Minggu, 31 Juli 2011

How to Change Brake Pads on a Mercedes

The brakes on a Mercedes-Benz, like on any other car, are integral to safety. For this reason alone, keep an eye on brake pad wear and change brake pads when necessary. Change your Mercedes' brake pads when they are 1/8 inch thick, or when you notice steering wheel vibration when stopping.

Instructions

    1

    Turn the lug nuts 1/4 of a turn on all the wheels, using a tire wrench.

    2

    Jack up the Mercedes using the front jack point. This is in the front of the vehicle, normally located near the radiator.

    3

    Place jack stands under the frame of the Mercedes and lower the vehicle onto the jack stands.

    4

    Loosen the lug nuts all the way and remove the wheel. Start with the driver's side and work your way around the vehicle (order of brake replacement is not important).

    5

    Unbolt the top and bottom caliper bolt and remove them using the Torx wrench. The Torx wrench is a wrench with a "star"-shaped end instead of a standard socket end. Turn counterclockwise to loosen the Torx bolts.

    6

    Life the caliper up and secure it to the coil springs with zip ties.

    7

    Slide the pads out.

    8

    Place the face of the old brake pad over the caliper piston. Then, place the c-clamp over the brake pad and caliper and force the piston back into the caliper housing by tightening the pad to the caliper piston. Make sure that the piston boot folds accordion-style back into the caliper housing.

    9

    Insert the new pads in the same orientation as the old pads, reassemble the caliper and brake assembly and put the wheels and lug nuts back on. Assembly is the reverse of dis-assembly.

    10

    Repeat steps 4 - 9 for all wheels.

    11

    Lower the vehicle to the ground and torque the lug nuts to 100 ft-lbs using the torque wrench.

How to Change the Brakes on a Jeep Grand Cherokee

How to Change the Brakes on a Jeep Grand Cherokee

Maintaining the brakes by replacing the pads when they start to show wear can be critical to the performance and safety of your Jeep. Brake pads are designed to wear, but when they get too thin they will not function as designed and you will experience limited or diminished braking. Brake pads are available in several different material types and in various price ranges; visit an auto parts store to select pads that will provide the braking you need to support your driving style.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the front wheels but leave them on the Jeep for now. Raise the front end of the Jeep off the ground with a floor jack and support it with jack stands under the frame.

    2

    Remove the front wheels to access the brake calipers and rotors. Place a flat screwdriver into the window on the top of the caliper, inserting it between the rear brake pad and the rotor. Push the pad into the caliper to bottom out the pistons in their bores.

    3

    Locate the mounting bolts or slider pins on the back of the caliper. Loosen and remove the pins with a socket and ratchet. Lift the caliper off the rotor and remove the brake pads. Slide the front pad to the center of the caliper and lift it out. The rear pad has clips that hold it into the caliper pistons; these can just be snapped out.

    4

    Insert a piece of scrap wood into the caliper on top of the pistons and depress the piston by sliding a C-clamp onto the caliper body and the wood scrap. Turn the C-clamp until the pistons are bottomed out in the bores.

    5

    Remove the C-clamp and the wood scrap, then install the new rear pad into the caliper. Press it in so the clips snap into the pistons. Slide the new front pad into the caliper and clip the retaining spring onto the caliper.

    6

    Slide the caliper back onto the rotor and align the mounting holes for the slide pins with the holes on the mounting bracket. Install the slide pins and tighten with a socket and ratchet.

    7

    Slide the wheel and tire onto the wheel studs and install the the lug nuts by hand. Repeat these steps on the opposite side of the Jeep, then raise the vehicle with a jack and remove the jack stands.

    8

    Lower the Jeep to the ground and tighten the lug nuts with a lug wrench. With a torque wrench, torque the lug nuts to the manufacturer's specifications.

Parts of a Hydraulic Brake

The hydraulic brake system, better known as the disc brake system, is a mechanical miracle that many people take for granted every day in modern transportation. In fact, it was not that long ago that the brake system for cars, buses and motorbikes used the drum brake, pads of asbestos or some anti-inflammatory substance pressed hard against the wheel drum to stop it via friction. Instead, the hydraulic brake system, using the power of fluid pressure, is a major leap forward compared to the sloppy stopping power of the drum brake.

The Basic Concept

    Similar to the drum brake, the hydraulic brake uses pressure and friction to slow a vehicle down. However, unlike the drum brake, the mechanisms are far more precise, require less manual application, and are more reliable with added new features, such as anti-lock and anti-skid.

    The typical hydraulic brake system uses a setup that involves a control unit, a reservoir for the brake fluid, tubing for the fluid to travel through, calipers which apply the pressure, and rotors which are discs attached to the vehicle wheels that receive the brake pressure. The system is commonly used on motorcycles and scooters, cars and expensive mountain bicycles.

The Control Unit and Brake Line

    The hydraulic brake design has the control unit situation either as a foot brake pedal in a car or a hand lever on a motorcycle. This control unit is connected to a system that is entirely filled with brake fluid. No air is allowed because it degrades the brake fluid, usually glycol-ether based, and it reduces the hydraulic pressure effect that the fluid creates. Removal of air from the line is called "bleeding the brakes" since it drains the air until only oil comes out of the drain point. Then the fluid line is sealed and ready to use. The line is also reinforced with steel braid to make sure that it does not burst or warp under pressure.

The Fluid and Storage

    Fluid not needed in the line is kept in a reservoir unit which draws down fluid temporarily as more pressure is needed. This happens due to a vacuum created when the control unit sends fluid down the line to create pressure at the brake unit itself. The vacuum then draws fluid behind it to maintain pressure. When the control unit releases pressure, the extra fluid flows back to the reservoir.

The Stopping Parts

    In the brake unit, at the other end of the brake line, is the brake stopping system. Generally this involves the caliper unit and the rotor. The rotor is the easier to describe of the two. It is a metal disc attached to a wheel by being bolted onto the wheel hub. This way the disc spins at the same rate of speed as the wheel. When pressure is applied, the disc slows down and due to the connection slows the wheel down as well.

    The caliper partially slips over the rotor like almost like a half doughnut in many cases. It covers the rotor disc on both of its flat sides. When fluid pressure is applied, pistons inside the caliper respond and press onto heat-resistant brake pads that apply against the rotor spinning in between the caliper. This slows down the rotor. When pressure is released, the pistons and pads retract and the wheel spins freely again.

Improved Performance

    The amount of pressure created with fluid trapped in a tight space is exponentially greater than that of the drum brake system, so the performance of the hydraulic brake is superior. It also takes little pressure from the control unit to create the significant stopping power, thus is more convenient and accurate in performance. It is no surprise that the hydraulic brake system has become the standard stopping power in vehicles over the drum brake system today.

Sabtu, 30 Juli 2011

How to Remove Rear Brake Calipers on a 99 Taurus Wagon

The rear brake calipers on a 1999 Ford Taurus wagon are hydraulic and thus use a hydraulic piston to provide the clamping force needed to activate the rear brakes. These hydraulic parts have seals, and those seals break down over time, rendering the caliper ineffective. To rebuild or replace these calipers, you first have to remove them from the car, a task that should take about 15 minutes per side to complete.

Instructions

    1

    Raise up the rear of the car using the jack, and set it down onto the jack stands. Undo the lug nuts on the rear wheels, using the tire iron, and move them out of the way.

    2

    Place the brake line clamps onto the rubber brake line and cinch them down until the line is flattened. Remove the connection from the brake line to the back of the caliper, using a line wrench. Use a pair of pliers to remove the clip that holds the emergency brake cable to the brake caliper, then pull the brake cable off the caliper.

    3

    Unbolt the brake caliper from the brake caliper bracket on the rear knuckle, using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket. Lift the caliper off the rotor.

Nissan Armada Brake Problems

Nissan Armada Brake Problems

Nissan brake problems led to a recall of 179,383 vehicles, including Armada 2008-2010 models, on Feb. 26, 2010. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), notification of the recall to registered vehicle owners began on March 22, 2010.

Defect

    In certain 2008-2010 Nissan Armada vehicles, a manufacturing defect in the brake pedal pivot pin end could cause the pivot pin to slide. This may lead to partial disengagement of the brake pedal from the brake pedal bracket, according to the NHTSA.

Risk

    This brake problem may lead the driver to notice looseness in the pedal and a reduction in braking force. NHTSA warns that either or both of these issues increase the risk of an accident. As a safety precaution, drivers affected by the recall should take their vehicles in for inspection, even if their Nissans have not yet noticeably exhibited these symptoms.

Remedy

    Authorized dealers will inspect the recalled Armadas to determine whether the pivot pin has the potentially dangerous defect and, if necessary, perform a free replacement of the brake pedal assembly. Concerned drivers who did not receive a recall notice but want to know whether their vehicles were affected may contact NHTSA and refer to recall number 10V072000.

DIY: Stuck Caliper on a Ford Escape

DIY: Stuck Caliper on a Ford Escape

One brake on your Ford Escape is not releasing properly, causing noise, overheating of the brake and difficult driving. The problem is a sticking brake caliper. Replacement of both calipers on that axle may be required unless the sticking caliper can be repaired. Repair or replacement of a stuck caliper is a task that will require some physical effort, but is well within the abilities of the average home handyman.

Why Calipers Stick

    The most common reasons for a stuck caliper are high friction in the caliper slides and brake pads that are completely worn out. The latter problem is repaired with a set of new brake pads and rotors, but even sticking slides are often repairable.

Remove the Caliper and Clean the Slides

    Jack the Escape up until the tire is off the ground and support the vehicle on jack stands. Make certain it is well supported because you will be working under the fender to do this task. Remove the tire and set aside for now.

    The brake caliper is held on by two bolts. These bolts are located at the top and bottom of the caliper. Before removing the bolts try to pry the caliper back toward the center of the car to relax the clamping action on the brake pads. Even a slight amount of movement will make removal of the caliper much easier. After removing the bolts lift the caliper away from the rotor. Tie the caliper out of the way and in such a manner that it does not hang from the rubber hose. This process is the same for front and rear calipers.

    In each of the mounting bolt holes is a removable metal tube. These are the caliper slides. Push back the rubber boots and force the the slides out of their holes. Removing the caliper support from the vehicle is often necessary to remove the slides if they are stuck. Clamp the caliper support securely in a vise and pull on the slide with pliers or vise grips. Some penetrating oil may help with the process. If you cannot remove them the caliper must be replaced. Replacement in pairs is strongly recommended. Once the slides are removed from their bores clean any old grease and rust from them using fine sandpaper or a wire brush in a grinder. Also clean the inside of the bore in the caliper. A drill bit held in your hand and slowly twisted works quite well for this. Coat the cleaned-up slide liberally with silicone grease and install in the bores. Install the rubber boots in the groove in the slides.The slides must be easily moved back and forth in the bores.

Finishing the Job

    Using a large C-clamp push the caliper piston back completely. This is easy to do if you place an old brake pad against the piston and clamp between it and the back of the caliper. Tighten the C-clamp until the piston is fully compressed in the caliper. Install new brake pads and the caliper and tighten the caliper mounting bolts securely.

    Put the tires back on and tighten the lugs securely. Press down on the brake pedal several times before attempting to drive the vehicle. Not doing this might result in an accident as the pads need to be seated against the rotor for the brake to work properly.

Jumat, 29 Juli 2011

How to Change the Rear Brake Shoes on a Ford Van

The first E-Series van was produced by the Ford Motor Company in 1961. Built on the Ford Falcon chassis, the compact E-Series, or Econoline, was produced to compete with the Chevrolet Corvair Sportvan and the Volkswagen Type 2. The 2010 Econoline is based on the F-Series truck chassis. Ford E-Series vans are widely popular with the automotive consumer, accounting for almost 80 percent of all van sales in America. As with any vehicle, servicing the E-Series van at recommended service intervals can increase reliability, fuel economy and performance. Replacing the rear brake shoes requires moderate auto repair knowledge.

Instructions

Rear Brake Shoe Removal

    1

    Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery.

    2

    Raise the rear of the vehicle with a jack. Place two jack stands under the rear axle, an equal distance away from each rear wheel. Lower the rear of the vehicle onto the jack stands. Make sure the rear of the vehicle is safely supported. Remove the jack.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts on the left rear wheel assembly using a lug-nut wrench. Pull the rear wheel assembly off and set aside. The left brake drum assembly will be visible.

    4

    Remove the three retaining nuts on the brake drum assembly using a socket wrench and the appropriate socket. Pull the brake drum off the brake shoe and backing plate assembly. Set the brake drum aside.

    5

    Locate the wheel cylinder on the top center of the backing plate. Place a C-clamp over the ends of the wheel cylinder and tighten the C-clamp. The clamp will hold the cylinder pistons in during brake-pad replacement.

    6

    Turn the star-wheel adjusting screw upward until the star-wheel and pivot nut is completely contracted. Place a clean rag or towel on the ground to keep parts in order during disassembly.

    7

    Locate the automatic adjustment spring directly above the star-wheel. Remove the spring using needle-nose pliers. Remove the adjusting lever by hand.

    8

    Remove the two springs at the top of the backing plate assembly using needle-nose pliers. Set the springs aside. Disconnect the parking brake cable by hand. Set the cable aside.

    9

    Remove the hold-down spring in the center of each brake shoe using a brake tool. Place one finger on the backside of the backing plate, even with the hold-down spring. Use your finger to keep the pin from pushing through the backing plate while you remove the hold-down spring. Compress the hold-down spring with the brake tool and turn the hold-down spring clockwise 90 degrees. Slowly release the pressure on the brake tool. The hold-down spring will be released. Set the springs, pins and washers aside.

    10

    Remove the front (primary) and rear (secondary) brake shoes, star-wheel and parking brake lever.

    11

    Remove the cable anchor from the anchor pin located at the top center of the backing plate. Remove the anchor plate from the anchor pin. These items can be removed by hand.

    12

    Clean the backing plate, springs, and levers using brake-cleaning fluid. Place all purpose grease at all of the brake-shoe contact points on the backing plate.

Rear Brake Shoe Installation

    13

    Install the parking brake cable to the rear (secondary) brake shoe. Install the rear brake shoe to the backing plate using the hold-down spring and brake tool. Install the front (primary) brake shoe to the backing plate using the hold-down spring and the brake tool. Make sure to hold one finger over the hole on the back side of the backing plate during the hold-down spring installation to keep the pin from moving.

    14

    Install the anchor pin plate over the anchor pin. Install the cable anchor over the anchor pin and anchor pin plate. Make sure to route the parking brake cable properly when attaching it to the anchor pin. Use the rear brake setup on the opposite side of the vehicle as a reference point for brake component placement as needed.

    15

    Install the upper front-brake shoe spring to the anchor pin using needle-nose pliers. The anchor pin is located on the top center of the backing plate.

    16

    Install the upper rear-brake shoe spring to the anchor pin using needle-nose pliers.

    17

    Install the parking brake lever between the front and rear brake shoes, directly above the axle dust cover.

    18

    Install the lower adjustment spring using needle-nose pliers. Make sure the lower spring is not crimping the parking brake cable. Make sure all of the parts are lying flat against the backing plate and the anchor pin.

    19

    Remove the C-clamp from the wheel cylinder.

    20

    Place all-purpose grease on the star-wheel assembly pivot nut and adjusting threads. Thread the star-wheel assembly out to the limit of the threads. Back the assembly off half a turn.

    21

    Place the star-wheel assembly between the front and rear shoes, at the bottom of the shoe assemblies. Install the adjusting lever. Make sure the adjusting lever is properly seated in the teeth of the star-wheel assembly. Use the rear brake setup on the opposite side of the vehicle as a reference point for brake component placement as needed.

    22

    Install the brake drum over the brake shoes. Install the three retaining nuts onto the brake drum. Tighten the retaining nuts using a torque wrench and appropriate socket to the factory recommended torque level.

    23

    Install the rear wheel assembly. Raise the rear of the vehicle off the jack stands with a jack. Remove the jack stands. Lower the rear of the vehicle to the ground. Remove the jack.

    24

    Repeat these steps to replace the rear-brake shoes on the opposite side of the vehicle.

    25

    Connect the negative battery cable to the battery.

How to Replace the Front Steel Brake Line on a '98 Ford Contour

The brake lines on the Ford Contour are subject to many different types of damage because of their location, including crushing and corrosion, which leads to holes. In either case, the fluid cannot properly flow to the wheel cylinders and the brakes will not work. You need to replace a bad brake line immediately or you risk the loss of braking capacity in the car. It only takes a short time to change the lines and you can do the job yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Open the engine compartment and disconnect the negative cable from the battery. Set the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels of the Contour. Lift the car on the side you need to work by using the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the Ford near the jacking point and raise it so the jack stand can be placed under the frame.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts with the lug wrench and remove the wheel from the Contour. Clean off the brake line fitting by using the wire brush. Place a drain pan under the brake line and loosen the fitting with a wrench. Allow the brake fluid to drain in the pan and then move to the other end. Loosen the fitting on the other end and allow any fluid to drain into the pan.

    3

    Remove the brake line from retaining clips and out from under the Contour. Place the new brake line under the Ford and snap it into the clips. Connect the brake line and tighten the fittings on both ends. Install the wheel on the car and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the Ford. Lower the car to the ground.

    4

    Add fresh brake fluid to the master cylinder to bring it to the proper level. Bleed the brakes by having a helper to pump them several times and then hold down the pedal while you open the bleeder valve to expel the air. Continue this process until you expel all of the air from the brake lines. Reconnect the negative battery cable and tighten the terminal nut with a wrench.

How to Remove an Anti-Lock Brake Sensor

How to Remove an Anti-Lock Brake Sensor

Removing an ABS sensor is a fairly simple procedure. The sensors are located at each wheel hub or at the rear two wheel hubs (for two wheel ABS set-up). Check the service manual for any specific cautions for removing the sensor.

Instructions

ABS removal procedure

    1

    Use wire cutters to cut the sensor lead just above the sensor. This will keep from accidentally shorting the sensor wire and causing damage to the control module.

    2

    The speed sensor is located in its own housing which is usually attached near the wheel hub by a screw. Use a screw driver to unscrew the ABS housing. For mounts with a set screw for adjusting the air gap in the sensor, unscrew the set screw and remove.

    3

    The sensor housing is mounted with a lock ring. Use the appropriate open end box end wrench to loosen and remove the lock ring. The sensor can now be removed with the housing.

Kamis, 28 Juli 2011

How to Replace the Brake Switch on an Altima

The brake light switch on a Nissan Altima controls the illumination of the brake lights. Without the switch, the lights would not go on. The switch has no service life, so when it goes, it usually happens suddenly. New brake light switches can be obtained from Nissan or from a Nissan dealership.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the cotter pin from the pin bolt that holds the brake pedal to the brake booster with a pair of pliers. There is a small cotter pin running through the brake pedal to brake booster connection. You need to pull this cotter pin out to remove the larger pin that holds the brake pedal to the brake booster.

    2

    Slide the pin out of the brake booster mounting bracket.

    3

    Pull up on the brake pedal to slide it out of the brake booster mounting bracket.

    4

    Remove the bolts holding the brake switch to the firewall using a socket wrench.

    5

    Remove the electrical connector on the brake switch by pulling it straight off the switch.

    6

    Slide the switch off the firewall.

    7

    Install the new switch. Installation is the reverse of removal. Make sure that you replace the cotter pin in the brake booster to brake pedal connection. The cotter pin prevents the retaining pin in the brake booster mounting bracket from coming off.

Rabu, 27 Juli 2011

How to Change Rear Break Pads

How to Change Rear Break Pads

Changing rear brake pads is a routine maintenance required for vehicles. Brake pads wear over time with brake activity, so it is recommended to check for possible replacement once a month. The process requires some automotive experience and knowledge, but is a relatively straightforward activity that can be completed in about an hour or two.

Instructions

    1

    Pry off any lug caps or hubcaps on the rear wheels using the screwdriver. Use the breaker bar and lug nut socket to break all the tightened nuts. Put blocks under the front wheels to keep the car from rolling when the rear is lifted. Set the parking brake.

    2

    Lift the vehicle's rear using the hydraulic pump and place the jack stands under structure points for security. Lower the hydraulic pump until the vehicle's weight is evenly distributed among the lift and the two jack stands.

    3

    Remove the lugs and take the wheels off the vehicle. Place the lugs inside the lug caps to ensure they are not misplaced. Slide the wheels under the vehicle for extra safety.

    4

    Locate the rear disk caliper. Remove the holding bolts, usually with a hex key set. Pull the disk caliper away from the rotor using a rubber mallet to loosen it if necessary. The brake pads will be recessed inside the caliper. Remove the pad clips found on the caliper's exterior. Use a screwdriver to pry the clips loose and remove the old pads.

    5

    Use channel locks to push the piston to the maximum open position. Position the locks inside the caliper and extend them until the piston inside the caliper is pushed open entirely. Put the new brake pads into the pad slots and secure with the clips.

    6

    Slide the calipers back onto the rotors, using a rubber mallet if necessary. Align the caliper bolt holes and reinsert and thread the caliper bolts into place. Put the wheels back into place and tighten the lugs back to the wheel hub. Pull the jack stands and drop the lift. Using the breaker bar, ensure the lugs are tightened securely and put the lug cap or hubcaps back on.

Brake Rotors Vs. Wave Brake Rotors

Brake Rotors Vs. Wave Brake Rotors

A wave brake rotor is an option that can be used instead of regular rotors that come standard with a car. The shape of wave rotors is unique and provides many advantages over regular rotors.

Shape

    Standard brake rotors are rounded, but wave brake motors have angular waves cut into them. The severity of the waves varies by brand and influences how well the brake rotor performs.

Deforming

    Over time, standard brake rotors can become deformed, causing them to not brake as well because they cover less surface area. The waves in wave brake rotors allow it to bend when braking so that even if there is some deforming, the brake still lays flat against the rotor pads.

Cooling and Dirt

    Wave brake rotors cool brake pads quicker because of the waves. It is also more difficult for dirt and debris to get into the rotors. It is similar to the function of slotted brake rotors in race cars.

Senin, 25 Juli 2011

How to Change the Brakes on a Scion tC

How to Change the Brakes on a Scion tC

The tC is a sporty coupe from the Toyota spin-off division, Scion. The Scion tC is equipped with all-wheel anti-lock disc brakes that offer a greater braking performance over vehicles that are equipped with rear drum brakes. The brake assembly is comprised of components that need to work in concert for the brake system to perform properly. The brake pads and rotors endure the most wear of all of the components. The pads should be replaced when they have worn enough that their wear indicators become exposed, to prevent gouging of the brake rotors. The rotors require less frequent replacement, but the first sign of warping or severe scoring should prompt replacement.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Scion on a flat stretch of road, away from passing traffic. Put the transmission in "park" and leave the parking brake disengaged.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the wheels corresponding with the brakes you are planing to replace. Use the lug wrench in the Toyota tire maintenance kit located in the trunk of the tC.

    3

    Lift the vehicle with a jack and rest the frame of the Scion on jack stands.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts and take the wheels off.

    5

    Remove the caliper slide pins located on the back side of the brake caliper with a 13 mm wrench. Turn the front wheels to gain better access to the bolts. Use a ratchet and 13 mm socket for the rear brake caliper pins.

    6

    Lift the caliper up and away from the rotor. Pry the brake pads from the inside of the caliper with a flat screwdriver. The metal clips on the pads hold them to the sides of the caliper. Force the clips outward with the screwdriver or other pry tool.

    7

    Take the rotor from the wheel bolts with two hands, pulling opposite sides of the disc. The rotor will slide straight from the hub. Tap the back side of the rotor if you cannot remove it by hand.

    8

    Clean the new rotor thoroughly with brake parts cleaner and a cloth towel. Place the rotor onto the wheel bolts.

    9

    Place an old brake pad (or thin block of wood) against the caliper pistons. Clamp the pad and the back of the caliper with a C-clamp. Screw the C-clamp handle to force the pistons back into the side of the caliper to make room for the new brake pads. Remove the clamp and pad once the pistons are fully retracted.

    10

    Clip the new brake pads onto the sides of the caliper. Fit the caliper clips over the sides of the caliper.

    11

    Replace the caliper over the rotor and screw in the caliper slide pins.

    12

    Place the wheels back onto the wheel bolts and screw on the lug nuts.

    13

    Lift the Scion and remove the jack stands before lowering the vehicle to the ground.

    14

    Tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

Minggu, 24 Juli 2011

How to Remove the Rotors on a 1999 Taurus

The 1999 Ford Taurus came with disc brakes up front and drum brakes in the rear, with the front brakes handling the majority of the braking duties. When the front brakes start to squeak and the pads start to wear down, it's time to change the brake pads. At the same time, you should also remove the front brake rotors to turn them, or replace them.

Instructions

    1

    Use the jack to lift up the front end of the Taurus and then place the car down on the jack stands. Remove the front wheels with the tire iron and move them out of the way.

    2

    Unbolt the brake caliper and brake caliper bracket from the steering knuckle. Support the brake caliper with one hand, then loop the mechanics wire through the center of the caliper and then around the front springs, making sure the brake line connected to the caliper is slack. Twist the mechanics wire using the pliers so that the caliper is fully supported by the wire.

    3

    Lift the brake rotor off of the front hub and place it on a work surface. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 for the other side.

Sabtu, 23 Juli 2011

How to Replace a Front Rotor on a Lincoln LS

Replacing the front rotor on your Lincoln LS will require equal parts of mechanical skills, dexterity and applied caution. The right equipment to perform the job and a couple of suggestions to make future replacement a little easier will come in helpful. The amount of money you could save by doing this yourself can motivate you and ensure the job gets done right.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Lincoln LS on a flat paved surface. Apply the parking brake and release the hood latch. Place the wheel chock behind one of the rear tires. Open the hood and remove the master cylinder cap. Suck out half of the brake fluid from the reservoir with a turkey baster and discard. Replace the cap securely. Drop the hood down (without closing it) so the underhood light bulb on the Lincoln LS doesn't kill the battery while you perform the rotor replacement.

    2

    Break the lug nuts loose on the front tire(s) using the breaker bar and a socket. Lift the front quarter of the LS with the floor jack and place the jack stand under the front frame rail. If desired, lift the other side to elevate the front axle. It is recommended to replace both rotors on an LS as opposed to just one side. This way you won't have a thick new rotor on one caliper catching first while the other has to compress against an older, thinner rotor.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and wheel. Position the large flathead screwdriver into the front of the caliper. In a prying motion, compress the caliper pistons (there's two on the LS calipers) by prying the outboard pad evenly against the surface of the rotor. Because it's dual piston, you'll have to apply enough force to compress them in. Go as far as the caliper pistons will allow. This will make sure there's plenty of room for the new thicker rotor.

    4

    Locate and remove the two caliper anchor bolts on the inside knuckle using the ratchet and a socket. This will remove the caliper with the pads and anchor as an entire assembly and save time. If you were replacing the pads on the LS, you would have to separate the caliper, extract the pads, then remove the anchor to remove and replace the rotor. Hang the caliper assembly to the front suspension out of the way using a bungee cord so it does not hang by the brake hose.

    5

    Remove the rotor. If the rotor is stuck to the hub, spray the center of the rotor and hub connection with lubricant, put on the safety glasses and strike the flat plate of the inside edge of the rotor with a hammer outward. Try to use force to shock the rotor from the hub, but excessive force and repeated blows with the hammer can create excessive run out. Try to avoid hitting the rotor on the front or face of the hub.

    6

    Clean the flange face of the hub with sand paper or emery cloth to remove and excess rust or buildup that caused the rotor to come off stubbornly. Apply a light coat of anti-seize lubricant around the circumference of the hub that the rotor sits around and also along the edge of the hub flange that sits inside the hub of the rotor. This will help future replacement or removal of the rotor.

    7

    Clean off the rust preventative coating on the new rotor with brake clean spray. Spray both sides liberally and wipe dry with a shop rag. Install the new rotor onto the hub of the flange and screw on one lug nut on a lug stud to hold the rotor in place flush to the flange, but out of the way of the caliper assembly.

    8

    Replace the caliper assembly and anchor bolts and tighten with the ratchet and a socket. Remove the lug nut from the lug stud and replace the wheel and lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts flush to the hub. Repeat the steps for the other side to replace that rotor. If excessive force was used to remove the rotors and you want to check rotor run out, you'll have to keep the tires off and restore hydraulic pressure back to the caliper pistons first, by pumping the foot brake pedal until it feels normal. Then, use the rotor run out gauge to check lateral run out.

    9

    Lower the LS and tighten the lug nuts alternately with the torque wrench set at 100 foot pounds and a socket. If you didn't check rotor run out, pump the foot brake pedal now to restore pressure to the caliper pistons. Check and adjust the level of brake fluid in the master cylinder reservoir and only add new DOT 3 or 4 brake fluid. Fill and replace the cap securely. Close the hood and remove the wheel chock.

How to Change Auto Rear Brakes

How to Change Auto Rear Brakes

Replacement of the rear brakes in your vehicle can be performed in your driveway or garage. There are two types of rear brake systems. Most vehicles are equipped with the drum-brakes system on the rear wheels. The rear brakes can be less effective because the front brakes handle most of the stopping power of a vehicle; thus, the front brakes use the more-effective disc-brake systems. Late-model and pricier vehicles may be equipped with four-wheel disc brakes.

Instructions

Changing Rear Drum Brakes

    1

    Loosen all the lug nuts a half-turn. Don't remove any lug nuts before jacking up the rear of the vehicle.

    2

    Place a jack under the rear center frame while the vehicle is parked on a solid, level surface and jack it up. Place two jack stands, one near each wheel under the frame to support the vehicle.

    3

    Remove all the lug nuts and both rear wheels. Pull the brake drums off the axle. This may require that the brake shoe star adjuster be backed down or loosened. This is done by inserting a brake-adjusting spoon or large, flat screwdriver into the elongated slot at the bottom of the brake backing plate. Pry the star wheel up or down to loosen the adjuster.

    4

    Snap and print photos of the brake assemblies on both wheels before disassembling them. Label the photos left and right side.

    5

    Pry and unhook the adjuster spring, which is on the bottom of the brake shoes. Use the brake tool to remove both shoe-return springs from the top pin; one hooks directly to the top brake pin and one hooks to a linkage rod.

    6

    Remove the washer; hold down the spring cap with the brake tool or pliers by pushing the washer cap in while holding the nail pin on the back and rotating the washer 90 degrees.

    7

    Remove the emergency brake lever arm by pulling it away from the shoe or removing the snap-ring retainer, if so equipped.

    8

    Replace the shoes with the new shoes and reinstall by reversing the steps.

How to Change Rear Disc Brakes

    9

    Loosen but don't remove the cap over the master cylinder.

    10

    Saddle a C-clamp over the caliper and tighten the clamp to push the caliper piston back into the caliper.

    11

    Remove the two bolts that hold the caliper to the spindle. Chevrolet utilizes a hex socket pin bolt.

    12

    Lift the caliper off the spindle. Tap the caliper with a hammer to loosen it before lifting it, if necessary. Remove the brake pads from the caliper and replace them with the new pads.

    13

    Reinstall the calipers back onto the spindle and tighten the attachment bolts.

    14

    Reinstall the rear wheels. Jack up the vehicle and remove the jack stands from under the automobile. Top off the brake fluid in the master cylinder.

Jumat, 22 Juli 2011

How to Get the Rear Drums off on a 1999 Dodge 2500

Removal of the brake drums on the rear of your Dodge 2500 truck is a little more involved than standard drums because the axle shaft runs through the drum. The process is not difficult, and you can easily complete the job in the driveway at home with basic hand tools. Replacement brake shoes, drums and hardware are readily available through Dodge or many auto parts stores.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels of your Dodge with a lug wrench, then position a jack under the rear of the truck. Raise the rear tires off the ground with the jack, and place a set of jack stands under the axle to support the truck.

    2

    Remove the lug nuts from the wheel studs, then remove the tire and wheel from the truck. Set the wheel and tire aside for now.

    3

    Locate the eight axle retaining nuts on the end of the axle, and remove them with a socket and ratchet. Set the nuts aside, then remove the lock washers from the studs, and set them with the nuts.

    4

    Tap on the end of the axle with a hammer to loosen the cones on the axle retaining studs, then pull the cones out, and slide them off the studs. Set them aside for reuse later.

    5

    Pull the axle shaft straight out of the axle housing, and set the axle shaft aside where it will not be damaged. Locate the hub nut inside the hole where the axle was. Remove it with a socket and hub nut socket.

    6

    Remove the lock washer under the outer nut then remove the inner nut with the hub nut socket and ratchet. Remove the bearing from the bore, then slide the brake drum off the hub.

How to Know If a Brake Booster Is Not Working

How to Know If a Brake Booster Is Not Working

It is very rare today to find an automobile that is not equipped with power assisted brakes. Power assisted brakes are more effective than non-assisted brakes, and they provide the driver with a more predictable brake feel while also greatly reducing braking effort. The downside is that the power braking system is quite complex, and a problem with any of the system components can impair braking. The power booster, sometimes called the vacuum booster, is one such component. Because it is driven by the vacuum created by the engine the booster is susceptible to vacuum leaks. There are three simple tests that drivers can easily perform to determine if the booster is working properly.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle and allow the engine to run at idle for a minute or so. Push the brake pedal down and hold it. Turn the engine off and continue to hold the pedal down with light but steady pressure for about 30 seconds. The brake pedal position should not change during this time. If the pedal slowly moves up it indicates a leak in the constant pressure chamber of the booster.

    2

    Park the vehicle and turn the engine off. Pump the brake pedal a few times to relieve any residual vacuum in the booster. Push the brake pedal down and hold it with light but steady force. Start the engine. The brake pedal should drop slightly, and the pedal should change from a high and hard feel to a normal feel. If it does not then this indicates that the booster might not be receiving vacuum from the engine, possibly due to a plugged vacuum hose, a vacuum leak or a defective check valve. It can also indicate a failure of the booster itself.

    3

    Park the vehicle and allow the engine to run at idle for a minute or so. Turn the engine off and then immediately push the brake pedal down with light but steady pressure four or five times, waiting a few seconds between each push. The brake pedal should feel harder with each push, and it should come to a stop at a higher position each time. This is because each push of the brake pedal uses up a little more of the residual vacuum stored in the booster. If the pedal returns to the same high position each time it indicates that the brake power booster probably has a leak and cannot store the residual vacuum. It can also mean that the check valve is defective.

    4

    Park the vehicle on level ground and turn off the engine. Open the hood and locate the vacuum booster. It is a dome-shaped assembly normally mounted to the firewall at the rear driver's side of the engine compartment. Locate the flexible vacuum line coming in to the booster. Use pliers or a screwdriver to remove any retaining clips and then slip the vacuum line off of the booster connection point. Have an assistant start the engine. You should hear air being sucked into the open end of the vacuum line. Place your finger over the end of the line. The vacuum should feel strong. With your finger blocking the end of the line have your assistant turn the engine off. The vacuum should remain strong for at least one minute after the engine has stopped. For greater precision connect an engine vacuum tester to the vacuum line when doing these tests and record the engine vacuum level.

    5

    Park the vehicle and turn off the engine. Open the driver's door and slide in under the dashboard. Look up under the dash where the brake pedal attaches to the pushrod. Now slowly depress the brake pedal with your hand until the pushrod just starts to move. A properly adjusted brake pedal should depress about 1/4 to 1/2 of an inch before the pushrod starts to move. (This distance is known as "free play.") If the pushrod moves immediately when the pedal is only slightly depressed then it might mean that the pushrod is engaging the brakes slightly all the time. This will cause loss of residual vacuum in the booster when the engine is shut off, which will affect the results of the above tests.

Rear Brake Installation on a Land Rover LR3

When you place your foot on the brake pedal, the brake pads squeeze the rotors between them and use friction to stop your Land Rover LR3. The friction eventually wears out the brake pads. How fast the brakes wear out depends upon how often you use the brakes. Replacing the rear brakes on the Land Rover LR3 is an easy procedure. The process is similar to changing the brakes on the front of the SUV. It will only take about 30 minutes to do each wheel on the SUV.

Instructions

    1

    Park your Land Rover on a level surface and turn off the key. Place a set of wheel chocks behind the rear wheels of the SUV. Open the engine compartment and siphon half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using the turkey baster. Place the fluid in the drain pan for recycling later. Raise the rear end of the Land Rover with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under it and raise it to the frame. Remove the lug nuts with the lug wrench and take the wheel off the Land Rover.

    2

    Remove the bottom bolt from the brake caliper using the socket and ratchet. Pivot the caliper up and off the wheel assembly. Remove the brake pads from the caliper. Push the caliper piston into the housing using the piston tool.

    3

    Insert new brake pads into the caliper. Push the caliper onto the rotor and tighten the bolt with the socket and ratchet. Replace the wheel on the Land Rover and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the SUV and lower the vehicle to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel.

    4

    Add brake fluid to the master cylinder as necessary. Pump the brake pedal a few times to seat the brake pads on the rotors.

How to Replace the Brake Shoes of a '97 Venture Van

How to Replace the Brake Shoes of a '97 Venture Van

The 1997 Venture van comes equipped with brake shoes behind the rear wheels. The brake shoes stop the van by applying pressure to the inside of the brake drum as it is turning. Over time, the brake shoes will become worn and grooved. Excessively worn brake shoes can damage the inside of the brake drums. Change the brake shoes out before the brake shoe reaches 1/8-inch of thickness.

Instructions

    1

    Park the 1997 Chevy Venture van on level ground and set the emergency brake.

    2

    Loosen each of the lug nuts from both rear wheels with a tire tool or lug wrench.

    3

    Slide the jack under the rear end of the van and jack the van up high enough for the jack stands. Position the jack stands under the designated rear jacking points. Lower the van onto the jack stands and leave the jack upright.

    4

    Finish removing the lug nuts from the rear wheels. Pull the wheels off and set them to the side of the van.

    5

    Pull the rear, driver-side brake drum off the wheel hub and set it down near the rear of the van. Locate the retaining springs that are located at the top of each brake shoe. Grab the springs with the spring removal tool and slide the end of each spring out of the spring holes. Pull the springs out and lay them to the side.

    6

    Locate the spring retainer clips on the front of each brake shoe. Position the end of the spring retaining clip removal tool over the head of the retaining clip. Push the tool inward and turn it counterclockwise at the same time. Pull the clips out and place them to the side.

    7

    Pull the brake shoes out of the wheel hub assembly. Transfer the spring retaining clips to the new brake shoes and secure the clips to the shoes with the tool. Position both brake shoes into the wheel hub assembly.

    8

    Reattach the springs to the spring retaining clips inside of each brake shoe and to the spring holes with the spring removal tool. Make sure that the top end of each brake shoe is up against each end of the brake cylinder.

    9

    Slide the wheel back onto the wheel hub and tighten down tight with the lug nuts. Move to the other side of the van and repeat the same steps. When finished installing the rear brake shoes, be sure to secure the wheel to the wheel hub with the lug nuts. Jack the van back up and remove the stands. Lower the van to the surface and remove the jack.

    10

    Torque all of the lug nuts on the rear wheels with the tire tool until tight. Crank the 1997 Chevrolet Venture and pump the brake pedal in and out five or six times to seat the top of the brake shoes to the proper distance from the inside of the brake drums. Test-drive the van in a safe area to test the operation of the new brake shoes.

Kamis, 21 Juli 2011

How to Replace Calipers

How to Replace Calipers

Most commonly used on front wheels, the brake calipers are part of the disc-brake wheel assembly. The calipers hold the wheel cylinder piston and brake pads that press against the disc to slow or stop the vehicle whenever you step on the brake pedal. However, when a caliper piston freezes, leaks or has too many miles of service on it, the caliper has to be rebuilt or replaced.

Instructions

Removing the Brake Caliper

    1

    Loosen the wheel lugs with a lug wrench on the wheel assembly with the brake caliper you need to replace.

    2

    Raise the tire until it clears the ground using a floor jack, and support it on a jack stand.

    3

    Remove the wheel lugs and dismount the tire from the wheel assembly.

    4

    Place a small drain pan or old newspapers underneath the wheel assembly to catch any brake fluid spill after you disconnect the brake caliper hose.

    5

    Disconnect the brake hose-mounting bolt from the back of the caliper using a tube wrench to avoid rounding off the bolt head, and discard the fitting washers.

    6

    Wrap a plastic bag around the end of the caliper hose to prevent more brake fluid from spilling and contamination of the brake system.

    7

    Unscrew and remove the two caliper mounting pins at the back of the caliper using a Torx bit or socket and ratchet, depending on the type of pins used on your particular model.

    8

    Lift the caliper off the brake disc and away from the vehicle. Then remove the brake pads from the caliper, if your particular caliper holds the brake pads in it.

Install the New Brake Caliper

    9

    Mount the brake pads on the new caliper, if necessary.

    10

    Set the new caliper on the disc.

    11

    Insert the two caliper mounting pins and tighten them with the Torx bit or socket and ratchet.

    12

    Remove the plastic bag from the caliper hose and set the hose on the caliper using two new copper washers.

    13

    Start the hose-mounting bolt by hand to avoid cross threading, and then tighten the bolt with the tube wrench.

    14

    Mount the tire on the wheel assembly and install the wheel lugs. Then tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench just enough to press the rim against the wheel mounting flange.

    15

    Lower the vehicle and finish tightening the wheel lugs following a star-shaped pattern.

    16

    Bleed the brake system according to your vehicle manufacturer specifications.

How to Fix Impreza Brakes

The Subaru Impreza is manufactured with four wheel disk brakes, which use a hydraulic caliper at each wheel to stop the vehicle. The caliper, rotor and pads are maintenance items and can be replaced if they leak, show damage or are extremely worn. The average weekend mechanic can replace all four brakes in about two hours.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the Subaru at the wheel by placing the floor jack on a frame rail and pumping the lever until the wheel is in the air. Do not use the jack on the body or suspension components. Place a jack stand near the jack head on the frame rail for safety.

    2

    Remove the wheel by turning the lug nuts counterclockwise then laying the wheel aside.

    3

    Remove the caliper and pads by turning the twin rear mount bolts in a counterclockwise direction, then sliding the caliper off of the rotor. The pads will come out by hand, but the caliper will still be attached to the system with the brake lines. If replacement of the caliper is desired, remove the line by turning the line nut counterclockwise.

    4

    Remove the rotor by turning the keeper screw counterclockwise then pulling the rotor free of the hub; if the rotor is not on a drive wheel, it may not have keeper screws.

    5

    Replace the rotor by pushing it back onto the hub and attaching any keeper screws if necessary. Place new pads into the caliper and slide it over the rotor, turning the mount bolts clockwise to secure it. If the caliper was replaced, tighten the line nuts at this time.

    6

    Purge the braking system with fresh fluid by turning the bleeder nipple at the back of the caliper counterclockwise, allowing the fluid to drain out. Apply the brake pedal and pour fluid into the master cylinder (under the hood on the driver's side firewall) until there is no air coming out of the nipple. The fluid should be golden yellow and bubble free. Turn the nipple clockwise to close it.

    7

    Reattach the wheel and turn the lug nuts clockwise in an alternating pattern. Remove the jack stand and lower the Impreza from the jack by turning the pressure screw counterclockwise with the jack handle.

    8

    Repeat the entire procedure on the remaining brakes.

Rabu, 20 Juli 2011

How to Make Parking Brake Adjustments in a Ford F-Series

You can adjust your Ford F-series pickup parking brakes at home to remove slack from the parking brake cables and save yourself time and money. Purchase a cable tension gauge to help you gain the right tension for your parking brake cables. Use this technique on your 1997 and 1998 Ford F-series F-250.

Instructions

    1

    Press in on the parking brake pedal to the lowest position towards the floor. Raise your Ford F-series rear wheels in the air using a jack and support the back wheels using jack stands.

    2

    Get underneath your Ford F-series and hold the threaded rod of the parking brake cable adjustment to prevent it from spinning. Use your pliers to tighten the equalizer nut six full turns past the original position on the parking brake cable rod. Locate the cable rod in the middle of the vehicle with the parking brake cables coming towards it from each rear wheel.

    3

    Use your cable tension gauge to measure the right tension. Attach the rear tension cable and measure the pounds of tension. Set your Ford F-series cable tension at 350 pounds of tension.

    4

    Release the parking brake pedal and make sure the rear wheels spin freely.

    5

    Adjust the clearance between the parking brake lever and the cam plate if there is resistance with the rear wheels. Adjust the clearance to 0.38mm at the parking brake equalizer adjusting nut.

    6

    Lower your Ford F-series using your jack and remove the jack stands from the rear wheels.

How to Tell the Difference Between 1998 Ford Escort 9.25 or 10.25 Rotors

How to Tell the Difference Between 1998 Ford Escort 9.25 or 10.25 Rotors

Brake rotors are an important part of the Escort's braking system. Braking with disc brake systems is accomplished by forcing two friction pads against a rotating disc fastened to the wheel. When servicing brakes it is important to know the rotor diameter, thickness and discard measurements in order to keep the braking system functioning safely.

Instructions

    1

    Notice the various surfaces on the brake rotor. A circular shiny section on both sides of the rotor is where the friction pads of the caliper engage when braking. Run your fingers across this surface. It should be smooth with little to no grooving. Inspect the holes where the lug nuts protrude for any hairline cracks or wallowing. Also check for discoloration in the metal. A bluish tinge indicates excessive heat and potential warpage. Discard the rotor if excessive grooving, hairline cracks or discoloration are present.

    2

    Lay the rotor on a flat surface and measure the diameter. Write this measurement down when ordering a new rotor. Different vehicles, sometimes of the same make, can measure differently. A 1998 Ford Escort GT may have a 9.25-inch or a 10.25-inch rotor, depending on the VIN number.

    3

    Stand the rotor on edge. Using a micrometer, measure four different areas around the friction pad surface and write them down. Examine the rotor on its hub edge and inner rim. Look for a grouping of numbers that mention the minimum diameter allowed. Compare this number with the smallest measurement you took. If it is less than the embossed number on the rotor, then discard it -- by federal law, it can not be used. If the measured number is greater than the embossed number, the rotor may be turned on a lathe as long as the final thickness is still greater than the discard measurement. If reusing the rotor, thoroughly clean it of any dirt, oil, grease and excessive rust before reinstalling.

How to Replace Rusted Brake Lines

The brake lines on your vehicle perform a critical function--they provide the brake calipers with enough hydraulic fluid to enable the vehicle to slow down and stop. When there is an obstruction inside the brake lines, it is normally caused by rust. Brake lines can rust from the inside out as well as from the outside in. Brake fluid naturally draws moisture to it, and if this moisture builds up inside the lines, it will slowly rust the lines over time. When the rust gets bad enough, the lines will break and you'll need to replace them.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of your vehicle and locate all of the brake-line connections on the brake proportioning valve and master cylinder, as well as the connections on the brake calipers at the wheel hub assembly at each wheel.

    2

    Place a catch pan under one of the brake calipers and unbolt the brake line using a tube-nut wrench. Next, press on the brake pedal to drain the brake line.

    3

    Disconnect all brake line connections, using the tube-nut wrench.

    4

    Remove the lines from the routing guides. Note the orientation and routing pattern of the existing brake lines. Mark down the orientation and routing of the brake lines, using a pen and paper.

    5

    Install the new brake lines according to the routing path you noted in step 4.

    6

    Reconnect the brake-line tube nuts to the brake master cylinder, the brake proportioning valve and the brake calipers, using the tube-nut wrench.

How to Change the Brake Calipers and Rotors

How to Change the Brake Calipers and Rotors

Changing the brake calipers and rotors on your vehicle is not difficult to do. The brake calipers hold the brake pads, and they work along with the brake rotors to slow and stop your car using friction and hydraulics. With the high price of labor at repair shops, it is nice to know that you can replace the brake rotors and calipers yourself in about 45 minutes per wheel.

Instructions

    1

    Park your automobile on a level, firm surface. Open the engine compartment and siphon 2/3s of the brake fluid out of the master cylinder with a turkey baster. Squirt the brake fluid into a drain pan for later recycling. Place wheel chocks behind the rear wheels.

    2

    Raise the vehicle with an automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the car near the jacking point and raise it to the frame. Remove the lug nuts from the wheel with a lug wrench. Pull the wheel off the car.

    3

    Remove the brake caliper with a socket and ratchet to loosen the retaining bolts. Disconnect the brake line from the automobile with a wrench and pull the caliper away from the car. Pull the brake rotor off the wheel assembly.

    4

    Install the new rotor onto the wheel assembly. Attach the new brake line to the new caliper with a wrench. Attach the other end of the brake line to the car. Install the new brake pads into the caliper and place it on the mounting bracket. Tighten the retaining bolts with the socket and ratchet.

    5

    Remount the wheel on the car and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the vehicle and lower it to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel. Refill the master cylinder with brake fluid as needed. Pump the brakes several times so the brake pads seat themselves on the rotors properly. The brake pedal should feel firm.

Selasa, 19 Juli 2011

How to Change Corvette Brake Pads

How to Change Corvette Brake Pads

The Chevrolet Corvette uses brake discs on both the front and rear tires, as these provide superior stopping power for high performance cars. These discs are squeezed by thick pads that stop the wheels when breaking. Eventually these pads wear thin and will need replaced; this is usually indicated by delayed braking or squeaking sounds. Changing out the break pads is not a difficult task, but it requires patience and care to be done properly. It also helps to have some basic knowledge of auto repair.

Instructions

Pad Removal

    1

    Park the Corvette on a level surface. Set the parking brake to keep the car steady while you're working on it.

    2

    Pop your hood and disconnect the negative battery cable.

    3

    Jack up the car near the wheel where you will be changing the brake pad first. Raise the car up until the tire is just off the ground.

    4

    Remove the tire and set it aside along with the lug nuts.

    5

    Put a large C-clamp around the caliper body (the part holding the pads). It should be positioned against the rear of the caliper body and the out-facing pad.

    6

    Tighten the C-clamp to compress the pistons. Remove the bolt atop the caliper (upper caliper bolt) and pull the caliper downward at an angle until you have enough clearance to safely remove the pads.

Pad Installation

    7

    Spray the caliper and brake parts with some brake bad cleaner and wipe it down with a rag to remove most dirt, grease and grime.

    8

    Slide the outboard pad and its insulator in the caliper then place the inboard pad with the wear sensor into the caliper pistons. Press the pads firmly until are fully seated within the caliper.

    9

    Pivot the caliper upwards until it can't go any farther then tighten the bolt until its secure.

    10

    Place the wheel and tire back on the car, bring down the jack and repeat the entire process with the three remaining wheels.

Minggu, 17 Juli 2011

How to Assemble Drum Brakes

How to Assemble Drum Brakes

The brake drum of your vehicle is responsible for about 25 percent of the braking done in an automobile. Brake drums are typically used in older-model vehicles as rear brakes, but some newer vehicles still come equipped with brake drums in the rear. If you are rebuilding your brake drums, then this article assumes you have already raised your vehicle on jack stands, and you are ready to assemble the brake drums and put them on the vehicle.

Instructions

    1

    Put the brake shoes on the outer surface of the inner brake drum. The shoes are held in place by retaining springs, so you need to orient and align the brake shoes with the retaining springs. There is only one way that the brake shoes can be oriented.

    2

    Secure the brake shoes using the brake spring tool. This tool is fit over the brake shoe retainer spring clip. Once the tool end is "inserted" over the clip, push in and turn clockwise to secure the brake shoes to the inner brake drum.

    3

    Inspect the brake springs, the shoe return spring and the wheel cylinder. Make sure that there is tension on all of the springs and that there are no leaks or rips in the wheel cylinder boots.

    4

    Place the inner drum over the hub assembly and secure the inner brake drum to the hub with the factory-supplied bolts. Tighten the bolts using the socket wrench and do a final tightening with a torque wrench to your manufacturer's torque specifications.

    5

    Connect the brake line to the wheel cylinder and inner brake drum assembly. Use the open-end wrench for this. You need to hand-tighten first. Then use the wrench to finish tightening until you feel resistance on the tube nut of the brake line. Then give the tube nut a 1/4 additional turn.

    6

    Place the outer drum over the inner drum, place the wheel on over that and secure it with the wheel's lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts clockwise with the tire wrench.

How to Repair Rear Drum Brakes

How to Repair Rear Drum Brakes

Drum brakes are quickly becoming an anachronism in the automotive world. The once-dominant braking technology has been largely supplanted by modern disc brake systems. Disc brakes perform better than drum brakes, and their simplicity makes them more reliable and easier to maintain. Regardless, drum brakes are still less expensive, and because of this they are still found on the rear wheels of many inexpensive vehicles, and the DIY mechanic will find it useful to learn how to repair drum brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle on a firm, level surface and securely block the front wheels. Put automatic transmissions in park, and put manual transmissions in first or reverse gear. Leave the parking brake off. Partly loosen the lug nuts on both rear wheels then jack the rear of the vehicle and support securely on jack stands. Completely remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels off both sides.

    2

    Remove both brake drums so the drum not being serviced can be used as a reference. On many vehicles it will pull right off the hub, however sometimes it may be held to the hub assembly by retaining screws or bolts. If so, remove the retaining fasteners before pulling the drum off. The drum may also be held by a large hub nut, in which case this must first be removed before removing the drum. If the drum is seized to the backing plate, as is often the case, firmly tap the drum with a rubber or plastic mallet to loosen it. Take care not to hit the drum so hard that it cracks.

    Sometimes because of a weak return spring, a fully extended self-adjuster, or a malfunctioning parking brake the shoes may be pressing on the drum and preventing its removal. If this seems to be the case look for a hole on the drum or backing plate with a rubber cover. Open the cover and you should see the adjuster wheel teeth. Reach inside with a small screwdriver or pick and rotate the adjuster to release tension on the brake shoes. If the parking brake is the culprit then locate the parking brake cable tensioner bolt and loosen it. On larger vehicles it is often under the car on the driver's side, while in smaller vehicles it is often at the base of the hand brake lever inside the passenger compartment.

    3

    Remove the springs. The various brake springs are hooked at each end, and removal consists of gripping one end of the spring with pliers and unhooking it. With the spring tension relieved it is easy to unhook the other end. Using vice grip pliers makes the job easier since you can lock the vice grips onto the spring end and then concentrate on pulling to unhook the spring end without having to also worry about keeping your grip. There are special brake spring tools available, but these tend to work well for some springs and not for others and most mechanics prefer to use pliers.

    First remove the large return springs that connect the front and rear brake shoes. If these are very difficult to remove it often helps to first rotate the self-adjuster mechanism to relieve some of the tension on the shoes. Some brake designs use separate springs from the upper end of each shoe that anchor on a single pin above the cylinder, rather than a single return spring directly between the two shoes in the upper position. After removing the large return springs, remove the smaller springs for the adjuster mechanism pawl (ratchet) lever, the parking brake operating lever or any other springs you see.

    4

    Remove whatever else is connecting the two brake shoes. This usually includes the self-adjuster wheel, which has a slot at each end where the brake shoe sits. With the springs removed it should simply slide out from between the shoes. On some brake designs there might be a metal strut on the side of the brake opposite the self-adjuster, and with no spring tension to hold it in place this too should just slide out from between the shoes.

    5

    Remove the shoe hold-down pins. On small vehicles there is normally one hold-down pin for each shoe while larger vehicles may have two pins on each shoe. The pins typically pass through the backing plate and have a spring-and-retainer or a spring clip to hold the pin in place while pushing the brake shoe against the backing plate. For pins with spring clips, grip the pin and the clip with separate pliers and rotate them until the tabs on the end of the pin align with the notches in the clip and pull the clip off the end of the pin. For pins with retaining springs, grip and retaining washer and rotate it until the notches in the washer align with the tabs on the spring end and pull the washer and retaining spring off the pin. For either arrangement, be careful because the spring tension will release suddenly when the retainer notches align with the pin tabs. Keep a firm grip on everything to prevent the small parts from flying away.

    With the retainers removed the hold-down pins can be pushed out through the backing plate. This will release the front brake shoe, which can now be removed, however the rear brake shoe will still be connected to the parking brake cable.

    6

    Free the rear shoe by disconnecting the parking brake cable. On some simple designs the cable will have a swaged fitting on the end that is held in a clevis at the end of the operating lever. Other designs will have a retaining clip that can be removed with pliers and a screw driver. With the parking brake cable disconnected the rear shoe can be removed.

    7

    Disconnect any levers that are attached to the brake shoes. These are normally held to the shoes with a pin and retaining clip arrangement, and the retaining clip can be removed with pliers or a screw driver to allow the lever to be pulled off the shoe.

    8

    Measure the thickness of the brake shoe linings with a finely graduated ruler and compare to the manufacturer's recommended minimum. This information can be found in the appropriate shop manual or aftermarket equivalent repair manual, or you can ask at an auto parts store. If the lining thickness is less than the allowable minimum, or if the linings are damaged or show uneven wear, replace the shoes.

    9

    Verify that the drum is round and is not worn out. Measure the inside diameter of the brake drum in several directions using a drum micrometer. The diameter should be equal in all directions. The interior surface of the drum should not have any deep grooves, pits or cracks. Compare the drum diameter to the manufacturer's recommended maximum diameter. This information can be found in the appropriate shop manual or aftermarket equivalent repair manual. If no manual is available, the maximum allowable drum diameter is normally stamped into the metal of the outside of the drum. If the measured diameter exceeds the allowable maximum then the drum is worn out and must be replaced.

    10

    Clean the backing plate with brake cleaning fluid. Unscrew the parts of the adjuster wheel and remove the pushrod end. Clean the parts with brake cleaning fluid and lubricate the threads and the pushrod female section with high temperature brake grease before reassembling the parts again. Also apply brake grease to the points where the brake shoes contact the backing plate, and the points where the brake shoes pivot on the hold down pins. Lubricate the points where the cylinder contacts the shoes, and the operating and adjusting levers pivot points. Be careful not to get grease on the drum or lining surfaces.

Sabtu, 16 Juli 2011

How to Remove the Brake Rotors on a 1999 Hyundai Elantra

How to Remove the Brake Rotors on a 1999 Hyundai Elantra

First introduced in 1991, the 1999 Hyundai Elantra came equipped with a 2.0-liter in-line four-cylinder engine that produced 140 horsepower and 133 foot-pounds of torque. The 1999 Elantra came with front disc brakes and rear drum brake as standard equipment. The option for an upgraded four-wheel disc brake system was available on the higher trim level 1999 Elantra. Remove and replace brake rotors with excess wear to ensure good braking performance.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of the Elantra, and set the prop rod. View the brake fluid reservoir on the driver's side of the engine compartment, near the firewall. Use a turkey baster or small bottle siphon to remove excess brake fluid to set the brake fluid level approximately 1/4-inch below the "Full" mark.

    2

    Loosen the front wheel lug nuts with a tire iron. Raise the front of the car using a jack. Place jack stands beneath the front lower frame rails, beneath the car. Lower the car onto the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts, and then remove the wheels from the front.

    3

    Remove the single caliper-mounting bolt from the rear of the caliper. Use a ratchet and socket to loosen the bolt, which is located on the bottom rear side of the caliper. Rotate the caliper upward until it clears the rotor and pads. Push the caliper inward toward the wheel well to remove the caliper from the mounting post. Hang the caliper from the front coil spring with a metal hanger or thin metal rod.

    4

    Remove the old pads from the caliper-mounting bracket. Set one of the old pads against the piston, on the inside rear of the caliper. Hold the pad to the piston by placing a C-clamp around the pad and the rear of the caliper. Slowly turn the threaded rod on the C-clamp to compress the piston flush with the rear inner caliper wall. Remove the C-clamp and the old pad.

    5

    Remove the caliper bracket from the steering knuckle, using a ratchet and socket. Pull the brake rotor off the vehicle by hand. Install the new rotor onto the wheel hub. Place the caliper bracket back onto the steering knuckle. Tighten the caliper bracket bolts to 85 foot-pounds of torque, with a torque wrench and socket.

    6

    Install new brake pads onto the caliper bracket. Lightly lubricate the backside of each pad with a thin film of caliper grease. Pull the caliper off its hangar, and place it back over the upper guide bar. Slide the upper portion of the caliper onto the slide bar, with the caliper raised to clear the pads and rotor. Push the caliper over the rotor and pads and insert the lower caliper bolt. Tighten the lower caliper bolt between 16- and 24 foot-pounds of torque.

    7

    Repeat Steps 2 through 5 to complete the replacement of the rotor on the second side of the vehicle. When finished installing the second rotor and pad set, double-check torque on both the caliper brackets and the caliper bolts with the torque wrench and socket.

    8

    Install the wheels back onto the front of the Hyundai, and snug the lug nuts with a tire iron. Raise the vehicle off the jack stands using the jack. Remove the jack stands from beneath the car. Lower the car to the ground. Immediately torque the front wheel lug nuts to 80 foot-pounds using the torque wrench and socket.

    9

    Depress the brake pedal from inside the driver's cockpit of the vehicle. Push the pedal down no less than ten times to make sure you have a solid brake pedal resistance.

    10

    Add brake fluid if necessary, in order to fill the brake fluid reservoir to the "Full" mark. Replace the reservoir cap when you are finished, and ensure it fastens securely.

How to Install Brakes Rotors in a Chevy Silverado

Most all of the Chevy Silverado pickups come with "knock-off" rotors. This means you do not have to disassemble 4-wheel drive hubs or remove pressed bearing and seals from the rotors in order to replace them. This also means that replacing them can be done in the comfort of your own yard providing you have the proper tools and mechanical ability to install them.

Instructions

How to Install Brakes Rotors in a Chevy Silverado

    1

    Park the Silverado on a level, paved surface. Apply the parking brake and release the hood latch. Place a wheel chock behind one of the rear tires and open the hood. Remove half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder and discard it. Secure the master cylinder cap tightly.

    2

    Break the lugnuts loose on the front tires using the breaking bar and a socket. Some of the later-model Silverados may take a 22 millimeter socket for the lugnuts. Lift the front axle of the truck using the floor jack to lift one side at a time and place the jack stands under the front axle. Remove the lugnuts and wheels.

    3

    Start with the left front caliper and remove the two caliper bolts using the ratchet and a socket. Pry the caliper off with the screwdriver and support it to the frame with the bungee cord. Compress the caliper piston inward using the C-clamp until it bottoms out in the caliper housing. Remove the C-clamp.

    4

    Pry the pads out of the caliper bridge memorizing their position. If you're not replacing the pads, it would be recommended to replace them in the same position they were removed from the bridge. Remove the two bridge bolts. These will be difficult to break free so you might want to start with the breaking bar and a socket, then switch over to the ratchet to speed things up. Remove the bridge.

    5

    Remove the rotor. If the rotor is stuck stubbornly to the hub, put in the safety glasses and strike it on the flat plate of the fins with the hammer. Strike it from behind hitting outward and turn it 1/4 turn each time until it breaks free.

    6

    Spray the new rotor with brake clean spray to remove the oil coating on it. This coating prevents rusting as it sits in storage and should be cleaned off thoroughly. Spray both sides of the rotor including inside the hub of the rotor and wipe dry with a shop rag.

    7

    Place the rotor onto the hub and screw on one lug nut to secure it to the hub. Replace the caliper bridge and tighten with the ratchet and a socket. Add a 1/4 to 1/2 turn of the caliper bridge with the breaking bar to make sure it's good and tight. Reinsert the pads into the bridge in the same manner they were removed. If you're replacing new pads, add a coating of the silicone grease (equipped with the pad set) to the pad contact points on the bridge.

    8

    Replace the caliper and caliper bolts and tighten with the ratchet and a socket. Remove the lug nut from the rotor. Replace the wheel and lug nuts and tighten the lug nuts flush to the hub, but do not over-tighten them. Repeat Steps 3 to 8 for the right side rotor.

    9

    Lower the Silverado when you're finished and torque the front lug nuts from 120 to 140 foot pounds using the adjustable torque wrench and the socket.

    10

    Pump the foot brake pedal several times to restore the hydraulic pressure to the pistons of the caliper. Once the brake pedal feels normal, recheck the brake fluid level in the master cylinder and add new DOT 3 brake fluid to it and replace the cap securely. Release the parking brake, remove the wheel chock and test drive.

Jumat, 15 Juli 2011

How to Bleed the Master Cylinder Without Removing it From a Car

Bleeding the master cylinder and brake lines is the process of removing air from the hydraulic lines. Brake bleeding is one of the most important things you can do to ensure the proper operation of your brakes and the safe operation of your vehicle. Air bubbles in the brake lines will decrease the amount of force the brake pedal applies to the brake pad or shoe at each wheel. Air bubbles will also make the brake pedal feel "spongy," meaning when you press the brake pedal down, little or no braking force will be felt by the driver.

Instructions

Bleeding the Master Cylinder

    1

    Remove the master cylinder cover and top off the reservoir with fresh brake fluid. Make sure the reservoir does not run dry at any point in the bleeding process.

    2

    Attach a length of clear plastic tubing to the bleeder valve on the master cylinder.

    3

    Immerse the other end of the clear plastic tube in a plastic or glass container half full with fresh brake fluid. Make sure the end of the tube stays covered with brake fluid at all times during the bleeding process.

    4

    Have an assistant working inside the vehicle pump the brake pedal a few times, then hold it down.

    5

    Open the bleeder valve. As brake fluid flows through the clear plastic tube, the assistant will notice the brake pedal falling towards the floor. Close the bleeder valve before the pedal reaches the floor.

    6

    Repeat the process described above, and pay attention to the fluid flowing the clear plastic tube. Initially you will see small air bubbles in the line. Repeat the process until there are no bubbles in the line.

Bleeding the Brake System

    7

    After you've finished bleeding the master cylinder, or if your master cylinder is not equipped with a bleeder valve, check and see if there is a bleeder valve on the proportioning valve just below the master cylinder. Bleed this valve using the process listed above for the master cylinder.

    8

    If there is no bleeder valve on the proportioning valve, or your vehicle is not equipped with a proportioning valve, bleed the calipers or wheel cylinders at each wheel. Begin by raising the vehicle and support with jack stands placed underneath the frame.

    9

    Remove the wheels and tires.

    10

    Move to the wheel closest to the master cylinder. On most vehicles, this will be the left front. Bleed the bleeder valve on the back of the caliper using the technique listed above.

    11

    Move to the wheel next closest to the master cylinder. On most vehicles this will be the right front. Bleed using the same process used on the master cylinder.

    12

    Bleed the rear wheels using the same technique as before. Bleed the left rear wheel first, then the right rear wheel.

    13

    Reinstall the wheels and tires.

    14

    Lower the vehicle.

Kamis, 14 Juli 2011

How to Replace the Brakes on a 2005 Dodge Caravan

How to Replace the Brakes on a 2005 Dodge Caravan

Most 2005 model Dodge Caravans should have brake discs and calipers on all four wheels. The brake calipers on your van's wheels may be Teves or TRW calipers, particularly the front calipers. The type of calipers will make a slight difference in the process. Always change the brakes for both wheels on one end of the car together, but work on one brake assembly at a time.

Instructions

Preparation

    1

    Open the hood and siphon out about 2/3 of the brake fluid from the master cylinder with a syringe or similar tool. Discard the fluid as per your local ordinances.

    2

    Raise the van's front or rear end--whichever one you're changing the brakes on--and support it on jack stands. Remove the wheels. Block the wheels that are still on the ground.

    3

    Clean the entire brake assembly with an aerosol brake cleaner--never use compressed air. Use a drain pan to catch the residue.

    4

    Compress the caliper piston back into its bore with a C-clamp. Check the fluid level in the master cylinder as you compress the piston to make sure it doesn't overflow.

Removing the Old Pads

    5

    Pry off the anti-rattle spring clips from the caliper with a flat screwdriver. (This is only required for Teves calipers on the front brakes.)

    6

    Remove the guide pins or guide pin bolts for the caliper, lift it off the disc and hang it with a strong wire. Teves calipers have guide pins that require a hex wrench. TRW calipers have bolts that take a standard socket.

    7

    Pull out the outer and inner brake pads. The outer pads are always in the mounting bracket. The inner pads are clipped into the caliper piston bore on Teves calipers and within the mounting bracket on TRW calipers.

Installing the New Pads

    8

    Clean and inspect the guide pins, then lubricate them before installing them back in the caliper--use a high-temperature brake grease.

    9

    Apply an anti-squeal compound to the back of the new brake pads, applying the grease on the areas where they meet with the caliper and piston.

    10

    Install the brake pads in place on the caliper or mounting bracket, as appropriate. For inner brake pads on Teves calipers, seat the pad's retaining spring completely into the caliper piston bore.

    11

    Install the caliper back in place on the bracket. Tighten the guide pins/bolts to 26 foot-pounds.

    12

    Re-connect the wheels and lower the van after changing the brakes on both sides.

    13

    Fill the brake master cylinder with DOT Type 3 brake fluid until the reservoir is full.

    14

    Pump the brake pedal multiple times to properly seat the brakes.

Do Rotors Have to Be Turned in a Brake Job?

Do Rotors Have to Be Turned in a Brake Job?

Many garages will routinely perform a rotor resurfacing with every brake service. An examination of brake service specifications and technical bulletins from auto manufacturers reveals that while rotor resurfacing can be a cost-effective way of addressing minor rotor damage, it need not be performed at every brake servicing.

Rotor Scoring

    It is common for ridges and score lines to wear into the brake rotor with time; however, most manufacturers consider that score lines that are less than 0.06 inches in depth need not be addressed by rotor resurfacing.

Disc Thickness Variation

    Different areas of the rotor will wear at different rates. Over time, this can mean that higher-wear areas will become thinner than the rest of the rotor. Most manufacturers do not consider that a rotor resurfacing is required unless this thickness variation exceeds 0.001 inches.

Rotor Run-out

    The term "run-out" refers to the amount of wobble in the rotor as it turns. This can be due to warpage of the rotor, or to the rotor not being mounted perfectly straight on the hub. Manufacturers generally recommend that a rotor that is not mounted straight on the hub be corrected by shimming of the rotor rather than resurfacing. If the run-out is less than 0.003 inches, resurfacing is not required in any case.

Overall Rotor Thickness

    Rotor resurfacing will generally result in the removal of 0.005 to 0.01 inches of material from each side of the rotor. This will reduce the overall rotor thickness by double this amount if each side is resurfaced as it should be. If resurfacing is done at every brake servicing then the rotor life will be shortened.

Rabu, 13 Juli 2011

How to Change the Rear Brake Shoes on a 1992 Honda Accord

How to Change the Rear Brake Shoes on a 1992 Honda Accord

When the break pedal is pressed, the brake shoes apply outward pressure against the brake drums in the rear wheels of a 1992 Honda Accord, slowing the vehicle to a stop. Performing the task of removing and replacing the brake shoes on the 1992 Honda Accord will require inspecting the brake drum for excessive wear. Brake drums have come down in price and are rather inexpensive, so it is common to simply replace the the brake drum when replacing the brake shoes.

Instructions

Removal of the Old Brake Shoes

    1

    Place the vehicle's transmission in "Park" and block off the front tires. Break loose the rear lug nuts with the tire iron. Lift the vehicle into the air with the floor jack. Place jack stands under the rear frame rails and lower the floor jack until the vehicle rests securely on the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts with the tire iron and pull the tire away from the vehicle.

    2

    Pull the drum away from the brake assembly; if it it will not budge, strike it with the rubber mallet to break loose any corrosion, and try again.

    3

    Spray brake cleaner over the entire brake assembly to remove any buildup of worn friction material.

    4

    Remove the brake shoe-retaining pins by placing the backing plate spring compressor tool over the holding spring and retaining clip and turning it. Relieve pressure on the spring and pull the pin from the rear of the backing plate. Perform this on the opposite shoe to release the brake shoe assembly from the backing plate. Remove the lower shoe return spring with the pliers.

    5

    Pull the brake shoe assembly from the backing plate. Remove the parking brake cable from the parking brake lever, using the pliers.

    6

    Remove the brake shoe upper return spring with the pliers. Make a mental note of how the adjusting mechanism is connected between the two shoes; draw this on paper, or take a picture, if necessary. Remove the self-adjusting spring and adjuster assembly from between the two brake shoes. Remove the retaining clip from the parking brake lever. Remove the lever and pin from the old brake shoe.

Installing the New Brake Shoes

    7

    Place the parking brake lever pin through the new brake shoe, slide the lever over the pin and push the retaining clip into place to secure the lever onto the brake shoe. If the adjuster does not turn freely, unscrew it all the way. Clean the threads with a wire brush, and grease them with general automotive grease.

    8

    Turn the adjuster bolt until it is all the way tight and as short as it gets. Place the adjuster between the new brake shoes. Stretch the adjuster spring from the adjuster lever to the brake shoe, and secure it into the right brake shoe, using the pliers. Attach the upper shoe return spring to the brake shoes. Apply automotive grease to the pads on the backing plate, and set the brake shoe assembly back into place.

    9

    Mount the brake shoe assembly to the the backing plate by pushing the mounting pins through the rear of the backing place and through the mounting hole in the brake shoes. Set the spring in place and place the retainer over the pin. Compress the mounting spring and turn the retainer a half-turn, using the backing plate spring compressor tool.

    10

    Attach the parking brake cable to parking brake lever. Hook the lower return spring to one shoe, stretch it and hook it to the opposite shoe, using the pliers.

    11

    Check the clearance between the new brake shoes and the drum. Turn the adjusting lever until the brake drum will barely fit over the brake shoe assembly, and spin freely. Slide the drum into place.

    12

    Place the wheel back onto the vehicle and tighten the lug nuts, by hand. Lift the vehicle off the jack stands with the floor jack. Remove the jack stands and lower the vehicle onto the ground. Tighten the lug nuts to 80 foot-pounds of torque with the torque wrench. Apply the brake several times to allow the automatic adjuster to properly adjust the brakes before driving.

How to Remove Rear Brakes from a Ford Focus

How to Remove Rear Brakes from a Ford Focus

Ford Motor Co. introduced the Focus to the North American market in 1999 as a 2000 model. As of 2010, the Focus has undergone many minor changes but remains largely unchanged. In 2008, the hatchback and wagon models were discontinued, leaving only the two- and four-door sedans in the Focus lineup. The Focus came standard with power front disc and rear drum brakes. Although the rear brakes shoes may not wear as quickly as the front brake pads, they should not be overlooked.

Instructions

    1

    Park on firm, level ground. Chock the front wheels to prevent movement. Do not apply the parking brake, which operates off of the rear brakes. Slightly loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels with a lug wrench. Remove the scissor jack from the cargo area. Place the jack under the jacking area located under the rocker panel just ahead of the rear wheel. Raise the car until the rear wheel is off the ground and place a jack stand under the rear suspension control arm. Lower the scissor jack until the weight of the car is resting on the jack stand. Repeat for the other rear wheel.

    2

    Finish removing the lug nuts from the rear wheels with a lug wrench. Remove the wheels and place them aside. Locate the four spindle-retaining nuts on the inboard side of the brake-backing plate. Remove the bolts with a 13mm socket and ratchet wrench. Place the bolts aside. Repeat for the other side of the car.

    3

    Unplug the antilock brake sensors, if your car is so equipped, from the rear brake assemblies by pressing in on the release tabs on the wiring connectors and pulling the two halves apart.

    4

    Pull the rear drum and spindle assembly straight out from the side of the car and place it aside. Repeat for the other side of the car.

    5

    Locate the two retaining clips that attach the brake-shoe assembly to the brake backing plate on one side of the car. Push down on the clips with a flat-blade screwdriver and remove them from the backing plate. Repeat for the other side of the car.

    6

    Pull the brake-shoe assembly off of the backing plate by twisting the assembly back and forth as needed to separate it from the backing plate. Slide the parking brake cable so that the retaining pin at the end of the cable protrudes from the brake assembly and slide it out of the hole in the brake shoe. Remove the brake-shoe assembly from the car. Repeat this step to remove the remaining rear assembly.

Senin, 11 Juli 2011

How Do I Change the Back Brakes on a 2000 Ford Taurus?

How Do I Change the Back Brakes on a 2000 Ford Taurus?

The braking system in the 2000 Ford Taurus has disc brakes in the front and a drum brake system in the rear. The brakes are operated hydraulically and vacuum-assisted. This system uses a dual master cylinder and diagonally split hydraulic circuits, which means in case of brake failure half the brake system will still operate. The repair is moderate and does not require any specialized tools.

Instructions

    1

    Secure all tires not being raised by the jack by placing wheel chocks behind them so that your car does not roll.

    2

    Remove the rear tires with a tire iron and raise the car with a jack and secure it on jack stands.

    3

    Pull the drum brake straight out. If the drum does not come off manually, use a rubber mallet and hit the drum to loosen it. If this does not work, check the brake shoe adjuster. Take off the inspection hole cover plug from the backing plate. Insert a flat head screwdriver to free up the adjusting lever then use another screwdriver to loosen the adjuster. This will take the pressure off the brake shoe so the drum can be removed. Clean the area with brake cleaner to remove any brake dust.

    4

    Depress and turn the spring retainers by hand then take off the hold-down springs and pins. Slide out the whole assembly far enough to disconnect the top of the shoes from the wheel cylinder. Tilt the shoes to lift them past the shoe retaining plate.

    5

    Detach the end of the lower retracting spring from the lead brake shoe. Take the bottom of the brake shoe and spread the brake shoe apart to remove the adjusting screw, the adjusting screw retracting spring and the adjuster lever. Then remove the leading brake shoe.

    6

    Use diagonal cutting pliers to pull the parking brake cable spring back; this is the longest spring which runs across the bottom of the assembly between the two shoes. Clamp down on the pliers to hold onto the brake cable, being careful not to nick or cut the cable. Unhook the cable end from the parking brake lever on the trailing shoe to remove the shoe and lever assembly.

    7

    Spread apart the parking brake lever retaining clip with the flat head screwdriver. Then remove the clip and spring washer.

    8

    Reattach the parking brake lever to the new brake shoe. Insert the pivot pin through the back of the shoe then through the lever. Insert a new spring washer and retaining clip then crimp the clip closed with the pliers.

    9

    Lubricate the brake shoe contact points on the backing plate with high-temp brake grease. Replace the parking brake cable into the lever hook, install the lower retracting spring between the two shoes then slide the two shoes down onto the shoe retaining plate. Reinstall the trailing shoe hold-down pin, spring and retainer, then insert the adjuster screw assembly into the trailing shoe.

    10

    Place the adjuster lever onto the parking brake lever pivot pin. Then attach the new leading hold-down pin, spring and retainer. Stretch the adjuster screw retracting spring and hook it into the notch on the adjuster lever.

    11

    Reinstall the tire back then change out the shoes on the other side, using the same process.