Sabtu, 30 April 2011

How to Replace Rear Disc Brakes in a GMC Sierra

The GMC Sierra has two different versions: the 1500 and 2500 series. Replacing the rear disc brakes on the two versions are basically the same with a couple of small differences. There are no special tools required and the process is relatively simple. Read further to learn how to replace the disc brakes on your Sierra in two hours or less.

Instructions

Removal

    1

    Siphon approximately 2/3 of the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir with a syringe or suction gun. This is located under the hood on the passenger's side of the Sierra. Discard the used brake fluid in an approved container.

    2

    Raise the Sierra from the ground with a car jack. Support the car on all sides with jack stands. Keep children and animals out of the vicinity while servicing the car to replace the rear disc brakes.

    3

    Loosen the lug nuts of the rear tires with a torque wrench. Remove the wheels and set aside, face up, on the ground.

    4

    Disconnect the caliper and hang it from the truck's frame with wire. Remove the caliper mounting bracket bolts from the backing plate. Slip out the brake pads then remove the clips and throw them away.

Installation

    5

    Install the new clips to the inside edges of the caliper mounting bracket, and then attach it to the backing plate assembly. If you replace the rear disc brakes on the 2500 series, be sure to clean the bolt threads with brake parts cleaner to remove the old glue from the adhesive patch before inserting them.

    6

    Fasten one wear indicator to the inner pads and two wear indicators to the outer pads. Insert the brake pads onto the caliper mounting bracket. Attach the caliper mounting bracket bolts to the steering knuckle, and then tighten to 148 ft. lb. for the 1500 series and 122 ft. lb. for the 2500 series.

    7

    Lay the caliper over the brake pads and connect the bolts. Torque the bolts to 82 ft. lb. Replace the tires and lower the vehicle to the ground.

    8

    Replace the brake fluid, making sure to fill it to the proper level as indicated. Seat the brake pads by pumping the brake pedal in a slow but firm manner.

How to Change Acura TL Front Brake Pads

How to Change Acura TL Front Brake Pads

Changing the front brake pads on the Acura TL was a fairly standardized procedure until its later generations. In 2004, the TL began using different front brake pads between the automatic and manual transmissions models. This also employed a different procedure to replace the specific brake pads. The manual transmission models also required a specialized tool in order to spread the quad-piston calipers. Since the new brake pads are thicker than the old ones, the caliper pistons need to be compressed in order to make room for the new pads.

Instructions

Manual Transmission 2004 and Up

    1

    Apply the parking brake and loosen the lug nuts on both front tires by turning the nuts just a half-turn counterclockwise with the lug nut iron.

    2

    Hoist the front of the Acura TL with a jack, and support the car on the jack stands so the front axle is elevated. Remove the lug nuts and front wheels.

    3

    Use the 5/32-inch punch and hammer to knock the upper and lower brake pad pins out from the caliper from the inside of the caliper to the outside, and then remove the brake pad spring.

    4

    Remove the brake pads from the caliper window.

    5

    Mount the quad-piston caliper-piston spreader to the caliper and set the plates of the spreader against the pistons on either end of the caliper pistons. Tighten the spreader to compress the caliper pistons inward evenly and then remove the spreader once the caliper pistons are fully seated in the piston bores.

    6

    Apply a level, thin coating of high-temperature brake grease to the steel plates of the replacement pads. Install the new brake pads, making sure the wear indicator is on the bottom of the outboard brake pad.

    7

    Reinstall the pad spring and hold it in place, then align the pad pins--from the outside of the caliper housing to the inside--through the caliper and spring to lock it into place.

    8

    Reinstall the front wheels and lug nuts, then tighten the nuts snug to the wheel hub in a crisscross pattern. Lower the Acura TL to the ground, then re-tighten the lug nuts with the adjustable torque ratchet set at 80 foot-pounds and a socket, re-employing the crisscross pattern during final torquing.

    9

    Pump the brake pedal to reset the compressed caliper pistons and set the new brake pads to the brake rotors.

2003 and Previous Models and 2004 and up Automatic Transmissions

    10

    Perform Steps 1 and 2 as illustrated in Section 1 before removing the lower caliper mounting bolt with a ratchet and metric socket. Pivot the caliper up over the brake pads and caliper mount, then use a length of durable string to tie the caliper to the coil spring so you can remove the brake pads.

    11

    Remove the inboard and outboard brake pads from the caliper mount, then use the wire bristled brush to clean the mating surfaces of the caliper and the caliper mount. Apply a thin coat of high-temperature brake grease to the cleaned mating surfaces and the steel plates of the replacement pads.

    12

    Install the new pads into the caliper mount, making sure the wear indicator is located on the upper plate of the inboard pad.

    13

    Place the drain pan beneath the bleeder screw of the respective caliper, then loosen the bleeder screw on the caliper. Compress the piston of the caliper inward with the caliper piston reset clamp. Brake fluid will purge from the bleeder screw as the piston is compressed. Once there's enough room to fit the caliper back over the pads and caliper mount assembly, tighten the bleeder screw, and replace the caliper and lower caliper mounting bolt. Tighten the bolt.

    14

    Fill the master cylinder with brake fluid, replace the cap and then bleed the braking system when the front pads and calipers have been replaced on each side of the front axle. Have an assistant get into the driver's seat and pump the brake pedal four to five times and then hold the brake pedal down. Reopen the bleeder screw(s) on each individual caliper (respectively) until the bubbles and air purge from the hydraulic system. Repeat this step on each individual caliper until the fluid purges out in a clear stream and then tighten the bleeder screws. Check the master cylinder after four or five bleeding procedures per caliper and top off with fresh brake fluid as necessary. Replace the wheels and lug nuts and torque as illustrated in Step 8 of Section 1.

Jumat, 29 April 2011

How to Double Flare Auto Brake Lines

Between the master cylinder and the wheels on your car are brake lines. These lines are metal for most of their length and, in the front, rubber for the last 10 to 12 inches. Brake fluid is hygroscopic, which means that it has a tendency to absorb water. This buildup of water in the brake lines causes the brake lines to rust from the inside out. When this happens, you need to replace the metal line with a new one. The most important part of replacing brake lines is making sure they seal properly. This means making double flares at the ends.

Instructions

    1

    Measure and cut the replacement pipe to length. File the end of the pipe to remove any burrs and to make fine adjustments to the angle of the cut. The end of the pipe needs to be as perpendicular to the run of the pipe as possible. Use the rat tail file to debur the inside of the pipe.

    2

    Chamfer the end of the pipe with the medium file. Place the file at a 45 degree angle to the tip of the pipe and bevel the edge of the pipe around the lip of the pipe. The chamfer needs to be smooth and consistent. Slide the threaded fitting over the end of the pipe, with the threaded end towards the end of the pipe.

    3

    Insert the pipe into the pipe clamp block with the end of the tubing hanging out the beveled side of the clamping block. Place the flaring die flat on the clamping block next to the pipe. Adjust the amount of exposed pipe to make contact with the underside of the flaring die. Tighten the clamping block as much as possible. Use a small wrench if needed to make sure the camp is tight.

    4

    Clamp the clamping block into the vise tightly. The end of the clamping block with the pipe end in it needs to be exposed.

    5

    Place the flaring die into the end of the pipe, with the stem of the die inside the pipe to keep the die centered.

    6

    Place the flaring anvil over the clamp block with the pointed end of the threaded screw resting in the end of the flaring die. Turn the bolt clockwise until the flaring die makes contact with the clamping block.

    7

    Turn the threaded bolt counterclockwise and remove the anvil from the clamping block and the die from the pipe end. The end of the pipe will resemble a bell.

    8

    Place the flaring anvil over the clamping bar, with the anvil point in the end of the pipe. Turn the threaded bolt clockwise until the end of the pipe folds in on itself. Remove the flaring anvil. Loosen the clamping block and remove the pipe from the block.

What Causes My Back Drum Brakes to Squeal?

What Causes My Back Drum Brakes to Squeal?

The health of your back brakes, or drum brakes, can affect the quality of your entire vehicle. If you don't take care of pulling, dragging, squealing or worn drum brakes, it can significantly affect the way your car drives, your gas mileage and your general safety on the road. While there are a couple of reasons your drum brakes may squeal, most likely you just need lubrication, which can be done at home.

Basic Troubleshoot

    You may be putting excess stress on your brakes without realizing it. First, make sure your parking brake is off. If you drive with the parking brake on, it will grind on the drum brakes, forcing them to pull, weaken and possibly make noise.

Lubrication

    If your drum brakes are making a high-pitched squealing sound, it is likely they need lubrication. You can do this at home with minimum risk of ruining your brakes accidentally. Brake lubrication and brake cleaner typically cost $10 to $15 per bottle, and can be applied liberally to the drum brake. Because brake cleaner is toxic to humans, you will want to perform this lubrication in an open and well-ventilated area. Take apart the brake, apply the brake cleaner, apply the lubrication, then reapply the brake to the vehicle.

Brake Fluid

    You may have a leak in your brake system. Typically, but not always, if you have a leak your warning light will come on. The leak may be occurring in any part of the brake system, including the wheel cylinders, brake hoses or calipers. Rather than replacing the drum brakes, the leaking component of the brake system must be replaced. The car is not safe to drive until this part is replaced.

Brake Pads

    If the sound is a combination of scraping and squealing, you likely have disc brake pads that are worn out. This is what most people take as an indication that a brake job is needed; in reality, this problem should be taken care of before your brakes make noise. Your vehicle is not safe to drive with worn brake pads as this problem may prevent your car from stopping when needed.

Kamis, 28 April 2011

How to Remove the Brake Calipers on the 2008 Ford F150

Removing the brake calipers on a 2008 Ford F-150 is a job you can complete in about an hour for each caliper. The brake calipers are a vital part of the truck's safety system and will occasionally wear out, requiring that they be removed and replaced right away. If the calipers are damaged and left on the vehicle, it can result in severe damage to the F-150 brake system and prevent the truck from stopping properly. Save time and money by removing the brake calipers yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Drive the 2008 Ford F-150 onto a level surface and put the vehicle in "Park." Set the emergency brake and place a wood block behind one of the tires to keep the vehicle from rolling.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts one complete turn with a tire tool on the tire you are removing. Raise the vehicle up with a floor jack and set a jack stand under the axle next to the tire.

    3

    Lower the vehicle down onto the jack stand and pull the floor jack out of the way. Remove the tire, using the tire tool to take the lug nuts off, and set the tire aside.

    4

    Detach the brake line from the brake rotor with an open-end wrench and set the brake line upright to prevent fluid from leaking out. Unfasten the bolts from the brake caliper with a socket wrench and slide the bolts out by hand.

    5

    Take the brake caliper off the rotor and remove it from the 2008 Ford F-150.

    6

    Repeat steps 1 through 5 for any other brake calipers you plan to remove.

Rabu, 27 April 2011

How to Replace a 2001 Intrigue's Brakes

Oldsmobile equipped all the 2001 Intrigues -- the GX, GL and GLS -- with a 3.5-liter V-6 engine, a four-speed automatic transmission, and anti-lock brakes. Olds recommends replacing the front brakes when the pads get down to 0.030 inch thickness, which is thin as a potato chip. Letting them get that thin runs the risk of damaging your rotors and making the brake job more expensive than it would have been had you acted more proactively. I replaced the front pads on my 2001 Intrigue, so I'll pass along some tidbits of advice that I learned by fumbling my way through it.

Changing Front Pads

    Put the floor jack and jack stands about 8 inches from the rear edge of the front wheel opening, behind the two bolts in the body molding. Before you remove the front wheels, match-mark the wheels on the studs so when you put the wheels back on, the same studs are in the same holes in the wheels. In addition, it makes the process go a bit smoother if you put a couple of lug nuts back on to hold the rotors in place after you take off the wheels. During assembly, put some silicone grease on the caliper slide bolts, but don't get the grease on the bolt threads, and then torque the bolts to 70 foot-pounds.Torque the lug nuts to 100 foot-pounds.

Selasa, 26 April 2011

Replacing Motorcycle Brake Pads

Removing

    Allen bolts are the first thing the motorcycle technician will remove from the wheel of the motorcycle. The Allen bolts are located on the calipers on either side of the wheel. To locate the calipers, the mechanic will locate the fork on the wheel where the calipers are directly attached. The mechanic will then carefully slide the caliper off of the brake disk. The pads are removed by pulling the pads apart and sliding them out from the brake disk. The calipers and brake disk are wiped clean of dirt clog and debris with a rag. The fork, brake disk and calipers are checked for rust and wear (replace if necessary).

Inserting

    When replacing motorcycle brake pads that were very worn out, the mechanic will insert a big screw driver in between the pads to push them apart. Avoid moving the front brake lever in order to prevent the caliper from clamping shut (otherwise, it would be difficult to pry the pads apart). The stock pad shims are placed on the new brake pads. All brake pads are then inserted on to the wheel. Brake pads that are less worn are more readily removed by hand.

Replacing

    After the brake pads are replaced onto the wheel, the calipers are slid back into place over the brake disk. The Allen bolts that were previously taken out are re-inserted into the calipers (calipers are attached where the fork in the wheel is located). Each Allen bolt is secured with an auto mechanic's wrench (Tightening the Allen bolts by hand will not secure the motorcycle's brakes safely). The type of brake pads does not make much difference in performance. All brake pads, depending on how often the motorcycle is used, will run down within a couple of years. Standard HH brake pads are economic replacements that will last a good couple of years, and save money in the long run. The last thing for the mechanic or motorcycle owner to do is to check that all the brake pads are working properly. Take the motorcycle for a short drive, frequently testing the front and rear brakes. If the brakes do not provide enough friction, then the break pads should be removed and replaced with another fresh pair.

Information on Dodge Pickup Truck Brake Repair

Information on Dodge Pickup Truck Brake Repair

The brake system on your Dodge truck is probably the most important safety feature on the vehicle. Brakes use a system of hydraulic lines to push fluid into the brake caliper and cause the vehicle to stop.

Features

    The brake booster and reservoir are located in the engine bay, against the firewall, and hold the brake fluid in a storage bottle waiting to be used. Hard brake lines transport the fluid to the calipers on each wheel and tighten down, causing the truck to stop. Brake lines can and do rust, causing leaks and making the truck unsafe to drive.

Brake Types

    Older trucks have drum brakes in the rear and disk brakes up front. Newer Dodge trucks use disk brakes all the way around, which are far easier to repair and also provide better stopping power than drum brakes.

Common Problem

    A common problem on 2002 and 2003 Dodge trucks is a malfunctioning caliper bolt which holds the caliper to the rotor. These bolts are pressure-sensitive and only work properly when tightened to the manufacturer's specifications.

Prevention

    Changing your brake pads and brake fluid, along with monitoring the brake rotors for warping, can help prevent costly shop repairs and keep the brakes working properly.

Considerations

    Consider upgrading your brakes if your Dodge truck is modified with a suspension lift and bigger tires. The added weight of the tires can strain the brake system, causing premature breakage and problems. Upgrade to slotted and drilled rotors and consider switching to larger calipers and pads.

Senin, 25 April 2011

How to Remove the Rear Parking Brake on an Outback

Subaru Outback sedans and wagons use rear disk brakes, which incorporate a drum-style parking brake on the interior of the rotor. This parking brake can wear out or be damaged, and will require replacement. The brake itself is not difficult to disassemble; the only issue is access. The average weekend mechanic can remove the parking brake from an Outback in about 30 minutes.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the Outback at the rear wheel by placing the jack head onto a frame rail and pumping the lever on the jack until the wheel is in the air.

    2

    Turn all of the lug nuts counterclockwise then pull the wheel free of the hub. Set the wheel away from the work area.

    3

    Remove the caliper by turning the twin rear mount bolts counterclockwise and sliding the unit from the rotor. The pads may fall out of the caliper pistons or can be gently pried out with a screwdriver. Secure the caliper to the suspension or exhaust with a zip tie or wire, but do not let it hang by the brake lines as this may damage them.

    4

    Remove the rotor by pulling it free of the hub. Some models may have a keeper bolt or spindle nut holding the rotor in place, which can be removed by turning it counterclockwise. Inside of the rotor is the drum surface of the parking brake.

    5

    Remove the parking brake shoes by using a screwdriver to lever the long springs from the shoe hooks then turning the primary spring bolt in a counterclockwise direction. The shoes of the parking brake are actuated by a cable, which pushes the shoes into the interior rotor surface. Replacement is the reverse of removal.

    6

    Repeat the process on the opposite rear brake.

Brake Replacement Step-by-Step

Brake Replacement Step-by-Step

Brake replacement is a great way for the home mechanic to save money on vehicle service, and an essential skill for beginners. Luckily most automotive brake systems can be serviced by simple hand tools, and require no special knowledge beyond access to the vehicle's service manual.

Removal of Brake Pads

    Begin by parking the vehicle on a level surface and blocking the rear wheels. Lift the front of the vehicle according to instructions listed in the owner's manual and support with jack stands placed underneath the frame. Remove the front wheels and tires. Examine the caliper. There will usually be two bolts that connect the caliper to the caliper mounting brackets. Loosen these bolts enough to remove the caliper. On most models it will not be necessary to remove the bolts from the mounting brackets. If you have difficulty pulling the caliper off the rotor, use a c-clamp to drive the piston back into the caliper. Place the bottom of the c-clamp on the raised round portion of the caliper on the inboard side of the caliper. Place the other end of the c-clamp on the back of the outboard brake pad. As you tighten the clamp it will drive the piston into the caliper, making it much easier to remove. Never allow the brake caliper to hang by the hydraulic brake hose. Doing so could cause damage to the hose or introduce air into the hydraulic circuit. Always secure the caliper with steel wire to the frame.

Removal of the Brake Rotor

    Procedures for removing the brake rotor will vary by make and model, but generally fall into two categories. One is where the rotor rests freely on the lug nut studs and is retained by the lug nuts and brake caliper, the other is where the wheel bearing races are integrated into the brake rotor. In the first case the rotor can simply be pulled off the wheel hub once the caliper has been removed. In the second case use a flat screwdriver to pry off the grease cap. Remove the cotter pin and castle nut and pull the rotor off. Be careful, as the wheel bearings will come off with the rotor; make sure not to damage them.

Installation of a Brake Rotor

    When you are installing the new rotor, don't get any grease, dirt or oil on the surface of the rotor. In cases where the rotor sits freely on the lug nut studs, you can simply slide the new rotor in place of the old one. If your rotors have integrated wheel bearing races, apply some fresh grease to the bearings before loading them into the new brake rotor. Slide the rotor onto the hub, then reinstall the castle nut. Follow the torque specifications outlined in the vehicle's service manual when tightening the castle nut. Failing to do so could cause damage to the bearings. Install a new cotter pin and reinstall the grease cap.

Installation of Brake Pads

    If you did not drive the piston back into the caliper during removal, do so now. Reinstall the old inboard brake pad to avoid damaging the piston while driving it back into the caliper. Load the new brake pads into the caliper. In most cases the inboard pad will have a clip that fits into the brake caliper piston, and the outboard pad will have a clip that secures it to the caliper. Slide the caliper over the rotor and tighten the two bolts that connect the caliper to the caliper mounting bracket. Reinstall the wheels and tires and lower the vehicle. Turn on the engine, and pump the brake pedal a few time to allow the caliper pistons to adjust to the new pads.

How to Know If Brake Calipers Are Bad

How to Know If Brake Calipers Are Bad

The brake calipers are the main components that house the brake pads. When the brake pedal is pushed down, the brake fluid pressurizes against the cylinder inside of the brake caliper. The cylinder then pushes the inner and outer brake pads to the flat surface of the brake rotors to stop the vehicle. When the brake calipers malfunction, the cylinder inside of the brake caliper will not be able to push the brake pads to the brake rotor and the vehicle will not be able to stop.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle in an area where the surface or the ground is level. Open the hood and remove the cap from the brake fluid container. Then, lay the hood back down but do not close it all the way.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts from the front wheels with the lug wrench or a tire tool.

    3

    Slide the floor jack up under the vehicle and jack the vehicle up from the front cross frame or the front axle. Once the vehicle is high enough up in the air, locate the front jacking points on both sides of the vehicle and position the jack stands under both points. Lower the jack so that the vehicle comes to a secure stop on top of the stands.

    4

    Unscrew the lug nuts from the front wheels. Then, slide the wheels off the hubs and place the wheels face down so that they don't roll away.

    5

    Look on the side of the front driver-side brake rotor and you will see the brake caliper. The caliper will have two upper and lower mounting bolts in the rear of the caliper. Remove the two mounting bolts either with the 1/2-inch drive ratchet and a socket or the appropriate-size Allen wrench.

    6

    Slide the end of the pry bar into the opening at the top of the brake caliper and pry the outer brake pad towards the brake rotor. This will loosen the brake caliper's grip on the brake rotor.

    7

    Grab the brake caliper with your hand and slide it off the brake rotor. Hang the brake caliper to the nearest suspension component with the bungee cord.

    8

    Inspect the brake pads. If the brake pads are showing signs of early wear, then it could be a sign of a bad caliper. This would mean the the caliper is not fully compressing inside of the caliper housing and the brake pads are dragging against the brake rotor as the vehicle is driving down the road.

    9

    Remove the inner-side brake pad from the inside of the brake caliper. Slide the C-clamp inside of the brake caliper and position the C-clamp so that it will be able to compress the caliper cylinder.

    10

    Start turning the C-clamp towards the cylinder very slowly. If the cylinder will not move or is hard to compress, the caliper needs to be replaced. If you are able to fully compress the caliper cylinder with the C-clamp, try to see if the cylinder will come back out of the caliper.

    11

    Go back to the top of the car and get into the driver's seat. Crank the engine and push the brake pedal all the way down and hold it down for at least 10 seconds. Then, release the brake pedal and turn the engine off. Go back to the brake caliper and inspect the caliper cylinder. If the cylinder has completely compressed back out of the caliper, then the caliper is good. If the cylinder will not come back out of the caliper, then the caliper will need to be replaced. Even if the caliper only comes half way out, it will need to be replaced.

Minggu, 24 April 2011

How to Adjust Air Brake Slack

How to Adjust Air Brake Slack

If a vehicle's air brakes feel spongy, or do not offer adequate stopping power, they might need the be adjusted. It's possible to remove the slack in your air brakes with a few tools you probably have in your garage. This technique only works for manual slack adjusters, however. Newer brake systems feature automatic slack adjustment.

Instructions

    1

    Apply chocks to the wheels so the vehicle won't roll without brakes. Ensure the air in the system is at full pressure. Activate the emergency brake, and press the relief valve in the system to bleed all of the air out.

    2

    Test the push rod. Mark the location of where the bottom of the push rod exits the air chamber, using a piece of chalk. Using a metal rod, pull out the push rod from the brake chamber as far as it will go. Measure the distance from your first chalk mark, to the bottom of the push rod, where it exits the brake chamber. This is your stroke distance. Anything over 3/4 of an inch requires slack adjustment.

    3

    Adjust the manual slack adjusters. Locate the adjusters close to the push rod. If the push rod is leaving the chamber, you are turning the adjuster the wrong way. Tighten the adjuster in the correct direction until you feel a slight resistance. The brake linings should meet with the brake drum. Unscrew the adjuster 1/4 to 1/2 a turn to allow the brakes to keep from touching the linings.

    4

    Re-check the push rod. Measure the rod's stroke distance one more time. If the distance is less than 3/4 of an inch, you have correctly removed the slack from your air brakes.

Sabtu, 23 April 2011

Changing Chevy Rear Brake Pads

Chevrolet rear brakes use hydraulic calipers and friction pads, on most late models, that can deteriorate. The pads are a semi-metallic or ceramic material designed to thin over time, requiring replacement. The average backyard mechanic can replace the rear pads on a Chevrolet in about an hour.

Preparation

    Raise the vehicle onto jack stands with a floor jack, then remove both rear wheels by turning their lug nuts counterclockwise. Set the wheels away from the vehicle.

Removal

    Turn the drum's keeper bolt (in the center or slightly off-center of the drum housing, near the hub) counterclockwise, then pull the drum away from the brake assembly. The shoes are on either side, held in place with two long springs and one primary spring bolt in the center of each shoe. Using a screwdriver for leverage, remove the long spring hooks from the shoes' hooks. Turn the primary spring bolt counterclockwise, and pull the shoe straight out and away from the brake. Check the wheel cylinder, usually on the top of the brake, for leaking or damage.

Replacement

    Replace the shoes with fresh units by pressing each shoe into the brake housing, then reattaching the primary spring bolt in a clockwise direction. Reconnect each long spring hook to the relative shoe hook with the screwdriver. Press the drum over the shoes and back onto the brake, lining up the keeper bolt hole. Secure the drum to the brake by turning the keeper bolt clockwise until snug. Replace the wheels and tighten the lug nuts in a clockwise direction, with an alternating pattern. Lower the vehicle from the jack stands with the floor jack, then test the brakes.

How to Adjust Rear Brakes on a ZX2

The rear brakes on a Ford ZX2 need to be adjusted only after the brake shoes have been replaced. Fortunately, the rear brakes on a Ford ZX2 are self-adjusting. However, there are a few things you can do to help manually adjust the brakes for optimum braking. While the rear brakes only account for roughly 25 percent of the braking load in a ZX2, they are still important. Without the rear brakes functioning properly, your front brakes have to do 100 percent of the work.

Instructions

    1

    Start the engine and put it in reverse.

    2

    Back the car up slowly and gently press on the brakes until the vehicle stops. The initial stop may not produce a solid brake pedal feel. This is OK.

    3

    Back the car up again slowly and apply the brakes again. You may need to repeat this process several times; however, the brake pedal feel and stopping force should increase each time.

    4

    Put the vehicle in drive or first gear, and begin driving normally. Bring the vehicle up to 40 miles per hour, and apply normal brake pressure until you reach 10 MPH. Do not stop. Instead, speed back up again and repeat this braking pattern two more times. This will help to "bed in" the brake pads for both the front and rear.

    5

    Park the car,and allow the brake system to cool for at least 20 minutes after you have completed the three rolling stops outlined in Step 4. The rear brakes will now be fully adjusted.

How to Repair the Front Brakes on a 1998 Saturn

How to Repair the Front Brakes on a 1998 Saturn

Saturn is renowned for affordable and safe sedans. The 1998 Saturn S series incorporated both safety and affordability. It came equipped with anti-lock brakes as well as disc brakes at all four wheels. Disc brakes use brake pads that must be replaced as the pads wear out. Some simple ways to tell if your brakes need changing are if you hear a squealing or a grinding sound as you drive or when you are braking.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the wheels that you are going to be removing--either both front wheels or both rear wheels. When you're replacing the front brakes, place wheel chocks behind the rear tires to help keep the car from rolling. When replacing the rear brakes, place wheel chocks in front of the front tires. Put the car in park, but do not apply a parking brake.

    2

    Situate the floor jack beneath the axle or the frame rail. Raise the car up so the wheel is more than 2 inches off the ground. Set the jack stands beneath the axle or the frame rail for support. Lower the car onto the jack stand. Remove the loosened lug nuts and wheel.

    3

    Remove the bolts on the mounting bracket with the socket wrench. The mounting bracket is the metal half moon piece that is sitting on the rotor and was revealed when the tire was removed. With the twine or wire, hang the bracket from the underside of the wheel well so there is no pressure on the brake line.

    4

    Remove the brake pads. The brake are seated in the mounting bracket and are held in by two small metal clips. Remove these clips by hand and the pads should easily slip out of the bracket.

    5

    Place one of the used brake pads on the brake caliper (the cylinder in the center of the mounting bracket) and clamp the C-clamp onto it. Compress the cylinder until it is flush with the base of the bracket.

    6

    Install the new brake pads by sliding them into the same spot where the old ones were. Set the metal clips back in behind them so they are holding the pads in.

    7

    Bolt the mounting bracket back onto the rotor. Set the wheel back on the rotor and tighten all of the lugs finger-tight. Lower the vehicle and tighten all of the lugs with the tire iron.

Jumat, 22 April 2011

How to Replace the Brake Booster in a 1999 GMC Suburban

The brake booster on a 1999 GMC Suburban provides an added assist to the braking booster, which makes it easier to stop the SUV. The brake booster is not serviceable, so if it fails, then the entire unit has to be removed from the firewall and replaced with a new one. Fortunately, this doesn't take very long to do and you can do the entire job in about an hour.

Instructions

    1

    Open up the hood. Pull off the rubber vacuum tube leading to the vacuum booster on the driver's side of the firewall by hand. Unbolt the brake master cylinder from the brake booster using an open-end wrench. Pull the master cylinder off of the brake booster making sure not to kink the brake lines.

    2

    Look under the dash and locate the brake pedal connection to the booster. Remove the pushrod retaining clip using the needle-nose pliers, then pull the brake light switch and the brake booster pushrod off of the pedal.

    3

    Unbolt the brake booster from the firewall with the 3/8-inch ratchet, extension, universal joint and sockets. Go under the hood and take the brake booster off of the firewall and discard it.

    4

    Put the replacement brake booster onto the firewall. Bolt it in place with the factory hardware and the 3/8-inch ratchet, extension, universal joint and sockets. Reattach the booster to the brake pedal and put the brake light switch and pushrod retaining clip back onto the pedal.

    5

    Put the master cylinder back onto the brake booster using an open-end wrench. Push the vacuum line back onto the brake booster with your hands.

How to Change the Wheel Cylinder on Drum Brakes

How to Change the Wheel Cylinder on Drum Brakes

Wheel cylinders on drum brakes are the components that press the brake shoes against the drums to stop the vehicle. Wheel cylinders have internal seals that are covered by dust boots and these seals go bad and leak with age. When these seals go bad, replacement of the cylinder is required. The replacement process can be done on your own, as long as you know the proper steps to take.

Instructions

    1

    Jack up the rear of the vehicle and secure it with jack stands.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts using a ratchet and socket. Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheel from the vehicle.

    3

    Hammer the brake drum to loosen it up and pull the drum off of the vehicle.

    4

    Use a line wrench to loosen the brake line leading into the rear of the wheel cylinder. Pull the line from the wheel cylinder.

    5

    Press the shoe hold down spring using the drum brake spring tool and turn it until the spring is released from the shoe.

    6

    Remove the upper return springs using needle nosed pliers to unhook them from the shoes.

    7

    Pull the tops of the shoes away from the wheel cylinder.

    8

    Use a ratchet and socket to loosen the bolts at the rear of the wheel cylinder. Remove the wheel cylinder by pulling it from the brakes with your hand.

    9

    Place the new wheel cylinder in the brake system and tighten the bolts with a ratchet and socket.

    10

    Put the brake line into the wheel cylinder and tighten it with a line wrench.

    11

    Place the brake shoes back onto the new wheel cylinder and hook the upper return springs to the top of the shoes. Use the needle nosed pliers to hook the springs. Make certain to line up the brake shoe frames with the notches on the wheel cylinder.

    12

    Place the hold down springs back into place using the drum spring tool. Turn the spring until it is secured to the shoe.

    13

    Push the drum back onto the brake assembly using your hands.

    14

    Bleed the air from the side where you just replaced the wheel cylinder. Bleed the brakes by pressing the pedal until it becomes firm and then loosening the bleeder valve with the line wrench. Air will flow from the bleeder valve. Repeat this step until only fluid flows from the bleeder valve.

    15

    Place the wheel back on the vehicle and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Lower the vehicle to the ground.

    16

    Torque the lug nuts to the manufacturer specifications listed in the repair manual. Use the torque wrench and socket to torque the wheels.

Kamis, 21 April 2011

How to Adjust the Brake Master Cylinder Pushrod

The master cylinder pushrod runs from the master cylinder, through the brake vacuum booster, through the firewall, and attaches to the arm of the brake pedal. When the brake pedal is pushed, the pedal motion is transmitted to the master cylinder, where this mechanical motion is converted to hydraulic fluid power, which is in turn transmitted to the brakes. If the pushrod is not adjusted correctly, then either the brake pedal will have to be pushed down a long way before the brakes start to engage, or the brakes will always be dragging and may suddenly grab with the driver's slightest touch on the pedal.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle, and push the driver's seat back as far as it will go.

    2

    Gently push the brake pedal a few times with your hand. Note how far the pedal will move before the pushrod starts to move. You should feel the pedal go down about one-fourth to one-half of an inch before you feel the bump of the pushrod engaging and a slightly increased resistance as the pedal moves down further. This distance is known as the brake pedal freeplay. If it is greater than the distance stated above, then it is too much, and if it is less or nonexistent, then it is too little.

    3

    Slide your body under the dashboard, and look up toward the top of the brake pedal arm. A flashlight or work light is handy here. Locate the threaded pushrod that comes out of a rubber boot or metal housing on the front wall of the car and attaches to the back of the brake pedal arm near the top. There is a locknut on the pushrod at the brake pedal end, and often another locknut at the end near the front wall as well. Use a marker to make a visible mark on the pushrod roughly at the middle of the visible portion of the pushrod. You will be using this mark to judge the rotation of the pushrod, so be sure you can see it well.

    4

    Loosen the locknuts at both ends of the pushrod. Grip the pushrod firmly with pliers to prevent it from rotating while you are loosening the lock nuts. If the pushrod does rotate a little, return it to its original position using the mark as a reference.

    5

    Rotate the pushrod clockwise to increase pedal height and pedal freeplay, and counterclockwise to reduce pedal height and freeplay. The pushrod can be rotated by hand or with pliers if necessary. Be careful when reducing the freeplay, as the mechanism will reach a point where the pedal is no longer being lowered, but the pushrod is being pulled out instead. This is effectively moving the master cylinder piston from its normal rest position, and brake drag will result. You can tell how far you have adjusted the pushrod by checking the relative position of the mark that you placed on it.

    6

    Adjust the pushrod until the pedal freeplay is in the range of one-fourth to one-half of an inch. Carefully tighten the locknuts, taking care not to rotate the pushrod while doing so. Test the brake operation before driving normally.

Rabu, 20 April 2011

Instructions to Change a Master Cylinder

Instructions to Change a Master Cylinder

The master cylinder is the heart of your vehicle's brake system, pumping hydraulic fluid to the brake caliper or wheel cylinder at each individual wheel. Over time, the seals inside the master cylinder can begin to leak, reducing the effectiveness of you vehicle's brakes. Fortunately, master cylinder replacement is a relatively straightforward process that's well within the abilities of the home mechanic.

Location

    On most cars and light-duty trucks, the master cylinder will be bolted to the firewall on the right side (when standing in front of the vehicle and looking towards the windshield). You can quickly identify it by the steel brake lines that exit the cylinder on the bottom.

Removal

    Begin by removing the cap and removing the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir. Most modern master cylinders incorporate a dual reservoir design, meaning there is a separate hydraulic circuit for the front and rear brakes. Make sure to empty both reservoirs. Remember that brake fluid can strip the paint of finished surfaces, so be careful not to let any fluid contact the painted surfaces on your vehicle. Next, remove the steel brake lines from the bottom of the master cylinder. Be careful not to damage the lines while removing them. There are usually two to three bolts that secure the master cylinder to the power brake booster. Remove these bolts at this time. Depending on the design of your brake system, you may or may not have to disconnect the brake pedal pushrod from the brake pedal. Once the master cylinder is free, remove it from the vehicle.

Installation

    Begin by lifting the new master cylinder into position and reinstalling the two or three bolts that connect it to the power booster. Reconnect the brake pedal pushrod if it was disconnected during removal. Reinstall the steel brake lines that connect to the bottom of the master cylinder, but be careful not to put too much stress on the lines, as they can break easily.

Brake Bleeding

    Brake bleeding is the process of removing air from the hydraulic circuit. Brake fluid for all intents and purposes is not compressible, but air is. If their is air present in the hydraulic circuit, the input force applied when you press the brake pedal will be used to compress the air in the lines and not in pushing the the brake pads against the brake discs or drums. Begin by filling the master cylinder. Always use clean brake fluid and never shake the bottle before topping off the master cylinder. This will only introduce air into the fluid. Be sure not to let the master cylinder run dry at any point in the brake-bleeding process. Doing so will only introduce more air into the system. If there is a bleeder valve on the master cylinder bleed that valve first. Push a length of clear plastic hose onto the bleeder valve. Place the other end of the hose in a container filled with brake fluid. Make sure this end of the hose is covered by brake fluid at all times. Have an assistant working inside the vehicle pump the brake pedal up and down a few times and then hold the pedal down. As you open the bleeder valve, your assistant will notice the pedal move towards the floor. Close the valve before the pedal bottoms out. As air is purged from the system you will be able to see small air bubbles in the length of clear plastic hose. Repeat this process until there are no more bubbles in the tube. Once you've bled the master cylinder, move to the wheel closest to it. On most vehicles this will be the driver's side front wheel. A bleeder screw will be located on the back or top of the brake caliper close to where the rubber brake line attaches. Bleed the caliper using the same process you use on the master cylinder. Then move to the next closest wheel. On most vehicles this will be the passengers side front wheel. Most vehicles will be equipped with drum brakes on the rear axle. The bleeder screw will be located on the inboard side of the brake drum backing plate. Bleed the driver's side rear wheel cylinder, and lastly the passenger side wheel cylinder.

How to Read a Brake Drum Micrometer

How to Read a Brake Drum Micrometer

When repairing automotive brake drums, manufacturers specify minimum tolerances, or the maximum amount of wear that a part can undergo before the part must be replaced. During the process of turning a brake drum, before the part can be reinstalled on the vehicle, the drum must be measured with a micrometer to verify the resurfaced part is still within the manufacturer's recommended tolerances.

Instructions

    1

    Fasten the brake drum to the brake drum lathe securely. Resurface the interior of the brake drum in successive passes until all wear lines and grooves have been removed.

    2

    Using the manufacturer's specification guide, identify maximum diameter allowed for the resurfaced brake drum. The measurement will be a total diameter allowed for the interior area of the brake drum.

    3

    Rest the brake drum on a smooth, stable work surface so the interior surface of the brake drum faces upward. Using the brake drum micrometer, measure the interior diameter of the brake drum opening. Measure this distance at multiple locations to verify that the resurfaced brake drum is a perfect circle, and not elongated, or oval shaped at any point.

    4

    Compare the actual measurements to the manufacturer's specifications. If the diameter of the interior opening is less than the manufacturer's tolerances, the brake drum can be safely reinstalled on the vehicle. If the brake drum interior diameter is larger than the manufacturer's tolerances, the brake drum must be replaced.

Selasa, 19 April 2011

F-250 Rear Rotor Removal

F-250 Rear Rotor Removal

The Ford F-250 pickup truck was manufactured with rear disk brakes, with a hydraulic caliper pushing pads against a spinning rotor to stop the truck. The rotor material can wear out or become damaged by abuse or debris, and will require removal for replacement. The average backyard mechanic can remove a rear rotor from the F-250 in about twenty minutes.

Preparation

    The rear brakes are only accessed by removing the wheel and tire. Lifting the truck at the frame rail with a floor jack will allow the removal of the wheel; setting a support jack stand near the floor jack will give added protection. The lug nuts turn counterclockwise for removal, and the wheel should be set away from the work area for safety. Check the brake assembly for damage or debris.

Caliper

    The caliper is mounted to the brake assembly with two rear bolts, and once these bolts are turned counterclockwise the caliper is free to slide off of the rotor. The pads may fall out of the caliper if they are badly worn, and should be gently pried out with a screwdriver for replacement. You should always change the pads when changing the rotor, so that they mate together. Unmatched rotors and pads will not provide optimal stopping power, and could wear the equipment faster. Secure the caliper to the control arm with zip ties, and do not allow it to dangle by the brake lines.

Rotor

    The rotor is now accessible, and there may be a spindle nut holding the rotor to the hub on some models. Turning it counterclockwise will release the rotor. Tug the rotor evenly and firmly and it will pull away from the hub. Get the rotor machined for resurfacing, or replace it with a new unit.

How to Replace the Brake Pads on a 2007 Dodge Caliber

The 2007 Dodge Caliber occupies the class of "crossover vehicle" for automaker Daimler/Chrysler. A crossover is a vehicle that has some of the same properties of sport utility vehicles while maintaining the driving characteristics of sedans. The chassis of the Dodge Caliber is that of a car, while the body, and particularly the weight, poses a certain strain on important components such as the brakes. For this reason, it is particularly important that the braking system is inspected and maintained every 30,000 miles.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Dodge Caliber in a location that allows you to safely work on both sides of the vehicle. Put the transmission in "park" and apply the parking brake.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the wheels with the lug wrench.

    3

    Lift the Dodge with the jack and place jack stands beneath the frame to support the vehicle during the brake pad replacement.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels from the wheel bolts of the Caliber.

    5

    Remove the two caliper slide bolts with a 5/8-inch hex socket and ratchet. Pull the caliper from the caliper bridge (fitted around the rotor).

    6

    Slide the worn brake pads from the two sides of the caliper.

    7

    Place the C-clamp onto the side of the caliper and the caliper piston. Screw the C-clamp to force the piston into the side of the caliper. Remove the C-clamp from the caliper once the piston is fully opened.

    8

    Clean the inside walls of the caliper with a wire brush. Apply a thin layer of brake grease onto the inner walls of the caliper, particularly at the point that the piston protrudes from the caliper wall.

    9

    Slide the new brake pads onto the walls of the caliper. The brake pads connect to the caliper by thin metal clips on the backs of the brake pads.

    10

    Place the caliper, with new brake pads installed, onto the caliper bridge. Replace the caliper slide bolts and screw them in with the 5/8-inch hex socket and ratchet.

    11

    Place the wheel onto the wheel bolts and screw on the lug nuts by hand.

    12

    Lift the vehicle with a lifting jack to remove the jack stands and lower the Caliber to the ground.

    13

    Tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

    14

    Open the hood of the Dodge and remove the cap to the master cylinder. The master cylinder is on the driver's side of the vehicle, near the windshield.

    15

    Press the brake pedal three times and hold it in the depressed position for 10 seconds.

    16

    Fill the master cylinder with DOT-3 brake fluid. Replace the master cylinder cap and close the hood.

Senin, 18 April 2011

Cost of Replacing Brakes

Listening to a mechanic try to explain what's wrong with your brakes and estimate how much it's going to cost is not something many people enjoy. The fact is, most people don't know how brakes work, so when the mechanic starts talking all the shop jargon, it's easy to become overwhelmed. Each brake repair may feature a unique procedure to fix. Each vehicle features variances in replacement parts. The amount of parts and services needed will add or subtract component and labor rates. Educate yourself before venturing out to the repair facility.

Disc Brakes

    An average pad slap -- meaning all the repair facility is going to replace is the pads, maybe service the calipers -- will cost an average of $100 to $150 on most common vehicles. The pads will range from $25 to $60 for the set and an hour of labor -- on average -- will be applied to install them.

    The problem is, rarely are pad slaps performed by most repair facilities. While this may be a double-edge sword to most people, understand that most repair facilities are as worried about customer complaints as they are comebacks. Customers do not want to spend $100 and then be back in a day or two because an existing problem was not properly repaired or they are experiencing the same symptoms.

    Machining rotors is almost always recommended and this procedure adds labor cost to remove the rotors and then machine them. Rotors are not as durable as they once were and are often recommended for replacement now when placing a set of pads on. Rotors can cost an additional $15 to $25 to be machined -- if they even can be -- or an additional $30 to $100 a piece to replace; depending on the vehicle. Now you bill just tripled.

    Do you need the rotors just because the pads are worn? Maybe and maybe not. It depends on the symptoms you were experiencing when you brought the vehicle in for repairs. Grinding brake pads will almost always automatically cost you a new set of rotors. Warped rotors can sometimes be machined, but depending on the severity of the warping, the service is almost always temporary and it won't be long before the brakes are pulsating again.

Drum Brakes

    Drum brakes generally are a little cheaper to replace. They only provide about 25 percent braking capacity for the vehicle, so they don't wear down as quickly as front brakes. Brake drums are less susceptible to warping because they don't heat up as intensely as the front disc brakes. The drums can almost always be machined and there's usually no labor charge to remove them like rotors because you have to remove the drums to get to the brake shoes.

    A common set of brake shoes will average about the same amount as brake pads -- between $25 and $60. An hour or two labor charge added for removing them and replacing them is not uncommon. A brake shoe hardware kit should almost always be strongly recommended so the new shoes are applied to the backing plate with a new spring kit. Most kits will cost between $15 and $30.

    Machining the drums will be about the same as machining the rotors. And if drums are needed, because sooner or later they will be if you keep the vehicle for a long time, expect to pay about the same amount per drum as you would per rotor; depending on the make and model.

Labor Rates and Parts

    Shop labor rates and parts prices before venturing out to the repair facilities. Hourly labor rates are where most repair facilities make their money. And your money looks better to you inside your purse or wallet than it does inside their cash register. Shopping parts prices has to apply the apples-to-apples procedure. Parts are almost always going to be cheaper at parts stores than they are at repair facilities, but this doesn't necessarily mean they're putting on better parts.

    Since all kinds of pads, shoes, rotors and drums can be available in a variety of qualities, if you're not considering performing the repairs to your brakes on your own, call and and shop parts prices and labor rates between competing repair facilities. Understand that the quote for your parts and prices given to you will only be a rough estimate until a facility can properly inspect and diagnose your brakes. Find out if places will offer free inspections and if you have the time, go to the competitor and get a second opinion.

How to Replace the Brake Pads on a 2005 Chevy Silverado 1500

How to Replace the Brake Pads on a 2005 Chevy Silverado 1500

Replacing the brake pads on your 2005 Chevy Silverado is a great way to learn how your truck's braking system works. When replacing the pads, you should always inspect the surface and condition of the rotors as well. If you've had no other side-effects in the braking system other than the surface of the pad material was getting low, you may be OK just replacing the pads. The 2005 Silverado features front brake pads and may come with rear brake pads or rear brake shoes (drum brakes).

Instructions

    1

    Remove two-thirds of the brake fluid from the master cylinder with a brake fluid baster and dispose of the fluid appropriately. Replace the cover to the master cylinder.

    2

    Apply the parking brake (unless you're replacing rear brake pads) and place a tire wedge under one of the rear tires (or in front of one of the front tires if you're replacing rear brake pads).

    3

    Remove the center caps from the wheels of the axle you're replacing the pads on and then crack the lug nuts loose with the tire nut iron. Do not loosen them more than a quarter turn.

    4

    Lift the Silverado using the jack and support the truck onto jack stands to elevate the axle. Remove the nuts and tires.

    5

    Use a 6-inch C-clamp to compress the caliper piston. Place the top of the clamp on the back housing of the caliper and then place the driving base of the clamp on the bottom of the outboard pad. Tighten the clamps until the pistons are fully seated in the bores.

    6

    Remove the upper and lower caliper guide bolts of the caliper with a hand wrench. Set them aside.

    7

    Remove the caliper from the rotor and suspend it to the suspension with a length of durable twine or wire. This will prevent the brake hose from getting damaged.

    8

    Remove the old pads from the caliper bracket and then remove the rattle clips (both upper and lower) from the bracket.

    9

    Install the new clips onto the bracket and then apply a coating of lubricant (provided in the pad replacement kit) along the pad tabs contact points on the clips. Be careful not to get the lubricant on the rotors. If you do, wipe it off thoroughly.

    10

    Install the new pads. The outboard pad has two wear indicators and the inboard pad has one wear indicator.

    11

    Replace the caliper over the pads and rotor and then align the caliper to the knuckle. Insert the guide bolts and tighten them according to the specific series of Silverado you have to the proper torque specifications (heavy-duty, 4-wheel drive and 2-wheel drive employ different torque specifications). Use the torque wrench and suitable socket.

    12

    Replace the tires and nuts when both sides have been completed. Tighten the nuts snug and then lower the Silverado to the ground by reversing the lifting procedure.

    13

    Tighten the lug nuts in a star-pattern with the torque wrench and socket to the correct torque specifications for your model Silverado.

    14

    Pump the brake pedal several times until it feels firm. Recheck the master cylinder and add new brake fluid only to the full mark.

    15

    Test drive the truck after removing the tire wedge and releasing the parking brake (if applicable).

Minggu, 17 April 2011

How to Flare a Brake Line Repair

How to Flare a Brake Line Repair

Brake lines contain the heavy loads that the master cylinder places on the brake caliper. High temperatures, vibration, age and impact can damage the copper and rubber brake lines and cause the lines to fail. Broken brake lines are easy to replace and repair. Damaged or broken copper tubing may have to be cut off and reflared for installation on the caliper. Copper flaring tools are used to flare the tubing so it will form a good seal on the caliper nipple.

Instructions

    1

    Cut the tubing off just above the damage. Ensure that the cut is square and clean before attempting to flare it. Slide the flare nut onto the tubing, up and out of the way.

    2

    Open up the flare clamp and clamp the tubing in the appropriately sized hole. Allow the tubing to protrude about 5/16 of an inch into the beveled portion of the clamp.

    3

    Install the flare cone over the hole in which the tubing is clamped. Tighten the flare cone screw until the cone bottoms out in the clamp with the copper forced into a flare shape.

    4

    Remove the flaring cone and clamp from the tubing. Slide the flare nut down to the flare's end and install it on the caliper. Tighten the nut firmly with a flare nut wrench.

How to Diagnose a Spongy Brake Pedal

You're driving along and notice your brake pedal seems soft. It almost feels like you're stepping on a sponge. Something is obviously wrong, and you need to find out the cause. Spongy brakes is always caused by air in the brake lines, but there can be several different causes for this.

Instructions

Finding the Cause

    1

    Check the fluid level in the master cylinder. If the fluid level is low, you need to bleed your brakes. Fill the reservoir of the master cylinder until it's completely full.

    2

    Install a proper box-end wrench to the right rear wheel circuit bleeder valve. Maintain fluid level at half full or better in reservoir throughout the process.

    3

    Place a transparent hose over the bleeder valve. Submerge the end of the hose in a clear container partially filled with brake fluid.

    4

    Have your assistant depress the brake pedal fully and maintain steady pressure on it. Once he has steady pressure on it, loosen the bleeder valve to release air from the brake line.

    5

    Wait 15 seconds, then repeat steps 1 through 4 with the same tire until no more air bubbles come out.

    6

    Follow steps 1 through 5 for each additional brake. Fill the master cylinder reservoir completely after all the brakes are done. Check the feel of the brake pedal.

When Bleeding Doesn't Work

    7

    Repeat the bleeding process. This can expel any air still trapped in the system.

    8

    Check your brake lines for any leaks or tears. If you find one, replace the brake line and bleed your brakes again.

    9

    Call for a tow or bring your car to a mechanic if you cannot find a leak and you've bled your brakes at least twice. Something may be wrong with the master cylinder.

Jumat, 15 April 2011

How to Replace the Master Cylinder on a Dodge Stratus

The master cylinder in your Dodge Stratus converts the force you apply to the brake pedal into pressure in the brake system. This master cylinder has two pistons inside the bore of the cylinder that supply pressure to the two halves of the brake system. Over time the seals that seal the pistons to the bore of the cylinder wear out and begin to leak. This requires a replacement master cylinder. The average person can replace this part in an afternoon with basic hand tools.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the air filter housing and the rubber duct that attaches it to the throttle body on the driver's side of the engine compartment with a screwdriver and a 10 mm socket and ratchet. Lift the housing up and lay it over to the left side of the engine compartment.

    2

    Detach the two brake lines connected to the side of the master cylinder with a 1/2-inch and a 7/16-inch line wrench. Slip a rubber vacuum cap over the ends of the lines to prevent brake fluid from leaking onto the Dodge's paint job.

    3

    Remove the two 15 mm nuts that attach the master cylinder to the power brake booster with a 15 mm socket, extension and a ratchet. Unplug the electrical connector for the fluid level sensor from the side of the master cylinder reservoir. Pull the master cylinder forward and then carefully out of the engine compartment. Avoid spilling brake fluid on the paint job. Immediately clean any spills off the paint with plenty of fresh water.

    4

    Pour the fluid from the master cylinder reservoir into a drain pan. Transfer the reservoir to the new master cylinder by prying it off the old master cylinder with a large screwdriver and snapping it into place in the master cylinder. Secure the new master cylinder into a vise with the back of the cylinder facing towards you. Fill the reservoir with fresh brake fluid.

    5

    Screw the plastic bleeding adapters, supplied with the new cylinder, into the brake line ports on the side of the cylinder. Slip the two plastic tubes, also supplied with the cylinder, onto the bleeder fittings and push the other end of the tubes into the fluid in the reservoir. Push the piston in the back of the cylinder all the way into the master cylinder with a large screwdriver then release it. Repeat this until the fluid flowing through the plastic tubes does not contain any air.

    6

    Slide the new master cylinder onto the studs on the power brake booster and install the 15 mm nuts loosely. Screw the lines into the side of the master cylinder. Tighten the nuts and lines securely. Have a helper press on the brake pedal and hold it while you loosen and then tighten the front line fitting. Do this several times until the fluid coming out is free of air. Repeat for the rear line on the master cylinder.

    7

    Reinstall the air filter box and rubber duct. Test-drive to verify the brake system functions properly.

Kamis, 14 April 2011

Instructions for the Rear Brakes in the 01 Chrysler 300

Chrysler released the first 300 in the 1955 model year. The initial 300 lasted through the 1971 model year and did not reappear as a model of Chrysler for 27 years. In 1999 Chrysler released a new 300, dubbed the 300M. The 2001 Chrysler 300M came fitted with a 3.5-liter V-6 engine that produced 253 horsepower and 255 foot-pounds of torque. The new 300M also came standard with four-wheel disc brakes. Chrysler recommends replacing the rear brake pads on the 2001 300M when the brake pad lining is less than 0.276 inches thick.

Instructions

    1

    Check the fluid level in the brake master cylinder. If the level is above half-full, use a turkey baster to remove the fluid until the master cylinder is only half-full and transfer the fluid to a small container. Leave the lid off of the master cylinder.

    2

    Loosen the 300M's rear lug nuts, but leave them loosely attached to the rear wheels.

    3

    Raise the rear of the Chrysler with a floor jack, and support it with jack stands. Remove the rear lug nuts and pull the wheels off of the vehicle.

    4

    Remove the two guide pin bolts on the rear of the caliper with a ratchet and socket. Pull the caliper up and off of the rear brake system. Hang the caliper from a nearby suspension component using a bungee strap.

    5

    Remove the outer brake pad from the caliper by prying up on the metal retaining spring on the rear of the pad with a flat-head screwdriver and pulling the pad off of the caliper.

    6

    Position an 8-inch C-clamp over the caliper so the screw part touches the inner brake pad and the fixed part touches the rear of the caliper. Tighten the C-clamp until the inner pad stops moving. This presses the caliper piston into the caliper, making room for new pads.

    7

    Pry up on the inner brake pad until you can grab it with your fingers, then pull the pad from the caliper. Notice that metal clips on the rear of the pad insert into the cavity in the caliper piston.

    8

    Pull the rotor from the rear of the 300M.

    9

    Close the micrometer's jaws and calibrate it by pressing the "Reset" button. Measure the thickness of the rotor's disc in four areas using the micrometer. Make note of the thinnest measurement.

    10

    Check the rotor for any defects, such as: hot spots, gouging or a mirror-like shine. If the rotor has defects, replace it or have it resurfaced by a professional. The rotor must measure at least 0.409 inches after resurfacing, or it needs replaced. If no defects exist and the rotor is thicker than 0.409 inches, place the old rotor back on the vehicle.

    11

    Replace the rotor if it is thinner than 0.409 inches, regardless of its condition.

    12

    Place the new or resurfaced rotor on the 300M, if applicable.

    13

    Apply a thin coat of disc brake grease on the rear of the new brake pads, on the guide pin bolts and on the mating surfaces of the caliper and caliper bracket.

    14

    Position the inner brake pad on the caliper piston and guide the metal clips on the rear of the pad into the piston. Press the pad until it fully seats against the caliper.

    15

    Install the outer brake pad on the caliper by prying up on the metal clip on the rear with a flat-head screwdriver, and pressing the pad onto the caliper until the clip seats into place on the caliper body.

    16

    Place the caliper on the caliper bracket and tighten the guide pin bolts to 17 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and a socket.

    17

    Repeat Steps 4 through 16 for the pads on the other side of the 300M.

    18

    Reinstall the rear wheels on the 300M and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the vehicle with a floor jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the 300M to the ground and torque the lug nuts to 100 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and a socket.

    19

    Press and release the brake pedal until it feels firm.

    20

    Check the brake fluid in the master cylinder and add new DOT 3 brake fluid until it reaches the "Max" level in the reservoir.

    21

    Take the old brake fluid in the container to a local used automotive fluid recycling center. Many auto parts stores perform this task free of charge.

How to Change Brake Pads on a 96 Corsica

The mid-sized Chevy Corsica was introduced in 1987 and stopped production in 1996. It featured front disc brakes and rear drum brakes. The front brakes compensated up to 80 percent braking capacity for the front-drive sedan. Since it was relatively easy for the rear drum brakes to become unadjusted, the front brakes would take the brunt of the load and overwork. This would cause premature wear on the front brake pads.

Instructions

    1

    Suck half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using a brake fluid suction baster and discard the fluid. Replace the master cylinder cap.

    2

    Remove the hubcaps. Loosen the lug nuts slightly with a lug nut removal tool.

    3

    Hoist the front of the Corsica and support it onto jack stands by the front frame rails. Remove the lug nuts and wheels.

    4

    Place the 6-inch C-clamp over the caliper so the screw-drive is placed on the outboard pad plate and the top of the clamp is on the caliper housing. Tighten the clamp enough to press the caliper piston inward and allow the hydraulic tension on the caliper to slacken.

    5

    Remove the upper and lower caliper bolts using the 3/8-inch Allen wrench. Remove the caliper and pad assembly from the rotor and hang it onto the strut with a metal S-hook.

    6

    Pry the outboard pad retaining tabs off of the caliper housing using a screwdriver. Pull the inboard pad shoe spring out of the caliper piston. Place the 6-inch clamp back onto the caliper with the screw-drive into the caliper piston and tighten slowly until the piston is fully seated into the bore. Lift the rubber caliper boot on any location where it does not collapse properly with the piston. This will allow trapped air to escape and collapse the boot so no damage occurs to it after the pad replacement.

    7

    Inspect the rotors and caliper bolt bushings for damage and replace if necessary. To replace the rotors, the caliper bracket would have to be removed. Apply lubricant (supplied in the replacement pad set) to the caliper bracket where the pads contact the bracket. Apply lubricant to the smooth surface of the caliper bolts.

    8

    Install the inboard pad first by pressing the shoe spring into the caliper piston. Apply the outboard pad next and use the screwdriver to help convince the clips onto the caliper housing. Place the caliper over the rotor and then align the caliper bolts into the holes until they thread into the knuckle by hand. Tighten the caliper bolts with the Allen wrench. Repeat the procedure for the other side.

    9

    Tighten the lug nuts onto the wheels snugly and then lower the Corsica. Retighten the lug nuts using the torque wrench and 19-mm or 3/4-inch socket. Pump the foot brake pedal four to five times until the pedal feels firm. That will confirm the pads have seated to the rotors by the caliper pistons. Recheck the brake fluid and add only clean DOT 3 brake fluid before test driving.

Rabu, 13 April 2011

How to Replace the Rear Brakes on a 2003 Chevy Avalanche

The 2003 Chevy Avalanche features rear disc brakes on some of the vehicles, while others have drum brakes. In either case, the process to replace the rear brakes is not difficult. Regardless of the type of brakes you have on yours, you can complete the project in your garage or driveway in just a couple of hours. With the labor rates at repair shops being as high as they are these days, it is important that you be able make as many repairs to your Avalanche as you can. Note that these instructions apply to the Chevy Avalanche with rear disc brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Open the engine compartment and remove 2/3 of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using the turkey baster to siphon it out. Place the fluid in the drain pan for later recycling. Place the wheel chocks in front of the front wheels of the Avalanche.

    2

    Raise the rear of the Avalanche on the side that you will be starting with. Place a jack stand under the Chevy near the jacking point and raise it to the frame. Loosen the lug nuts with a wrench to remove the wheel.

    3

    Loosen the brake caliper retaining pins using a socket and ratchet. Pull the caliper from the wheel assembly and remove the front brake pad. Place the caliper and the back brake pad between the jaws of the c-clamp and turn the handle until the piston fully seats itself, in order to push the caliper piston back into the housing.

    4

    Remove the c-clamp from the caliper and discard the back brake pad. Insert the new brake pads into the caliper. Place the caliper in the mounting cradle on the wheel assembly. Tighten the retaining pins with the socket and ratchet. Place the wheel on the Avalanche and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the Chevy and lower it to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel.

    5

    Pump the brake pedal several times when you finish both wheels until it is firm. This seats the brake pads onto the rotors.

Selasa, 12 April 2011

Brake Rotor Damage

Brake Rotor Damage

Disc brake rotors are exposed to the elements and must also withstand the extreme forces and temperatures generated during braking. As a result, they are susceptible to damage.

Rust and Corrosion

    Rotors are made from cast iron, which rusts. This is generally rubbed off the friction surface during braking. Under extreme conditions, or if the vehicle is left idle for an extended period, severe rust can damage the rotor.

Warping

    Rotor warping is usually caused by improper tightening of the lug nuts, which puts uneven stresses on the rotor. In extreme cases, a rotor can be warped by the extreme heat generated during severe braking.

Cracking

    The stresses generated in braking can cause rotors to crack. This is normally associated with poorly manufactured rotors or long worn out rotors.

Scoring

    Sometimes, a piece of grit can become lodged in the pad, and this can wear a deep groove, or score, into the rotor. Grooves deeper than 0.06 inches are generally considered too deep, requiring rotor resurfacing or replacement.

Heat Checking

    Heat from extreme braking sometimes causes areas of the rotor to become brittle and hard. This is known as heat checking. Low-quality disks made from poor quality cast iron are particularly susceptible.

Senin, 11 April 2011

How to Replace Brake Lines in a 1993 Lumina

The 1993 Chevrolet Lumina came equipped with conventional (non-antilock) brakes. Pressure on the brake pedal is augmented by a power brake booster, which uses engine vacuum to increase the braking pressure at the master cylinder. Front and rear brakes are divided into separate circuits by the master cylinder. Rigid metal brake lines carry pressurized fluid from the master cylinder to the brake calipers. The rigid brake lines are mated to short, rubber brake hoses near the calipers to absorb steering and driving motions. Metal brake lines are vulnerable to being kinked and damaged, and the rubber sections can rupture or delaminate internally and must be replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Disconnect the brake lines from the brake hoses. Hold the nut on the rubber hose side of the connector with a back-up wrench. Loosen and remove the flare nut on the rigid line side with a flare nut wrench. Remove the U-clip from the support bracket with a pair of pliers. Slide the rubber hose fitting from its locating bracket.

    2

    Remove the rubber hose from the caliper. Unscrew the banjo bolt from the caliper and pull the banjo fitting from the caliper. Discard both of the copper crush-washers on the banjo fitting.

    3

    Install a new crush-washer onto the banjo bolt. Insert the bolt into the fitting and slip the second washer onto the bolt so that the banjo fitting is sandwiched between the crush-washers. Thread the banjo bolt into the caliper and tighten it down with a flare nut wrench.

    4

    Insert the rubber hose fitting into the support bracket. Reinstall the U-clip manually by pushing the clip onto the fitting until it snaps into position. Insert the rigid line into the fitting and tighten the flare nut down firmly with the flare nut wrench.

    5

    Repeat the process for each brake hose to be replaced. Pump the brakes until the pedal is firm then check all of the fittings for leaks before taking the car for a test drive.

How to Change the Rear Brakes on a '99 Infiniti G20

The brakes on your 1999 Infiniti G20 should be inspected every 15,000 miles, or whenever you notice noise or vibration while braking. You can purchase replacement pads at most auto-parts shops. Expect to spend about 15 minutes per wheel installing them. It's a good idea to also pick up a pair of jack stand adapters for your car--they aren't needed, but Infiniti recommends their use. Jack stand adapters are recommended because placing your vehicle's weight on a jack stand with a flat top may bend the lower edge of the body trim.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts, then lift the rear wheel and support the vehicle with a jack. Remove the wheel. The lift point is several inches ahead of the rear wheel. Infiniti recommends using jack stand adapter LM4519-0000 to properly support the vehicle. The adapter slides onto the top of the jack stand. The lower edge of the body panel and support bracket will sit in the groove on top of the adapter.

    2

    Remove the cap from the brake fluid reservoir. This will allow you to later compress the brake piston more easily.

    3

    Disconnect the parking brake cable from the back of the caliper. It attaches to a small lever. Pull on the lever to relieve some of the tension, if necessary.

    4

    Remove the upper bolt from the caliper. Swivel the caliper downward around the lower bolt. Pry off the upper and lower plates that hold the brake pads in place.

    5

    Press the piston into the caliper with a C-clamp. Install the new brake pads and retain them with the upper and lower plates. Swivel the caliper upward and install the upper bolt, torquing to 16 to 23 foot pounds. Connect the parking brake cable.

    6

    Attach the wheel with hand-tight lug nuts and lower the car. Finish tightening the lug nuts once the car is on a flat surface. Repeat on the other side, then close the cap on the brake fluid reservoir.

Brake Service Information

Brake Service Information

A car's brake system is a complex network of parts that work together to enable a vehicle to stop properly and safely. Frequent use of brakes requires regular maintenance and service to ensure that the brakes are working properly.

Inspection

    According to Midas, a vehicle's brakes should be inspected at least once a year for safety and more frequently if there are signs of malfunction. Signs include hard or low resistance when pressing on the brake pedal, a squealing or grinding sound coming from brakes, and a persistent brake warning light.

Repair

    The most common type of brake repair service is brake pad replacement. Brake pads are made of organic, ceramic or semi-metallic materials which wear down as a result of constant use. Neglected replacement of brake pads will lead to further brake repair costs if the metal components of the brake pad and rotor come in contact during the braking process.

Routine Maintenance

    In addition to regular inspections, routine maintenance of a car's brake system is also an important part of a vehicle's safety. Car manufacturers usually recommend routine brake system flushing, which involves replacing brake fluid and removing moisture and air from brake lines.

Proper Brake Shoe Installation

Proper Brake Shoe Installation

When driving your vehicle, losing the ability to brake can be a scary event. Situations on the road often call for immediate and heavy braking. Proper brake shoe installation is key in safely bringing your vehicle to a complete stop.

Identification

    Certain warning signs can signal the need to check your brakes. Squeaking sounds while braking usually indicates that your brake shoes need checking. Also, if your brakes go lower to the floor than they normally do when you press on them, this is a sign of potential hazards as well.

Costs

    The cost for brake shoe installation depends on your vehicle type. If you are capable of installing them on your own, it's possible to get the job done for less than $100. Professional brake shoe installation, however, could cost you more than $200. (as of 2010).

Warning

    When repairing brake shoes, keep in mind that dust from your brakes is hazardous to your health. By wearing an air-filtering mask, you can avoid inhalation of this toxic dust.

How to Diagnose ABS Brakes

How to Diagnose ABS Brakes

Anti-lock brakes (ABS) are common systems in many cars on the road today. Late-model vehicles come equipped with sophisticated systems that require special and expensive scanning tools to diagnose and pinpoint a system's trouble source. Still, whether you own a late or older vehicle model, there are some common problem spots you can check to diagnose possible sources of trouble on your car's ABS. You need only a minimum of tools to perform this diagnosis at home.

Instructions

    1

    Make a visual inspection of the brake system components under the hood for obvious signs of trouble, such as fluid leaks, loose connectors, bolts and sensors around the brake master cylinder and connected lines. The master cylinder is attached to the brake booster, a drum-like component in the engine compartment on the driver's side.

    2

    Inspect the brake fluid in the reservoir, the plastic bottle on top of the brake master cylinder. Make sure the fluid level in the reservoir is correct. If you find yourself frequently adding fluid to the reservoir, check for leaks around the hydraulic modulator, master cylinder, calipers and connecting lines. Since anti-lock brake system designs vary from one vehicle model and year to another, consult the vehicle service manual for your particular model to locate and identify these components.

    3

    Raise the front wheel/tire assemblies off the ground using a floor jack and support the vehicle on jack stands. Block the wheels on the ground with wooden blocks.

    4

    Set the transmission to neutral and manually rotate the wheel assemblies to make sure they rotate freely. Otherwise, check for damage to the caliper or a mechanical bind preventing the wheel hub from rotating freely.

    5

    Listen for noises as you rotate the wheel/tire assembly. If the wheel bearing is worn out or damaged, it will prevent the wheel speed sensor and ABS system from operating properly.

    6

    Inspect the thread depth on each of the front tires using a tread wear indicator. Both front tires should have the same wear. Also, make sure these tires are of equal size. Uneven tire wear or size will affect the operation of the ABS system.

    7

    Remove the wheel assembly using a lug wrench.

    8

    Check the brake pads, rotors and caliper for loose mounting bolts. Also check for a leaking or damaged brake hose and lines connecting to the brake caliper. Also, look for signs of damage and wet spots around the brake pads and rotors that might indicate damage to the brake lines and caliper piston seals.

    9

    Inspect the wheel speed sensor for damage. Check the sensor body and follow the electrical wire to its connector. Make sure the wire is in good condition and there is a good connection. Then check the sensor-mounting bolt. Using a wrench, make sure the bolt is tight. When ready, lower your front wheel/tires off the jack stands.

    10

    Check the rear wheel/tire assemblies this time, following Steps 3 through 9.

Minggu, 10 April 2011

How to Retract Calipers on a Toyota Sienna

How to Retract Calipers on a Toyota Sienna

You must retract the caliper pistons on your Toyota Sienna when you're replacing pads or rotors. Because Siennas can feature front and rear disc brakes, this applies to both axles. Retracting the pistons that contact the backing plate of the outboard pad makes room for the new, thicker pads or rotors. Trying to force a caliper onto new disc brakes could damage the piston, and in all likelihood you would still not be able to get it onto the new brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Apply the parking brake on a flat hard surface if you're working on the front axle of the Toyota Sienna. If you're working on the rear axle, place a wheel block in front of one of the front tires on the Sienna, and make sure the vehicle is in gear with the keys removed from the ignition.

    2

    Open the hood and remove about half of the fluid from the master cylinder brake fluid reservoir (on the driver's side firewall), using a brake fluid suction baster or a turkey baster. If using a turkey baster, never allow it back into the kitchen; brake fluid is highly toxic. Replace the cover of the master cylinder.

    3

    Loosen the wheel lugs of the wheel(s) on which you're intending to replace the brakes or remove the calipers, using the wheel lug wrench. Turn the nuts 1/8 of a turn, lift the axle off the Sienna using the car jack and then support the car safely onto jack stands. Finish removing the wheel lugs, then remove the wheels and set them aside.

    4

    Use a metric open-end wrench to hold the two caliper sliding pins in place while removing the two caliper mounting bolts with a box-end wrench. Turn the bolts counterclockwise to unscrew them.

    5

    Gently pry the caliper off the pads and caliper mount assembly that are embracing the rotor. Support the caliper to the suspension coil spring with a hook or bungee cord to ensure it does not dangle from the rubber hydraulic brake hose.

    6

    Compress the caliper piston, using the caliper reset tool or the 6-inch C-clamp. There are a few ways you can do this. You can use one of the old pads as a protective barrier between the desired retracting tool and the piston of the caliper to ensure you do not damage it. You can also place a small block of wood against the piston. Or you can place the driving bore of the C-clamp inside the hollow piston while the top of the clamp sits against the inside housing of the caliper. In any case, tighten the clamp slowly until the caliper piston is fully retracted into the bore.

    7

    Remove the retracting tool and inspect the protective caliper piston boot. Often times when compressing caliper pistons, the boot can get air trapped inside it, distorting its position. If necessary, use a small pick set to pull the boot away from the piston in the compromised location, and allow the trapped air to escape and reset the boot properly. Do not poke a hole in the rubber boot with the pick.

How to React if Your Car's Brake Light Comes On

Your brake light is on with no good reason... or so it seems. Have you been driving with the hand brake on? Are you low on brake fluid? If the answer is yes, heed our tips below.

Instructions

    1

    Check out your brake situation as soon as you can if the brake light goes on. You don't need to stop driving immediately.

    2

    Turn the engine off and open the hood.

    3

    To find the brake fluid reservoir (also called the "brake master cylinder"), look for a round black rubber cap about 2 to 4 inches in diameter that covers a plastic container. Imagine where your foot would be if it went all the way through the car toward the engine past your brake pedal. This is where you will almost always find the brake master cylinder.

    4

    Check the fine print on the rubber cap. It should say, "Use only DOT 4 (or 5 or 3) brake fluid."

    5

    Remove the cap. If the cap is dusty or dirty, wipe it off with a rag so no dirt particles fall into the reservoir.

    6

    Check what kind of brake fluid your car requires. This is indicated on the rubber brake reservoir cap and in the owner's manual. DOT 5 is the highest grade available right now and can be used in any system. If your car requires DOT 4, do not use DOT 3 or a lower-grade fluid. DOT stands for Department of Transportation.

    7

    Fill the reservoir with brake fluid up to the "full" line. If there is no "full" indicator, fill it to the top.

    8

    Put the cap back on and wipe up any spills.

    9

    Turn the car on and the light should be off.

    10

    Wait, you're not done yet! Now call your mechanic and make an appointment for a four-wheel brake inspection to find out why the brake fluid was so low.

    11

    Make an appointment for a brake check immediately if the light goes off but the pedal sinks to the floor.

Sabtu, 09 April 2011

How to Bleed the Brakes on a 1995 Range Rover Classic

How to Bleed the Brakes on a 1995 Range Rover Classic

Land Rover first hit the automotive market in 1948 with simply designed utility vehicles known for toughness and longevity. As Land Rover progressed through its years, it saw many changes in its design and ownership. BMW AG bought the lineup in 1995, but sold it off to Ford in 2000, and finally Land Rover ended up in the safekeeping of Tata Motors -- an Indian auto company -- in 2008. The 1995 Range Rover Country Classic came standard with an intricate four-wheel antilock brake system, making bleeding the brakes a rather interesting task.

Instructions

    1

    Turn the Range Rovers ignition to the On position and listen for the ABS pump to start running -- a low buzzing sound. If the ABS pump does not activate, press and release the brake pedal until you hear the pump turn on. Check the fluid level in the brake master cylinder. Unscrew the master cylinder reservoir cap and add fresh DOT 4 brake fluid until it reaches the Max line on the reservoir. Turn the SUVs ignition to the Off position.

    2

    Press and release the brake pedal 30 to 40 times to deplete the brake pressure from the accumulator. Wait about 60 seconds, then press and release the pedal four times to deplete any remaining pressure.

    3

    Raise the front of the SUV with a floor jack and slide jack stands under the Land Rovers frame rails. Lower the SUV onto the jack stands. Raise the rear of the Range Rover off the ground with a floor jack and slide jack stands under the rear of the frame rails. Lower the rear of the vehicle onto the jack stands.

    4

    Crawl under the front of the vehicle, so you are directly behind the left front wheel. Look on the top of the brake caliper and find the bleeder valve -- the -inch metal valve. Press a -inch-diameter rubber hose to the bleeder valve. Set the free end of the rubber hose into a clean, clear container and fill the container with new DOT 4 brake fluid until it submerges the end of the hose.

    5

    Open the bleeder valve by turning it a quarter turn counterclockwise with a combination wrench. Instruct your assistant to press the brake pedal to the floor in a smooth, slow stroke. Watch for air bubbles at the end of the hose in the brake fluid as your assistant presses. Close the bleeder valve by turning it clockwise once your assistant presses the pedal all the way to the floor. Repeat this step until no air bubbles come from the end of the hose.

    6

    Pull the rubber hose from the bleeder valve. Refill the master cylinder reservoir to the Max line with fresh DOT 4 brake fluid.

    7

    Repeat steps 4 through 6 on the right front wheel.

    8

    Press the -inch diameter hose on the front bleeder valve on the booster -- the shorter of the two bleeder valves -- and set the free end in the clean, clear container so brake fluid submerges the end of it. Open the bleeder valve with a combination wrench and instruct your assistant to press the brake pedal to the floor, then turn the ignition to the On position. Allow the fluid to flow from the hose until no bubbles come from the hose.

    9

    Instruct your assistant to turn the ignition off. Close the bleeder valve with a combination wrench, then instruct your assistant to release the brake pedal.

    10

    Refill the master cylinder with fresh DOT 4 brake fluid.

    11

    Repeat steps 8 through 10 to bleed the air from the rear bleeder valve on the brake booster -- the longer of the two bleeder valves.

    12

    Crawl under the rear of the SUV, so you are directly behind the left rear wheel. Press the -inch-diameter rubber hose onto the bleeder valve on the top of the brake caliper. Set the other end of the hose in the container with brake fluid until fluid submerges the end of the hose.

    13

    Turn the bleeder valve a quarter-turn counter clockwise, then instruct your assistant to press the brake pedal to the floor in a slow, smooth stroke. Once the pedal is to the floor, instruct your assistant to turn the ignition to the On position for 4 seconds then Off for another 4 seconds -- repeat this On and Off cycling of the ignition until the fluid coming from the hose has no air bubbles in it.

    14

    Instruct your assistant to turn the ignition to the Off position. Close the bleeder valve, then tell your assistant to release the brake pedal.

    15

    Refill the master cylinder with new DOT 4 brake fluid.

    16

    Repeat steps 11 through 15 to bleed the right rear wheel.

    17

    Turn the ignition to the On position and listen for the ABS pump to stop buzzing. Press and release the brake pedal five times. Turn the ignition to the Off position.

    18

    Crawl under the front of the SUV, so you are directly behind the left front wheel. Press the -inch-diameter hose to the bleeder valve and set the other end of the hose in the clean, clear container so fluid submerges the end of the hose. Turn the bleeder valve a quarter-turn counterclockwise and instruct your assistant to depress the brake pedal fully. Tighten the bleeder valve at the bottom of the pedal stroke.

    19

    Instruct your assistant to release the brake pedal only two-thirds of its travel and hold it there. Turn the bleeder valve a quarter turn counterclockwise. Tell your assistant to press the pedal to the floor and watch for air bubbles to come from the submerged end of the hose. Close the bleeder valve. Repeat this step until no air bubbles come from the hose in the brake fluid.

    20

    Tell your assistant to release the brake pedal fully. Turn the bleeder valve a quarter-turn counterclockwise, then instruct your assistant to press the brake pedal to the floor. Tighten the bleeder valve, then instruct your assistant to release the brake pedal.

    21

    Remove the -inch-diameter rubber hose from the bleeder valve.

    22

    Refill the master cylinder with fresh DOT 4 brake fluid.

    23

    Repeat steps 18 through 22 on the right front wheel.

    24

    Turn the ignition to the On position and listen for the ABS pump to stop buzzing. Press and release the brake pedal five times and listen for a ticking noise. If you hear a ticking noise, repeat steps 8 through 21. If you do not hear a ticking noise, you successfully bled the brake system. Refill the brake master cylinder with DOT 4 fluid.

    25

    Raise the rear of the SUV off the jack stands with a floor jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the rear of the SUV to the ground. Raise the front of the vehicle off the jack stands with a floor jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the Range Rover to the ground.