front jack point of the Escalade and jack up on it. Place jack stands under the front pinch welds and lower the escalade onto the jack stands.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and wheel.

    4

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts (both top and bottom) and slide the caliper off the rotor. Since it is still attached by the rubber brake line, you need to secure the caliper to the coil springs with zip-ties to prevent damage to the line.

    5

    Remove the brake pads from the caliper.

    6

    Put the face of the old pad over the caliper piston. Then, clamp down on the pad and caliper assembly with the c-clamp. Make sure that the boot does not twist or rip. It should fold "accordion style" into the caliper.

    7

    Insert the new pads into the Escalade's caliper.

    8

    Reassemble the brake caliper. Installation is the reverse of removal.

    9

    Put the wheel back on, lower the Escalade to the ground and torque the lug nuts to 100-foot-pounds.

DIY Ford Mustang Brakes

DIY Ford Mustang Brakes

Replacing the front or rear brake pads on your Ford Mustang can be done at home or another suitable and safe place. However, make sure you have the necessary tools for the job. Also, to prevent brake problems, replace brake pads as a set. For example, install new pads on both front or rear wheels, not just one wheel assembly. The next procedure applies to Mustangs with front and rear disc brakes.

Removing the Brake Pads

    To prepare the bake system for the new brake pads, use a hand siphon pump to remove half the brake fluid from the brake master cylinder reservoir. Then loosen the wheel lugs on the front or rear wheels, depending on which brake pads you are replacing.

    With the tire/wheel assemblies off, if you are working on the rear brakes, look for the brake hose bracket that holds the brake hose to the shock absorber. Unscrew the bracket and move it out of the way.

    The brake caliper is secured to the mounting bracket by two pin bolts. Unscrew the bolts. A rubber brake hose is attached to the back of the brake caliper. Leaving the caliper hanging may damage the rubber hose. Use a wire to tie the caliper to the coil spring or some other part of the suspension.

    With the caliper off the rotor, make a note of the mounting position and number of anti-rattle clips that secure the pads to the caliper or bracket on your Mustang model.

Installing the New Brake Pads

    At this point, it is a good idea to clean the brake assembly. Use a brake parts cleaner and a shop rag to get rid of all the brake lining dust and do not inhale it. Old brake pad linings, some still in use today, contain asbestos, which is known to cause cancer.

    If you are replacing the front pads, use a large C-clamp to push the caliper piston into its bore. Position one of the old brake pads in front of the piston and then push it with the clamp until the piston seats fully. For the rear breaks, use a Rear Caliper Piston Adjuster tool. This special tool helps you rotate and seat the caliper piston. The procedure will align one of the two slots on the piston with the nib on the back of the corresponding brake pad.

    Now you can install the brake pads, anti-rattle clips and the caliper over the brake rotor. Before securing the brake caliper on the rear wheels though, Ford recommends applying a thread-locking compound to the upper pin bolt.

    Double check that everything is in place, including the brake hose bracket that attaches to the shock absorber, if you are working on the rear breaks. Install the tire/wheel assemblies and lower your car. When refilling the brake master cylinder, use only new DOT 3 brake fluid.

    Since the caliper piston is wide open and the brake pads are new, sit behind the steering wheel and pump the brake pedal several times to adjust the caliper over the new brake pads. Then go for a ride on a slow traffic street in your neighborhood and make sure the brakes are operating correctly.

Selasa, 20 September 2011

How to Replace Brake Pads on a 96 Chevy Truck

Chevy pickup trucks from the 1996 model year are equipped with anti-lock disc brakes on the front wheels of the trucks. The disc brakes employ a system that forces the brake pads against the rotors when the brake pedal is depressed. Brake pads that are worn will not have the brake pad material necessary to consistently stop the vehicle. The brake pads are equipped with wear indicators--small metal clips that make direct contact with the rotor when the pads are thin enough to warrant replacement. Listen for a squealing or grinding sound during braking for a sign that it is time to replace your Chevy truck's brake pads.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Chevy truck on a flat stretch of road or driveway. Pull the hood release lever to open the hood and access the master cylinder. Place tire blocks behind the rear tires.

    2

    Remove the master cylinder cap and lay a towel over the container's opening. Keep debris and dirt from the reservoir while relieving the pressure to make depressing the caliper pistons easier.

    3

    Loosen the lug nuts on the front wheels of the Chevy truck with the 21 mm socket and breaker bar.

    4

    Place the lifting jack beneath the frame near the wheel well and lift the truck. Place a jack stand beneath the axle and lower the Chevy onto the stand, leaving the tires at least two inches off the ground.

    5

    Remove the two caliper slide bolts with a ratchet and 3/8-inch Allen socket.

    6

    Lift the caliper from the caliper bracket.

    7

    Slide the two brake pads from the caliper walls. Use a flat screwdriver to pry the spring clips on the backs of the pads if they will not easily slide from the caliper by hand.

    8

    Place the C-clamp over the piston and the back of the caliper. Screw the clamp's handle to force the piston into the side of the caliper. Remove the C-clamp when the piston ring is flush with the side of the caliper.

    9

    Slide the new brake pads onto the sides of the caliper and return the caliper to its position on the caliper bracket.

    10

    Screw in the caliper bolts and tighten them with the ratchet and socket.

    11

    Check the master cylinder. The level of fluid in the reservoir will have been raised by opening the caliper piston. Use a siphon kit (or turkey baster) to remove fluid from the container if you are in danger of overflowing the reservoir by opening the second caliper piston.

    12

    Repeat steps 5-10 for the brake pads on the other side of the Chevy.

    13

    Replace the wheels on the Chevy's wheel bolts and screw on the lug nuts. Lift the truck and remove the jack stands. Lower the Chevy's tires to the ground.

    14

    Tighten the lug nuts with the 21 mm socket and breaker bar.

    15

    Check the fluid level in the master cylinder. Place the cap onto the container and close the truck's hood.

Senin, 19 September 2011

How to Change the Brake Pads in a Buick LeSabre

The brake pads in your Buick LeSabre will wear down after normal wear and tear. The removal and replacement procedure has remained virtually unchanged on the Buick LeSabre for many years. The newer LeSabres sometimes have rear disc brakes as well, which means they use pads and calipers in the rear braking system instead of drums and shoes. You can save time and money by purchasing quality brake pads from an auto parts store and replacing them yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Remove of the brake fluid from the master cylinder with the syringe and replace the cover. Discard the fluid.

    2

    Remove the front hubcaps and loosen the wheel nuts using the lug wrench, but do not remove the nuts.

    3

    Lift the front end of the LeSabre with the floor jack and secure safely onto the jack stands.

    4

    Remove the wheel nuts and wheels. Screw one wheel nut back onto a wheel stud hand tight to retain the rotor away from the caliper assembly.

    5

    Place a large C-clamp over the left inboard caliper housing and the outboard pad, and tighten to compress the caliper piston.

    6

    Remove the two caliper guide bolts using a box end wrench. Remove the caliper and secure it to the vehicle chassis with mechanic's wire or a metal hook.

    7

    Remove the outboard pad from the caliper on the LeSabre first. Pry it off the outboard caliper housing using the screwdriver.

    8

    Remove the inboard pad by lifting the retaining clips out of the caliper bore.

    9

    Clean the surface of the caliper bridge that contacts the backing plate of the pads using a wire brush, and apply a thin coat of brake lubricant to the contact points. Be careful not to let the lubricant get onto the rotor.

    10

    Install the new inboard brake pad and shim into the caliper piston bore by pressing the retaining clips into the bore until it locks into place.

    11

    Install the outboard pad onto the caliper housing, making sure to align the retaining clips into the holes in the caliper. Use the screwdriver to convince the clips onto the caliper if necessary.

    12

    Replace the caliper over the rotor.

    13

    Clean off the surface of the guide bolts and apply a light coat of lubricant to the smooth surface of them. Align them properly through the rubber boots and bolt the caliper to the knuckle. Tighten the guide bolts using the wrench. Remove the wheel nut from the wheel stud securing the rotor.

    14

    Replace the wheel and wheel nuts. Tighten the wheel nuts snugly, and re-tighten them (with a torque wrench is recommended set at 100 foot pounds) once the LeSabre is back on the ground.

    15

    Repeat steps 5 through 14 for the right side.

    16

    Pump the brake pedal when you're through to seat the new pads against the rotors, then check and add new brake fluid to the master cylinder.

Minggu, 18 September 2011

How to Change Brake Pads on a 1998 F150

How to Change Brake Pads on a 1998 F150

Brake pads, according to wisegeek.com, are composed primarily of brass,copper and steel wool shavings, held together with a resin. It is this semi-metallic setup that creates the grinding noise that so many people associate with bad brakes. Another easily identifiable sign of brake wear is when the brakes stop in a jerky, shuttering fashion, known as "grabbing." If either of these are occurring in your 1998 Ford F-150, the brakes will need to be replaced soon, which just so happens to be a simple at home procedure.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lugs. The lugs are the bolts that hold the tire onto the the truck. Loosen each lug two complete turns with the tire iron, but do not remove them. Place the wood blocks behind the wheels you will not be removing.

    2

    Raise the truck. Using the floor jack, raise the truck high enough to allow the tires to clear the ground by at least a few inches. Place the jack stands securely beneath the truck, finding a support strut on the side of the vehicle you are working on. Repeat this process for each tire. (Only raise either the front or rear of the vehicle at one time.)

    3

    Remove the tires. Finish removing the lugs nuts and completely remove the tires and set them aside. The lugs are universal so there is no need to diagram there positions.

    4

    Locate and remove the brake caliper mount. The brake caliper mount is bolted onto the rotor and has a black hose protruding from its back, this tube is the brake line. Remove the caliper mount by undoing its bolts with the socket set. Bungee it to the underside of the wheel well so that it hangs without putting strain on the brake line.

    5

    Slide the brake pads out of the mount. The brake pads are held in with tiny metal clips. Remove these clips and slide the pads out. Keep these clips you will need them for re-installation.

    6

    Compress the brake caliper. The caliper is the three- to four-inch diameter piston in the brake caliper mount. Compress it by clamping it with the c-clamp. It needs to be flush with the back of the mount.

    7

    Install the new brake pads. The new brake pads will fit in easily and then place the clips back in as they were situated.

    8

    Reattach the mount. Untie the mount and re-bolt it to the rotor. After the mount is bolted on you can set the tire back on the rotor and tighten the lug nuts down. Only tighten them with our fingers until the truck is lowered, then finish tightening them with the tire iron.

How to Bleed Car Brakes

Many brake problems can be traced to air or contamination of the hydraulic fluid. Bleeding your brakes can be messy, and hardly enjoyable. However, doing it yourself can save you a considerable amount of money. This guide will take you through the process step by step.

Instructions

    1

    The wheel-bleeding sequence is different depending on vehicle (front- or rear-wheel-drive) and method (one or two person). For most rear-drive vehicles, begin at the wheel least closest to the master cylinder (usually the passenger's side rear.)

    2

    Attach one end of your plastic tubing to the bleeder screw and put the other in a clear bottle so that you can see any air bubbles. Crack open the bleeder with a wrench while your helper applies pressure to the brake pedal.

    3

    Keep pumping and bleeding the lines until air bubbles no longer flow through the plastic tube into the bottle. Once the air has been bled out of the lines, continue to bleed the system until only fresh brake fluid comes out.

    4

    Be sure to keep an eye on the master cylinder, you don't want the reservoir to run dry and allow air back into the system. To prevent this from occurring top off the reservoir with new fluid when it begins to get low. Also, keep the lids on both the master cylinder and bottle while bleeding the break lines, this will keep air out and fluid in.

    5

    After bleeding and flushing your brake lines dispose of the old fluid properly. Contact your local auto parts store as they will often accept used fluid and dispose of it safely.

Sabtu, 17 September 2011

How to Install Brakes on a 2003 Saab 9-5 Aero

How to Install Brakes on a 2003 Saab 9-5 Aero

Installing brakes on a Saab 9-5 is not difficult. The tools necessary to complete the project can be found in most toolboxes since there are no special tools required for the job. The Saab has disc brakes on all four wheels. Disc brakes are much easier to replace than drum brakes and the project can be done in your driveway, which means there is no reason to spend money taking the car to a repair shop to have them installed.

Instructions

Front brakes

    1

    Open the engine compartment and drain half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using the turkey baster. Place the fluid in the drain pan for later recycling. Place a set of wheel chocks behind the rear wheels of the Saab. Lift the front end of the car on the side you are starting with using the automobile jack.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the tire using the lug wrench and remove the wheel from the car. Remove the retaining pins from the caliper using a socket and a ratchet. Pull the caliper from the wheel assembly. Unsnap the retaining clip from the brake caliper and pads. Remove the brake pads from the caliper.

    3

    Push the piston back into the caliper housing. Install the new brake pads into the caliper and snap the retaining ring into place. Be sure the warning device on the brake pads is face down in the caliper since it has to make contact with the rotor. Place the caliper in the mounting cradle and tighten the retaining pins with a socket and ratchet.

    4

    Place the wheel on the car and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the Saab. Lower the vehicle to the ground. Repeat the procedure on the other front wheel.

Rear brakes

    5

    Place the wheel chocks in front of the front wheels of the Saab. Raise the rear of the Saab on the side you are starting with using the automobile jack. Loosen the lug nuts on the wheel using the lug wrench and remove the wheel from the car. Loosen the retaining pins on the brake caliper using a socket and ratchet. Pull the caliper from the wheel assembly.

    6

    Unsnap the retaining clip from the caliper and brake pads. Remove the brake pads from the caliper. Push the piston back into the caliper housing. Install the new brake pads into the caliper and snap the retaining clip back into place. You must make sure that the warning device on the brake pads is face down in the caliper.

    7

    Place the brake caliper into the mounting cradle and tighten the retaining pins with a socket and ratchet. Place the wheel on the car and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the Saab. Lower the vehicle to the ground. Repeat the procedure on the other rear wheel.

    8

    Add brake fluid to the master cylinder to bring it to the full mark. Pump the brake pedal several times after the brake job is complete to seat the brake pads onto the brake rotors. This will ensure that the brakes are ready when you start driving the Saab. Add more fluid to the master cylinder if necessary to make it full.

Rabu, 14 September 2011

How to Retract Brake Pistons

How to Retract Brake Pistons

Regular brake maintenance is critical to automotive safety. Disc brake systems are relatively easy to inspect and service, and the novice mechanic can save time and money by doing many of the routine tasks himself. In order to gain access to the disc pads and rotors, it is necessary to learn how to retract the caliper pistons. This relatively simple task must be carried out with care to avoid damaging other brake components.

Instructions

    1

    Jack the car up and secure it on jack stands. Remove the lug nuts then the wheel to access the brake caliper and disc. The brake pads in the caliper should be lightly touching the disc on either side. The piston is on the rear of the caliper, and there is typically a notch in the frame on the front side of the caliper opposite the piston. There should also be an opening in the top of the caliper that allows you to look at the edge of the disc and the brake pads.

    2

    Remove the lowest guide bolt on the caliper and pivot the brake caliper upwards. Secure the brake caliper with a wire or bungee cord. Sometimes the brake pads will catch on rust or other deposits that have built up around the outer rim of the brake disc. If this happens, the pistons will have to be retracted slightly to allow the caliper to be pivoted up. Remove the upper guide bolt then slowly but firmly rock the brake caliper back and forth. This should work the brake pads apart enough so that they will clear the rust layer on the outer edge of the disc so that the caliper can be slipped off.

    3

    Remove the brake pads by removing the retaining springs (if any are present) and sliding the pads towards the center of the caliper until they are free. You will now clearly see the brake piston on the back of the caliper.

    4

    Retract the piston with a brake pad spreader, also known as a brake piston retractor. This tool consists of a small metal plate with a threaded hole in the middle and a threaded spindle passing through the hole. The spindle has a knob or handle on one end and a leveling swivel on the other. To use the tool, retract the swivel end most of the way towards the plate by turning the knob counterclockwise. Place the metal plate against the inside of the caliper opposite the cylinder. Turn the knob clockwise to extend the swivel end of the spindle until the swivel rests securely on the edge of the piston. Continue turning the knob clockwise, slowly and firmly. As the spindle extends, it will push the piston back until it is fully retracted. A C-clamp can also be used to retract the brake piston. Simply hook the clamp's frame over a solid part of the back of the caliper and adjust the spindle until the swivel rests securely on the edge of the piston. Slowly tighten the clamp to retract the piston.

Selasa, 13 September 2011

How to Change Brake Shoes on a Nissan Frontier

The Nissan Frontier was manufactured with rear drum brakes on some models, which require routine maintenance for optimal performance. The twin shoes that are pushed against the inside of the drum by hydraulic wheel cylinders, can wear out of material and require replacement. The average backyard mechanic can replace the shoes on a Frontier in about thirty minutes.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the truck at the brake to be repaired with the floor jack. The floor jack should be positioned ahead of the wheel, with the head on a frame rail, not the body or suspension. Pump the jack until the wheel is in the air.

    2

    Remove the wheel by turning the lug nuts in a counterclockwise direction. Then pull the wheel free. Set the wheel aside, away from the truck.

    3

    Remove the drum from the brake assembly by turning the keeper bolt in a counterclockwise direction. Then pull it free. The keeper bolt is on the front of the drum, slightly off center, that holds the drum to the assembly.

    4

    Disengage the long shoe springs by levering them from the shoe with a screwdriver. The shoes has hooks on its side which hold the long springs.

    5

    Remove the primary spring bolt in the center of each shoe. Then slide the shoes out.

    6

    Replace the shoes with new units. Then slide them onto the brake assembly and turn the primary spring bolt clockwise to lock them into place. Attach the long springs by levering them with a screwdriver back onto the shoe hooks.

    7

    Replace the drum by sliding it back over the shoes, lining up the keeper bolt hole. Turn the keeper bolt clockwise to secure the drum.

    8

    Replace the wheel by turning the lug nuts clockwise, in an alternating pattern. Lower the truck from the floor jack by turning the jack's pressure screw counterclockwise, slowly.

    9

    Repeat the entire process on the opposite side brake.

Senin, 12 September 2011

How to Use a Brake Shoe Tool

How to Use a Brake Shoe Tool

Brake shoes will one day be a technology of the past. Most autos come equipped with disc brakes on the front wheels and drum brakes on the rear. High-end cars and many SUV-style vehicles come with four wheel disc brakes. The drum brake concept is a simple one. Two shoes with brake lining expand outward to contact the drum and stop the vehicle. Drum brakes have several components, such as levers, spring linkage rods, and springs. The brake shoe tool was designed to keep the skin on your knuckles and handle the strong brake drum springs.

Instructions

    1

    Attach one hook of the open pliers to the backside of the brake shoe spring rod end, near the top shoe's hold-down pin. Attach the other hook over the edge of the backing plate. Squeeze the pliers and the hook will stretch the spring over the pin and it comes unhooked.

    2

    Cup the circle end of the pliers over the nail cap or pin cap on the short spring that holds the shoes to the backing plate. Hold the nail pin from the back to prevent it from turning. Rotate the tool and the cap 90 degrees so the nail end groove slides off the cap and releases the short spring.

    3

    Hook one end of the shoe spring into the shoe during re-installation. Hook the the other end of the spring over the long rod handle of the spring tool with a half-cupped end on it. Place the half-cupped end over the top shoe pivot pin. Pry the spring onto the pin until the spring is hooked behind the top pivot pin. This rod end is just a special leverage tool. It can be used to hook and attach other springs during reassembly.

    4

    Insert the brake adjusting tool into the bottom slot of the backing plate once the brake shoes and brake drum have been reinstalled. The blade of the adjusting tool must contact a star wheel inside the drum. It must be pried up or down to expand the star wheel adjuster to adjust the brakes closer to the drum. It is also used to loosen the star wheel adjuster to adjust down the brakes for drum removal.

Air Brake Spring Tools

Air Brake Spring Tools

Air brakes are mostly found in heavy duty trucks. The air brakes make it possible for the truck driver to apply emergency brakes because they have powerful springs which are held back by air pressure. Removal of the air pressure results in the air brakes becoming fully functional. The barking power of spring brakes depends on how well the brake springs are adjusted. There are various air brake spring tools for this task.

S-Cam Air Brake Spring Tool

    The S-cam air brake spring tool is used to safely replace the brake shoes of tractors and trailers. The user hooks the retaining spring loop and presses down against the axle. Lever action against the axle simplifies the task with less effort. This tool is also used to install the S-cam return spring on air brake systems. Using the S-cam tool eliminates the need for unsafe methods such as grip wrenches, pry bars or screw drivers.

Air Brake Anchor Spring Pliers

    Air brake spring pliers are used to install air brake springs. They consist of two plier arms, a pivot lug that usually projects from each of the plier arm and a pivot pin which allows for effective pivotal movement. They also have a spring with a slot that extends at the end of each plier arm. The pliers parts are arranged in such a way that they can accommodate air brake springs of all types.

Hold-Down Spring and Return Spring Tool

    Hold-down brake springs are easily installed manually as they are lighter than return air brake springs. A hold-down spring tool looks like a hybrid of a nut driver and a screw driver. The spring retaining washer is gripped and rotated by a specially shaped end of the hold-down spring tool. Most return air brake springs have sockets and hooks which release and install the ends of air brake springs. Some of the return air brake springs look like pliers.

Minggu, 11 September 2011

How to Repair 1974 Dodge Truck Brakes

The 1974 Dodge pickup truck series was manufactured with four-wheel drum brakes, which use hydraulic wheel cylinders to actuate shoes onto the interior surface of a drum to stop the truck. The average backyard mechanic can repair the brakes of a Dodge in about an hour and a half.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the truck with the floor jack and place the jack stands on the frame rails, supporting one end of the truck in the air.

    2

    Remove both raised wheels by turning their lug nuts counterclockwise, then pulling the wheels from the hub. Set them aside, away from the truck.

    3

    Remove the drums by pulling them free, or first removing the keeper bolts, if applicable. Some later replacement parts added keeper bolts (off-center bolts to hold the drum to the hub) to restrict the drum when the wheels are removed. Set the drums aside if resurfacing them.

    4

    Remove the shoes by levering their long springs from the hooks with a screwdriver, turning the primary spring bolt (center of the shoe) counterclockwise, then sliding the shoe away from the hub.

    5

    Replace the shoes with new units, then press them into the brake assembly. Secure the primary spring bolt by turning it clockwise, then replace the long springs by levering them onto the hooks with a screwdriver.

    6

    Replace the drum with a new or resurfaced unit by sliding it over the shoes, then securing the keeper bolt by turning it clockwise, if applicable.

    7

    Replace the wheels by turning the lug nuts clockwise, in an alternating pattern.

    8

    Lower the truck from the jack stands by using the floor jack, turning the pressure screw on the jack counterclockwise to lower the truck.

    9

    Repeat steps 1 through 8 on the opposite axle.

How to Adjust Drum Brake Pads

While some import vehicles employ self-adjusting brakes by applying the parking brake and tightening up any slack in the cable, many domestic vehicles require manually adjusting the brakes. Since the rear brakes only accommodate about 25 percent of the braking capacity, it's extremely important to keep the drum brakes adjusted. When they become unadjusted, the front brakes overcompensate and can become compromised by prematurely wearing out or causing heat damage to the front discs.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle on a hard, flat surface. Place the vehicle in gear or in park if it is front-wheel drive. If it is rear-wheel drive, apply the parking brake and then place a wheel wedge in front of one of the front tires and behind one of the rear tires to stabilize the vehicle.

    2

    Release the parking brake once the wheel wedges have been placed.

    3

    Crack the lug nuts loose a quarter turn or so with the lug-nut removal tool.

    4

    Lift the rear axle of the vehicle with the jack and then support the rear axle or frame of the vehicle on jack stands.

    5

    Remove the lug nuts and wheels.

    6

    Check the play in the parking brake cable to see if there is too much slack. A telltale sign is a sagging rear cable or a cable that will no longer hold the vehicle in place when applied. A loose parking brake handle or pedal inside the cab of the vehicle is another indicator that you need to tighten the cable adjustment.

    7

    Locate the front or intermediate connection of the brake cable to the rear brake cables. Since many vehicles employ different methods of adjusting brake cables, you'll have to identify whether the cable features the option to tighten the adjustment on it. The presence of a threaded bolt and nut will dictate whether the cable is adjustable and can be tightened. If the nut and bolt are not present on the connection, the adjustment of the cable will need to be performed inside the cab of the vehicle near the parking brake handle (some import vehicles).

    8

    Spray the threaded section and nut of the parking brake junction with penetrating lubricant. Allow it to soak in.

    9

    Hold the junction bracket of the cable stationary with a hand wrench and then tighten the adjustment nut with another hand wrench until the cable is no longer sagging. Test the cable by applying the parking brake from inside the vehicle and then trying to turn the rear drums. If you cannot turn them under duress, the cable adjustment may be tight enough. Release the handle to make sure you can now turn the rear brake drums.

    10

    Locate the rear brake adjustment port on the back side of the backing plate. If the vehicle does not feature one, you'll have to remove the drum. This may require penetrating lubricant on the hub-to-drum hole junction and a few sharp smacks with a hammer on the hub face of the drum. If you have to remove the drum, skip Step 11 and proceed to Step 12. Some drums may also require removing retaining screws from the hub face. If so, use an impact screwdriver and a hammer to remove the screws.

    11

    Remove the black rubber plug (if equipped) from the backing plate to access the self-adjusting mechanism. Insert the 6-inch thin-bladed screwdriver and feel around inside the port to locate the self-adjusting retaining bracket.

    12

    Push the bracket away from the star-wheel with the screwdriver and then insert the brake-adjusting spoon to turn the star-wheel. If you had to remove the drum, turn the star-wheel to expand the brake shoes outward. If you're going through the port, turn the wheel three or four times and then turn the drum to see if it's tightening. If it's loosening, turn the star-wheel in the opposite direction.

    13

    Continue to turn the star-wheel while pressing back on the retaining bracket until the drum will no longer turn one full revolution when spun. This will provide enough adjustment for the rear brake shoes. If you had to remove the drum, be sure you can refit the drum back onto the brake shoe assembly or you'll have to back down the adjustment.

Sabtu, 10 September 2011

How to Replace the Front Brake Pads on a KIA Sephia

The Kia Sephia--known as the Mentor in other international markets--was available in North America from 1994 through 2001. It experienced two generational designs and used a 1.8-liter engine also found in the Mazda Protege and Miata. The import featured front disc brakes and either rear disc or rear drum brakes. Since front brakes on vehicles supply up to 80 percent of the braking power, replacing the front brake pads is more common than replacing rear brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Sephia on level, paved ground. Place one brick in front of one front tire, then place another brick behind one of the rear tires.

    2

    Crack the four lug nuts loose on the left front tire using the tire iron. Place the floor jack saddle under the front left frame rail, then lift the Sephia high enough to place a jack stand under the frame rail next to the floor jack. Leave enough room to allow the floor jack to lower so the weight of the Sephia will be placed on the jack stand. Finish removing the lug nuts, then remove the tire.

    3

    Carefully pry off the outboard pad retaining spring from the outside of the caliper using a straightedge screwdriver. Be careful not to bend or alter the spring so you can reuse it.

    4

    Remove the two caliper guide pin bolts using a suitable metric wrench. Use the screwdriver to pry the caliper off the rotor, then remove the pads from the caliper brace. Rest the caliper on top of the backing plate so it does not dangle from the rubber brake hose.

    5

    Clean the surface of the caliper brace where the tabs of the pads sit--upper and lower--using a small wire bristled brush. Apply a light coat of brake lubricant to the same surfaces just cleaned with the wire brush. Use a mechanics acid brush to spread the lubricant, being careful not to contact the surface of the rotor.

    6

    Install the shims onto the backing plates of the pads (unless they're staked on with rivets) and then install them onto the caliper brace.

    7

    Compress the piston of the caliper using a large set of channel locks. Compress it slowly and thoroughly until the piston is fully receded into the piston bore. Place the caliper over the pads and rotor. Apply a light coat of lubricant to the guide pin bolts and align them into place. Tighten the guide pin bolts, then replace the outboard pad retaining spring.

    8

    Replace the wheel and lug nuts and tighten them to 80 foot pounds using a torque wrench and a suitable socket. Tighten the lug nuts snugly first and then lower the left side of the Sephia to use the torque wrench properly.

    9

    Repeat steps 2 to 8 for the right front wheel of the Sephia.

How to Replace a Caliper in a Toyota Corolla

When replacing a brake caliper in a Toyota Corolla, pay special attention to the pin bolts holding the caliper in place. The sliding pins may not stay in place during removal, and you may need to hold them in place. Check with your mechanic or another auto expert before performing major service on your Corolla or other cars.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the car on the side you need to work on. Make sure the care is secure on the jack stand before proceeding. Remove the wheel.

    2

    Disconnect the brake hose by removing the fitting bolt at the caliper. Discard the washers that are with the bolt.

    3

    Remove the bolts connecting the caliper to the torque plate. You may need to hold the sliding pin in place while removing the bolts. The caliper should now lift up and slide off.

    4

    Install the replacement caliper. Connect the bolts loosely, then hold the pin in place with a wrench while tightening the bolts. Connect the brake hose to the caliper, using two new washers with the fitting bolt.

    5

    Fill the brake system with fresh fluid. Bleed the system of air by opening the bleeder valves and having another person press the brake pedal. Fill the reservoir to the correct level afterward.

    6

    Set and test the brakes after replacing the wheel and lowering the car. Pump the pedal repeatedly until the brakes feel firm, then road test them.

Front Brake Pad Replacement in a 1993 Dodge Caravan

In the mid-1970s, Chrysler began working on a new vehicle that would revolutionize people moving: the minivan. The release of Chrysler's newest creations -- the Dodge Caravan and Plymouth Voyager -- was supposed to occur in 1981, but financial problems delayed release until the 1984 model year. Chrysler equipped the 1984 Caravan with a 2.2-liter in-line four-cylinder engine that produced only 86 horsepower. In 1993, the Caravan had three engine options, a 2.5-liter four-cylinder, 3.0-liter V-6 and a 3.3-liter V-6, producing 100, 142 and 150 horsepower, respectively. The 1993 Caravan also came fitted with front disc brakes and its brake pads require periodic replacement.

Location

    The front brake calipers and caliper brackets hold the brake pads in place while the Caravan is moving.

Disassembly

    Removing the 1993 Caravan's brake pads is relatively easy. Jack up the van and place it on jack stands, detach the front wheels and remove the two bolts on the rear of the caliper, remove the brake caliper and pull the brake pads from the caliper bracket. Hang the caliper from a suspension component with a bungee strap, as hanging it from the brake hose can cause damage to the hose.

Cleaning and Lubricating

    The bolts that secure the caliper act as guide pins, allowing it to slide back and forth. This sliding prevents excessive pad wear on one side. Always clean these pins and lubricate them with antiseize or disc brake grease.

Rotor

    The rotor is the metal disc the brake pads press against to stop the 1993 Caravan. Measure the thickness of the rotor's disc with a micrometer in four different areas and note the measurements down on a piece of paper. Compare the difference between the thickest and thinnest measurement, known as the run out. If the run out is 0.005 inches or more, resurface or replace the rotor. Check the rotor for any grooves or irregularities, replace or resurface the rotor if any imperfections exist. If the rotor measures less than 0.88 inches thick, it does not qualify for resurfacing and replacement is required.

Installation

    Make clearance for the new brake pads by pressing the piston inside the Caravan's caliper inward until it bottoms out inside the caliper. A special tool is available for this, or you can simply use an 8-inch C-clamp. Place the pads in the caliper bracket, with the squeal indicator facing upward, put the caliper over the pads and hand-tighten the caliper bolts.

Torque

    Proper torque on all bolts on the 1993 Caravan is important, but it is especially important on the braking system. The caliper bolts require 25 to 35 foot-pounds of torque. The lug nuts on the wheels require 95 foot-pounds of torque.

Jumat, 09 September 2011

How to Troubleshoot a Drum That Won't Go on After Replacing Brake Shoes

How to Troubleshoot a Drum That Won't Go on After Replacing Brake Shoes

Servicing drum brakes is a relatively easy task for the DIY mechanic, but it can sometimes be frustrating to get all of the bits and pieces back together again. One common problem faced by inexperienced mechanics is getting the drum to fit back on over the new shoes. The new shoes have thicker linings than the old shoes; and if the shoe position is not properly adjusted before trying to reinstall the drum, then the drum might not fit over the shoes. Fortunately, the fix is relatively simple.

Instructions

    1

    Measure the inside diameter of the brake drum with a brake shoe adjustment gauge. Place the inside jaws of the gauge into the drum and move the jaws outward until they contact the inner drum surface. Note the drum diameter measurement and tighten the locking knob to hold the gauge in that position.

    2

    Move the gauge over to the brake shoe assembly and place the outside jaws over the shoes. The diameter formed by the shoes will not fit inside the jaws, but this will give you a visual indication of how much you need to adjust the shoes.

    3

    Move the adjuster pawl (ratchet) lever out of the star wheel teeth and rotate the star wheel so that it becomes shorter. This will allow the brake shoes to come closer together. Turn the star wheel three or four rotations then release the pawl. Check to see if the brake shoes fit within the outside jaws of the brake shoe adjustment gauge. If not, repeat the procedure. If the shoes do fit inside the gauge, then install the drum to complete the job.

Kamis, 08 September 2011

How to Change the Brake Shoes on a 2001 Ford Focus ZX3

How to Change the Brake Shoes on a 2001 Ford Focus ZX3

Brake shoes push out against the brake drum to slow the 2001 Ford Focus ZX3 to a halt when you step on the brake pedal. As the shoes and drums contact one another, they both wear down, however, the shoes wear down at a much faster rate. Once the brake shoes wear past 3 mm, you should replace them immediately so they dont damage the brake drums. Anyone with basic auto-repair experience can change the brake shoes on a 2001 Ford Focus ZX3 in about two hours.

Instructions

    1

    Place the wheel chocks in the front and back of the front wheels to prevent the Focus from rolling. Loosen the rear lug nuts, using the lug wrench.

    2

    Lift the rear end with the jack and then lower it onto the jack stands, placed below the rear jack points on both sides. Remove the rear wheels and lug nuts by hand.

    3

    Place the drop pan under the right-rear brake drum and spray brake cleaner in between the brake drum and backing plate, using the straw provided with the brake cleaner, to remove the built-up brake dust.

    4

    Pull the brake drum off the hub by hand. If the drum will not move, strike the drum face with the dead blow hammer about 1 inch above the center of the drum face. Rotate the drum and strike it again, 1 inch above the center. Repeat this until you can pull the drum off the hub by hand.

    5

    Pull the springs off the brake shoes, using the mechanic's pick. Pull the brake shoes off the backing plate by hand and insert the new shoes in their place. Attach the springs to the new shoes in reverse of how you removed them from the old ones.

    6

    Slide the brake drum over the new shoes and then move the star adjuster counterclockwise until the brake pads are adjusted -inch off the brake drum.

    7

    Repeat steps three through six on the left-rear brake assembly and then reinstall the wheels and lug nuts by hand.

    8

    Lower the Focus off the jack stands with the jack. Tighten the lug nuts to 85 ft.-lbs., using the lug wrench. Move the wheel chocks away from the front wheels before driving.