Kamis, 31 Maret 2011

How to Repair the Brake Rotor on a 1991 Honda

How to Repair the Brake Rotor on a 1991 Honda

If your 1991 Honda is vibrating when you press on the brake pedal, there is a good chance you will need to repair or replace the brake rotors. Sometimes, this is as simple as removing the rotors and rotating them. Depending on the condition of the rotors, you may be able to take them to your local auto parts store and have them sent out to have any warped areas ground out of them. If neither of those solutions are feasible, you will need to replace them. The directions listed below are for every 1991 Honda vehicle except the Accord.

Instructions

Brake Rotor Removal

    1

    Use the lug wrench that came with your vehicle or a 1/2-inch drive socket to loosen, but do not remove, the lug nuts on the wheel of the rotor you need to repair.

    2

    Place a jack under the frame of the vehicle and raise it enough so you can remove the tire from the vehicle.

    3

    Position a jack stand under the frame of the vehicle to provide support while you are working on the rotor. Once the jack stands are in place, lower the jack to support the car on the jack stands.

    4

    Remove all of the lug nuts from the wheel then take it off the mount.

    5

    Use the appropriate socket to remove the pin bolt and disconnect the brake caliper from the bracket. If the caliper will not move on its own, use a rubber mallet and gently tap on it to loosen it.

    6

    Secure the caliper away from the rotor with a piece of thin wire.

    7

    Use a 3/8-inch drive ratchet with a 6 mm socket to remove the bolts from the rotor.

    8

    Pull the rotor off of the wheel mount.

Brake Rotor Installation

    9

    Place the new brake rotor onto the wheel mount.

    10

    Turn the 6 mm bolts clockwise to tighten the rotor.

    11

    Replace the brake caliper over the rotor assembly.

    12

    Tighten the pin bolt and replace the caliper bracket.

    13

    Remount the wheel and reinstall all the lug nuts. Turn all of the lug nuts clockwise, finger-tight, until they are secure. Lower the vehicle with the jack and use the lug wrench to finish tightening the lug nuts.

How to Replace the Front Rotor in a 1999 Hyundai Accent

How to Replace the Front Rotor in a 1999 Hyundai Accent

The Hyundai Accent replaced the Hyundai Excel in the 1995 model year. The 1999 Hyundai Accent was equipped with a 1.5-liter, in-line, 4-cylinder engine, capable of producing a mere 92 horsepower and 97 pound-feet of torque. The brake system on the 1999 Accent is made up of front ventilated disc brakes and rear drum brakes. The front disc brake systems on the 1999 Accent include the brake caliper, caliper bracket, brake pads and brake rotor on each side of the car.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the front wheel nuts on the Accent. Lift the front of the Accent with a 2-ton jack or a jack with greater capacity. Place jack stands beneath the front sub-frame or engine cradle. Remove the wheel nuts. Then remove the wheel and tire assemblies by hand.

    2

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts with a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Turn the bolts counterclockwise until they are completely free of the brake assembly. Remove the caliper halfway off of the brake assembly with a pry bar to pry the caliper loose, if necessary. Insert the tip of a pry bar into the hole on the back side of the caliper. Place the tip between the brake pad on the back of the rotor and the rotor. Pry the brake pad away from the rotor to depress the front caliper. Continue the prying procedure until the caliper cannot be compressed any further.

    3

    Remove the caliper from the brake assembly and hang the caliper from one of the front strut springs with a metal coat hanger or small steel rod. Remove the caliper mounting bracket bolts from behind the rotor with a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket along with a 4-inch extension. Turn the bolts counterclockwise until they are removed from the brake assembly. Then remove the caliper mounting bracket by hand.

    4

    Remove the old rotor from the Accent by hand. Lubricate the front of the hub that the rotor rests against with grease from a caliper grease tub. Make sure the tub says "For use with disc brakes" as this is a high-temperature grease able to withstand the heat from the brake friction. Install the new rotor onto the wheel hub and put a wheel lug nut onto the face of the new rotor. The lug nut will hold the rotor in place for the rest of the brake installation.

    5

    Install the caliper mounting bracket back onto the brake assembly and tighten the mounting bracket bolts with a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Visually inspect and make sure the brake pads are still mounted into the caliper bracket. If the pads have come apart from the bracket, reinstall the brake pads onto the bracket.

    6

    Take the caliper off of the metal hanger and reinstall the compressed caliper onto the pads and rotor assembly. Pack the caliper slide tube boots full of caliper grease. The slide tube boots are the boots through which the caliper bolts came out. Put one finger over the end of one of the boots and pack the other end full of caliper grease. Repeat this process on the second slide tube boot. Proper lubrication is essential to the brakes performing at their optimal capacity. Install the caliper mounting bolts and tighten the mounting bolts with a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Remove the lug nut from the vehicle-.

    7

    Repeat Steps 2 through 6 to complete the replacement of the brake rotor on the opposite side of the Accent.

    8

    Reinstall the front wheels onto the Accent only when you have double-checked that you have tightened both caliper bolts and both caliper mounting bracket bolts on each side of the car. There are a total of four bolts to be tightened per side. Install the front wheel lug nuts and fit them snugly so that the wheels are flush with their mounting position. Lift the Accent with a 2-ton jack or a jack with greater capacity. Remove the jack stands from beneath the Accent. Tighten the wheel lug nuts between 85 and 95 pound-feet of torque with a certified torque wrench and wheel nut socket.

How to Change the Brakes & Drums on a 1992 Ford F150

How to Change the Brakes & Drums on a 1992 Ford F150

The Ford F-150 was introduced in 1975, and it eventually replaced the F-100. The 1992 Ford F-150 base model was equipped with a 4.9-liter V-6 engine and a two-wheel-drive drivetrain. The 1992 F-150 was available with an upgraded 5.0-liter V-8, or a 5.7-liter V-8 on higher level trim packages. The rear brake shoes on the 1992 F-150 expand via the wheel cylinder, and cause friction against the inside of the brake drum. It is recommended that you replace all of the springs and hardware with the brake shoes and drums on this truck.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the rear lug nuts on the F-150 with a tire iron. Raise the rear of the truck with a jack, and set jack stands beneath both ends of the axle housing -- the farther you set the jack stands apart, the greater your truck's stability will be for this project. Lower the truck onto the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts completely from both rear wheels, then remove the rear wheels from the truck. You can set he wheels flat near your work area for a makeshift seat, if you prefer.

    2

    Remove the rubber cap from the bottom-inboard side of one of the brake-backing plates, using a flat-head screwdriver. Insert the screwdriver into the uncovered slot in the backing plate. Push the star wheel adjuster downward to back the brake shoes off from the inside of the drum.

    3

    Remove the three retaining nuts from the brake drum with a ratchet and socket. Remove the brake drum from the truck and set it out of your work area.

    4

    Remove the brake hold-down spring caps with the cylindrical brake tool. Remove the hold-down springs from the brake shoes. Remove the hold-down pins from behind the backing plate. Remove the two upper shoe-to-anchor pin springs with a brake-spring tool. Remove the springs completely from the brake assembly. Remove the bottom adjuster-lever spring in the same manner.

    5

    Remove the self-adjuster cable from the adjuster lever and then from the anchor pin, by hand. Remove the parking brake and adjuster lever simultaneously, by twisting the parking brake lever off the parking brake cable. Remove the brake shoes from the truck.

    6

    Install the brake shoe with the shorter lining into the position, facing the front of the truck. Install a new hold-down pin from behind the backing plate and hold it in place with your finger. Install a new hold-down spring over the pin and onto the outboard face of the shoe. Install a new hold-down cap over the spring, then rotate it 90 degrees onto the hold-down pin with the cylindrical brake tool.

    7

    Remove the parking brake lever from the inboard side of the old brake shoe. Insert a new guide pin into the upper inboard side of the new rear-facing brake shoe. Use a hammer to gently tap the pin in place, if needed. Install the parking-brake lever onto the pin.

    8

    Install the rear brake shoe and parking-brake lever onto the parking brake cable, by twisting it onto the hook at the end of the cable -- the cable should sit on the inboard side of the shoe, near the backing plate. Install a new hold-down pin through the rear of the backing plate. Install a hold-down spring over the pin and onto the face of the shoe. Install a hold-down clip, then turn it 90 degrees to lock it onto the hold-down pin.

    9

    Attach the adjuster lever onto the lower end of the parking-brake lever. Insert the adjuster cable from the adjuster lever to the anchor pin by hand. Install the self-adjuster spring with a brake spring tool. Align the tops of both brake shoes with the slots in the wheel cylinder pistons, by hand.

    10

    Insert the star wheel adjuster, with the star wheel offset to the rear of the truck. Push the pins on the ends of the adjuster wheel onto the recessed grooves in the bottom of both shoes -- the adjuster spring will hold this assembly in place while you install the rest of the rear brakes. Install the upper brake shoe-to-anchor pin springs with the brake spring tool.

    11

    Repeat Steps 2 through 10 to replace the brake shoes on the second side of the truck. Adjust both star wheels completely inward while the drums are not on the truck, using the flat-head screwdriver.

    12

    Install the new brake drums onto the rear of the truck. Tighten all of the mounting nuts to 25 foot-pounds, using a 1/2-inch drive torque wrench and socket. Adjust the star wheels from the slots in the back of both backing plates. Turn the wheel from behind to lock the shoes against the new drums.

    13

    Insert the rear wheels onto the truck and snug the lug nuts with the tire iron. Spin each rear wheel separately. The wheel should spin exactly 1 to 1-1/2 rotations if the brakes are adjusted right. Loosen the brakes with the star wheel if the wheel does not make a complete rotation. Tighten the brakes if the wheel makes two or more complete rotations. Repeat this step on both sides of the truck until the brakes are properly adjusted. Insert the rubber caps into the both backing plates.

    14

    Raise the rear of the truck off of the jack stands, then remove the stands from beneath the truck. Lower the truck to the ground and immediately tighten the rear lug nuts to 120 foot-pounds, using the 1/2-inch torque wrench and a socket.

How to Remove 350Z Brake Calipers

How to Remove 350Z Brake Calipers

The Nissan 350Z is a popular sports car from Nissan; it is the successor to the popular Nissan 300Z model. Fit for a performance vehicle, the car comes equipped with high-end brakes from the factory. Like anything else though, the factory calipers can wear out or break down, and will need replacement. You might also want to replace them with higher performance calipers. Either way, you first have to remove the old ones from the car's braking system.

Instructions

    1

    Lift up the front of the car using the jack and secure the car on jack stands. Verify that the car is secure before taking off the wheels, then remove the front wheels using the tire iron.

    2

    Place the brake line clamp on the rubber brake line hose that connects the hard brake line to the brake caliper. Clamp it in place, then remove the brake line from the brake caliper, using the line wrench.

    3

    Unbolt the brake caliper from the front steering knuckle, using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket. Finally, pull the caliper off of the brake rotor and set it to the side.

Rabu, 30 Maret 2011

How Can I Tell If the Rotors Are Bad?

How Can I Tell If the Rotors Are Bad?

There are a couple different ways to tell if the rotors on your vehicle are bad. The first is a physical symptom known as a pulsation. This is caused by a few different reasons. The second way to tell if a rotor is bad is a physical inspection and measurement of the rotor. This requires removing the tires and brakes to do so.

Instructions

    1

    Test drive the vehicle.

    2

    Accelerate to approximately 30 miles per hour on a deserted road and apply the brakes heavily without coming to a complete stop or squealing the tires. A severe warpage of the brake rotors will emit a pronounced vibration at low-speed hard braking. This vibration will be felt through the brake pedal and steering wheel for front brake rotors and through the brake pedal and undercarriage of the vehicle for rear brake rotors.

    3

    Speed up to 60 miles per hour (preferably on a deserted highway) and perform the same test as Step 2. This is to determine if the rotors have a slighter warping that can only be felt at high-speed heavy braking.

    4

    Park the vehicle on a flat hard surface and then break the wheel nuts loose with a lug nut wrench (only 1/4-turn counterclockwise).

    5

    Lift the vehicle with a vehicle jack and support it onto jack stands. Remove the wheel nuts and tires.

    6

    Visually inspect the outboard side of the rotor for rust pits, scoring or uneven surfacing. These conditions are major contributors to brake pulsations.

    7

    Remove the caliper bolts with a hand wrench. Remove the caliper from the rotor. Some vehicles employ floating calipers which leave brake pads behind in the caliper anchor. Other vehicles may feature fixed calipers with pads intact with the caliper and an integral knuckle.

    8

    Inspect the internal fins (front rotors) for thickness and durability. In extreme cases, front finned rotors can deteriorate by rust and corrosion to the point of being unsafe. This would be indicative if the rotor fins crumbled by contact.

    9

    Measure the thickness of the rotors using a rotor micrometer and then compare that measurement to the vehicle specific specifications on a rotor specifications and discard chart. Every vehicle only allows rotors to become so thin before replacement of them is required.

How to Adjust the Disc Parking Brake on the 1995 Mustang GT

The disc parking brake on the 1995 Mustang GT is designed to compress the rear brake rotor to prevent the car from rolling. The parking brake is the Mustang's secondary braking system. Even if the front and rear brakes are not working properly, the parking brake can always be used to prevent the car from moving. Whenever the parking brake handle is pulled upward, the rear parking brake compresses to the side of the rear brake rotor. Over time, the parking brake will wear down and need to be adjusted to keep it working properly.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the center console from between the front seats by pressing the side levers inward and pulling up on the console at the same time. Set the console to the side.

    2

    Inspect the parking brake handle to ensure it is completely released and in the down position. Press the parking brake handle release button. Pull the parking brake upward four clicks and stop. Leave the parking brake sitting upward.

    3

    Look below the parking brake handle and locate the adjustment nut on the end of the adjustment cable rod. Loosen the adjustment nut with an open-end wrench until it is barely loose.

    4

    Push the parking brake handle release button back in and lower the parking brake handle until it is completely down. Turn the adjustment nut clockwise to tighten the nut until it is near the bottom of the parking brake handle.

    5

    Press the handle release button again and pull the parking brake upward as far as it will go. Lower the parking brake until it is completely in the down position. Repeat this up-and-down process a total of four times to properly adjust the parking brake.

    6

    Reinstall the center console between the seats until the console locks in place. Test the operation of the newly adjusted parking brake by parking the Mustang GT on an elevated surface and engaging the parking brake. The vehicle should remain firmly in place.

Senin, 28 Maret 2011

How to Install Disc Brakes on a Ford Taurus

Introduced in 1986, the Taurus has been an enduring staple of the Ford Motor Company's lineup. Since its induction, the car has employed front disc brakes; but the rear brakes on your Taurus may feature drum or disc, depending on the year the car was made. Throughout the first four generations of the vehicle---through 2005---replacing the disc brakes has remained virtually unchanged. There may be subtle differences, but the overall procedure to install new front and rear brakes is very similar no matter what year the Taurus is.

Instructions

    1

    Use a hand pump and cup to extract half the brake fluid from the master cylinder. Replace the cap and discard the fluid.

    2

    Crack the lug nuts 1/8 of a turn using a lug wrench. Lift and support the front of the Taurus using a jack and jack stands. Remove the lug nuts and wheels.

    3

    Remove the caliper locating pins with a ratchet and socket; then use a screwdriver to pry the caliper off the caliper bracket and rotor. Tie the caliper to the coil spring with twine to prevent damage to the brake hose.

    4

    Remove the outer and inner brake pads. The outer pad is seated in the caliper bracket, and you must pry the inner pad out of the caliper piston. Place the outer pad against the caliper piston, and use a 6-inch C-clamp to retract the caliper piston fully into the bore.

    5

    Use a piece of emery cloth to clean any rust from the caliper on the pad contact points.

    6

    Inspect the rotor for scoring, grooves or hard spots. If replacing the rotor, remove it by pulling out the two caliper bracket bolts and then removing the bracket. If necessary, use a three-jaw rotor/drum puller to separate the rotor from the hub. Clean the surface of the hub flange with emery cloth. Spray the new rotor with brake clean spray to remove the rust preventive solution, and then place it on the hub flange. Return the caliper bracket, and tighten the bracket bolts to 85 foot-pounds using a torque wrench and socket.

    7

    Spray the backing plates of the pads with anti-squeal brake spray. Allow a couple minutes for the solution to become tacky. Apply anti-seize compound to the caliper slides, if necessary, and to the caliper anchor where the pad contacts are located. Set the inboard pad into the caliper piston, then place the outboard pad into the caliper bracket. Remove the twine and discard, and then replace the caliper onto the caliper bracket and rotor. Tighten the caliper locating bolts to 25 foot-pounds.

    8

    Repeat the procedure for the other side.

    9

    Replace the wheels and tighten the lug nuts to 100 foot-pounds. Pump the brake pedal until it is firm. Top off the brake fluid in the master cylinder using only clean DOT brake fluid. Test drive the Taurus to ensure proper braking.

How to Change Hayes Brake Pads

Hayes brake pads are made for bikes. Although these types of pads started out as an advanced braking system on bicycles, they are now used on motorcycles as well. They can be made of ceramic or a metallic compound. The pads are often used in conjunction with a brake rotor system as opposed to a rim-based brake system. All brake pads are wear components, meaning they will wear down eventually. If you own a bike and your brake pads wear down to 1/8 inch thick, replace them.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the bike tire. This will vary greatly depending on the type of bike you have. For example, for bicycles, unhook the braking mechanism (again, this will vary depending on the style of bike you have - mountain bike, touring bike, 10-speed, etc.), and shift the bike into the smallest sprocket. Then release the quick release lever for your bike and pull the wheel out. For motorcycles, use the pliers to pull the cotter pin out of the hub nut, and use a socket wrench to loosen/remove the hub nut before dropping the wheel down.

    2

    Remove the pads. Once the wheel is out of the way, grab onto the tabs on the bottom of the pads of the Hayes disk brake and pull them out of the caliper.

    3

    Insert the new pads. Installation is the reverse of removal.

    4

    Spread the pads using the cone wrench. To do this, place the end of the cone wrench between the brake pads and push in to make sure the pads are pushed securely into the caliper.

    5

    Put the wheel back on. Installation is the reverse of removal.

How to Replace the Disc Brakes in an F-250

How to Replace the Disc Brakes in an F-250

The Ford F-250 truck uses disc brakes with calipers and pads on all four wheels. This super-duty truck also uses calipers and pads much larger than most standard vehicles. If your truck's brakes need changing, you need to replace the brake pads on at least both sides of one end; changing the brakes for all four wheels together is recommended.

Instructions

Removal

    1

    Siphon out 2/3s of the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir in the engine and properly dispose of it; your local ordinances may vary. Use a clean, unused turkey baster or similar siphon tool to remove the fluid.

    2

    Raise the truck's front or rear end--whichever one you're changing the brakes for--and support it on jack stands, then remove both wheels on that end. Block the wheels on the other end with wheel chocks. If you're changing the brakes for all four wheels, raise the entire truck on at least four stands.

    3

    Compress the caliper pistons back into their bores with a C-clamp; the calipers on the F-250 have two pistons each, which are accessible through the arches on the caliper.

    4

    Remove the two mounting bolts at the opposite ends of the caliper using a socket or flare-nut wrench. Check the condition of the bolts and replace them if the threads are damaged.

    5

    Pull the caliper off its mounting bracket and hang it near the strut or shock absorber using a coat hanger or other strong wire (you may need more than one wire given the size of the caliper). Make sure the caliper isnt hanging by or stretching the brake hose.

    6

    Detach the V-springs at the top of the mounting bracket that hold the brake pads in place; squeeze the springs and remove them from their holes in the pads.

    7

    Remove the outer and inner brake pads from the mounting bracket.

    8

    Pry the anti-rattle clips out of the caliper bracket using a small screwdriver and check the clips for cracks. Reinstall the clips, making sure they seat fully into the bracket.

Installation

    9

    Apply an anti-squeal compound to the backing plates of the replacement brake pads; make sure you follow the instructions on the tube of your specific compound.

    10

    Install the replacement inner and outer brake pads into the caliper mounting bracket. Both pads must properly seat within the bracket and the anti-rattle clips.

    11

    Install the V-springs into the brake pads, inserting them into the holes at the top of the pads backing plates.

    12

    Pull out the slide pins from the mounting bracket, lubricate them with high-temperature grease and re-insert them.

    13

    Reinstall the caliper over the mounting bracket and pads and secure the mounting bolts.

    14

    Reconnect the wheels and lower the truck after changing the brakes for both wheels. Repeat the above steps for the other end of the truck if needed.

    15

    Add brake fluid to the master cylinder reservoir to the fill level; most F-250 trucks will require DOT3 heavy-duty brake fluid.

How to Replace the Front Brake Rotors in the 2007 Toyota Sienna

Prior to the release of the Sienna in 1998, Toyota tossed its hat into the minivan ring twice. The first attempt was the delivery-truck-based "Toyota Van," and the second was the advanced-for-its-era Previa. Neither van sold well; hence, the release of the Sienna. The 2007 Sienna received a bump in horsepower and engine size, increasing from a 215-horsepower, 3.3-liter V-6, in 2006, to a 266-horsepower 3.5-liter V-6. The 2007 Sienna's front brakes are of the disc variety, and periodic replacement of the rotor is required. This is not a difficult task, however, for the do-it-yourself mechanic to complete.

Instructions

    1

    Unscrew the lid from the master cylinder reservoir, and remove about half the brake fluid from the reservoir with a clean turkey baster. Put this fluid into a small container.

    2

    Loosen, but don't remove, the front lug nuts with a ratchet and socket. Raise the front of the Sienna from the ground, using a floor jack, and slide jack stands under the vehicle's subframe. Lower the Sienna onto the jack stands.

    3

    Remove the front lug nuts and pull the front wheels off the van.

    4

    Place an 8-inch C-clamp over the caliper. Position the clamp so its fixed side touches the rear of the caliper and its screw part touches the outside of the outer brake pad. Tighten the C-clamp until it stops tightening -- this compresses the caliper's internal piston. Loosen the C-clamp and remove it from the caliper.

    5

    Hold the caliper guide pins with a combination wrench, while you remove the caliper bolts with a ratchet and socket. Pull the caliper off its bracket, and hang it from a nearby suspension component with mechanic's wire.

    6

    Pull the brake pads out of the caliper bracket and discard them. Grab the brake pad support shims -- the thin metal shims above and below the brake pads -- and pull the from the caliper bracket.

    7

    Remove the two caliper bracket bolts, using a ratchet and socket. Pull the caliper bracket up and off the Sienna's steering knuckle.

    8

    Unscrew the two rotor-retaining screws, using a Phillips screwdriver. If screws do not loosen easily, lightly tap the head of each screw with a hammer to free it. Pull the rotor from the front hub -- lightly tap the rotor with a rubber mallet if it sticks to the rotor.

    9

    Set a new rotor on the Sienna's front hub, lining up the screw holes in the rotor with those in the hub. Tighten the rotor-retaining screws.

    10

    Set the caliper bracket on the Sienna's steering knuckle, and hand-tighten the caliper bracket bolts. Tighten the caliper bolts to 79 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and socket. Press new pad support shims -- included with the pads -- into the top and bottom of the caliper bracket. The shims can only fit into the bracket in one direction to prevent incorrect installation.

    11

    Press new anti-squeal shims -- included with the new pads -- onto the rear of the pads until the snap into place. Press new wear indicators -- included with the new pads -- onto the upper ear of both pads positioned so the open part of the wear indicator will face the rotor when you install the pads. Slide the new pads into the caliper bracket.

    12

    Remove the caliper from the mechanic's wire, and set it on the caliper bracket. Hand-tighten the caliper bolts. Hold the caliper pins steady with a combination wrench, as you tighten the caliper bolts to 25 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    13

    Repeat Steps 4 through 12 to replace the brake pads on the other side of the Sienna.

    14

    Reinstall the front wheel on the Sienna's front hubs, and hand-tighten them. Raise the van off the jack stands, using a floor jack, and remove the jack stands. Lower the Toyota to the ground slowly. Tighten the lug nuts -- in a crossing pattern -- to 76 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and socket.

    15

    Press and release the brake pedal until you feel pressure when you press the pedal. Check that the fluid level in the brake master cylinder is at the "Max" line on the reservoir. Add DOT 3 fluid, as needed. Tighten the lid onto the master cylinder reservoir and close the Sienna's hood.

Sabtu, 26 Maret 2011

How to Replace the Rear Brakes on a 1998 Lexus GS300

How to Replace the Rear Brakes on a 1998 Lexus GS300

The rear brakes of a 1998 Lexus GS300 are equipped with anti-squeal shims, which makes them different than other brakes you may have worked with. The process of replacing them is still simple and will only take about 15 minutes per wheel. The GS300 brake pads should be inspected every 15,000 miles or whenever trouble is suspected. Replacement pads are stocked or can be ordered at most auto-parts shops.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts. Lift the wheel off the ground with a jack and remove the wheel. The jack point is several inches in front of the wheel and is marked by a notch on either side.

    2

    Remove the two bolts that hold the caliper in place. The bolts are on the back side of the caliper assembly. Lift the caliper off the disc and suspend it with a piece of wire. Do not let the caliper hang from the brake line.

    3

    Remove the two anti-squeal springs, four shims and the two pads. The shims and pads are rectangular and held in place by the spring and a guide pin. Pry with a flat-head screwdriver if necessary.

    4

    Spread disc brake grease on both sides of the inner shims. Attach the shims to the replacement pads.

    5

    Install the pads and retain them with the anti-squeal spring.

    6

    Press the piston into the cylinder using something convenient such as a hammer handle.

    7

    Remove the caliper from the suspending wire and slide it into place. Install the bolts, tightening to 77 ft- lbs. of torque. Replace the wheel and lower the car.

How to Fix Seized Brakes

Fixing seized brakes can only be successfully completed if you can determine what caused them to seize. A sticking or stuck caliper piston, a pad stuck in a caliper anchor, a clogged brake hose or a frozen slide can cause seizure in disc brakes. Over adjusted shoes, an improperly functioning parking brake system, a frozen wheel cylinder bore or a broken or dislodged component wedged between the shoe and drum can all be leading causes to drum brake seizure.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the vehicle (in neutral gear) on a vehicle lift to allow the wheels to suspend. Test each wheel to determine which wheel or wheels has drag or will not turn by hand. Remove the hubcap, and then remove the wheel nuts with an impact gun and socket. Remove the wheel.

    2

    Inspect the caliper on disc brakes first. Remove the caliper bolts and pry the caliper off the rotor and pads using a pry bar. If the caliper comes off hard without the brakes being applied, a caliper piston is most likely to blame. To check the piston, secure the caliper to the vehicle with a caliper hook. Remove the pads if they are clipped to the caliper. Inspect the pads. A clear indication of stuck brakes is premature wear of brake pads. Compress the piston of the caliper with a caliper piston tool. A large C-clamp would work as well. If the caliper piston does not retract back into the bore, it has seized and needs to be replaced. Replace the caliper and bleed the hydraulic braking system.

    3

    Inspect the caliper slides if the piston retracted properly. Caliper slides can also become contaminated or the protective rubber boots may crack and allow water, rust, sand and other corrosive elements to seize the caliper slides. If you're able to remove the slides (it will be somewhat difficult), you can clean them off thoroughly with the die grinder (or a bench grinder with a wire brush wheel works well) and reapply brake lubricant to them. Reinstall them, replace the compromised protective rubber boots and retest the caliper after replacement.

    4

    Pry the pads out of the caliper anchor for vehicles that use pads not clipped to the caliper. When pads are installed, a high temperature brake lubricant is applied to the contact points of the anchor. This allows the pads to move back and forth when the caliper piston is applied and released. Because the brakes are exposed to the elements of adverse weather conditions, it is common that the lubricant washes away and rust and corrosion set in. This can cause the tabs of the pads backing plates to seize inside the caliper anchors. Remove the anchors and the pads. Clean the contact points of rust and corrosive build-up with an angled die grinder and a reconditioning disc or a wire brush. Remove the rattle clips and clean the caliper points beneath the clips. Apply brake lubricant under and on the rattle clips. Replace the pads, replace the anchor and then replace the caliper. Retest.

    5

    Inspect the adjustment of the rear brakes. Remove the rubber plug (if available) from the backing plate of the drum brakes. Insert a brake-adjusting tool into the porthole along with a screwdriver to push the adjuster retainer away. Turn the internal star wheel to back off the rear shoe adjuster and try to turn the wheel. If you're able to, continue to readjust the star wheel until you can easily remove the drum and inspect the adjuster mechanism. These can be removed easily. Clean the threads of the adjuster, apply a liberal amount of lubricant or anti-seize compound and reassemble.

    6

    Inspect the rear brakes, once the drum has been removed. If a component falls out of the drum or from the drum brakes when the drum is extracted, the seizure of the brakes could have been caused by this part being wedged between the drum and a shoe. Check the drum for scoring and the shoe for damage. Replace the component; replace the shoes if necessary. Machine the drum or replace the drum, if needed.

    7

    Press the bores of the wheel cylinder inward (1 at a time) with a screwdriver to determine if the bores are stuck. The hydraulic pressure in the braking system should allow the bore to expand back outward to contact the horn of the shoe. If you compress the bore and it does not return or you cannot compress the bore, then the wheel cylinder has failed and needs to be replaced. Replace the wheel cylinder and bleed the braking system.

    8

    Check the flow of brake fluid to the bleeder screws of the seized wheel. This will determine if the hydraulic brake fluid is properly functioning. Have someone pump the brake pedal 4 times and open the bleeder screw with a hand wrench. If no fluid comes out of the bleeder screw, remove it. Have the helper step on the brake pedal again. If fluid comes out, replace the bleeder screw or unclog it. If fluid still does not come out, replace the bleeder screw and disconnect the brake hose. Press the pedal again. If fluid does not come out or barely trickles out, the brake hose should be replaced. Bleed the brake system any time you replace a hydraulic brake component.

    9

    Inspect the master cylinder and power brake booster. To determine a bad master cylinder, place a brake line lock on each brake hose at all 4 wheels. Have someone step on the brake pedal and remove 1 line lock at a time. The pedal should remain high and hard until the lines are removed and then slight pressure will release off each line lock removed. If the pedal drops to the floor during the removal of 1 line lock, there's a hydraulic problem with that particular wheel. If the pedal remains high and hard once all the line locks are removed, the master cylinder may be the problem. Check the vacuum line for the brake booster. Replace the master cylinder and bleed the system.

Jumat, 25 Maret 2011

Caliper Removal on a '96 Aerostar

In the 1986 model year, Ford decided to take a shot at the minivan market with the release of the Aerostar. The Aerostar was unlike other minivans of its era, as Ford based it on the same platform as the Ranger, making it a rear-wheel drive vehicle that handled more like a pickup than a car. By 1996, the Aerostars production life was coming to an end, as Ford was set to eliminate it after the 1997 model year. The standard brake configuration on the 1996 Aerostar was front disc and rear drum, and replacing the calipers on the standard front brakes is slightly unusual, as two compression pins secure the caliper instead of bolts.

Instructions

Removal

    1

    Loosen the front lug nuts with a ratchet and socket, and raise the front of the Aerostar with a floor jack. Slide jack stands under the vans frame rails and lower the vehicle onto the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels from the vehicle.

    2

    Wrap a thick shop cloth around the middle of the brake caliper hose and clamp a set of locking pliers over the shop cloth to seal the hose shut. Position a drain pan under the caliper hose and remove the banjo bolt securing the hose to the caliper, using a ratchet and socket. Remove the banjo bolt, then pull the hose and two brass washers from the caliper.

    3

    Position a caliper pin removal tool, Ford tool No. D89T-2196-A, or an equivalent drift punch on the upper caliper pin, so it is at approximately a 45-degree angle to the retaining tabs on the pin. Strike the caliper pin removal tool or drift punch with a hammer to compress the caliper pin until it starts sliding into its hole between the caliper and bracket. Adjust the caliper pin removal tool or drift punch so it is in a direct line with the caliper pin and lightly strike the tool with a hammer until the caliper pin falls from the rear of the caliper. Repeat this step on the lower caliper pin and remove the caliper.

    4

    Press both ends of the outer brake pad toward the inner brake pad to disengage the tabs on the pad from the grooves in the caliper, then remove the brake pad. Pull the inner brake pad toward the outer part of the caliper to remove the pad and its metal retaining fingers from the cavity in the caliper piston.

    5

    Repeat steps 2 through 4 to remove the caliper on the other side of the Aerostar, if needed.

Installation

    6

    Align the metal retaining fingers on the rear of the inner brake pad with the cavity in the new calipers piston. Press the pad toward the piston until it seats on top of the piston. Press the outer brake pad onto the outer part of the caliper until its two tabs seat into their cutouts in the calipers body.

    7

    Position the caliper into its bracket.

    8

    Apply a generous coat of disc brake grease meeting Ford specification ESA-M1C172-A onto the new caliper pin, which comes with a new caliper. Insert the new caliper pin into the hole between the caliper and its bracket, so the tabs on the end of the pin are on the outer end of the caliper pin, and lightly strike the end of the caliper pin until the outer tabs on the pin seat against the caliper bracket. Repeat this step on the lower caliper pin to lock the caliper into place.

    9

    Slide a new brass washer two new washers come with the new caliper onto the caliper hoses banjo bolt and insert the banjo bolt through the hole in the end of the brake line. Slide the second washer onto the banjo bolt and hand-thread the bolt into the caliper. Tighten the banjo bolt to between 30 and 39 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    10

    Release the locking pliers from the brake caliper hose and unwrap the shop towel from the hose.

    11

    Repeat steps 1 through 5 to reinstall the other caliper, if applicable.

    12

    Bleed the brakes.

Bleeding the Brakes

    13

    Unscrew the cap from the master cylinder reservoir and add DOT 3 brake fluid to the reservoir until the fluid level reaches the Max line.

    14

    Find the bleeder valve the 1/4-inch metal valve on the right-front brake line and press a 1/4-inch-diameter rubber hose on the valve. Set the other end of the hose into a clean, clear container.

    15

    Fill the clean and clear container with new DOT 3 brake fluid until the fluid submerges the end of the rubber hose.

    16

    Open the bleeder valve by turning it 3/4 of a turn counterclockwise with a combination wrench and instruct an assistant to slowly press the brake pedal to the floor. Watch the submerged end of the brake hose for air bubbles.

    17

    Close the bleeder valve and instruct your assistant to release the brake pedal.

    18

    Repeat steps 3 and 4 until no air bubbles come from the end of the rubber hose.

    19

    Remove the rubber hose from the bleeder valve and fill the master cylinder reservoir to the Max line with new DOT 3 brake fluid.

    20

    Repeat steps 4 through 7 to bleed the left-front caliper, if you replaced it.

    21

    Reinstall the front wheels on the front hubs and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the van off the jack stands with a floor jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the van to the ground and torque the lug nuts, in a crisscross pattern, to 100 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

Rabu, 23 Maret 2011

How to Adjust a Parking Brake on a 2001 GMC Savana

The parking brake takes the strain off the 2002 GMC Savana's transmission while the van is in park. The parking brake can be used as a backup brake in the event of a failure of the main braking system--this is why parking brakes are sometimes called emergency brakes. Over the course of time an automobile's parking brake cables tend to stretch out and need to be adjusted tighter in order for the parking brake to function properly. You can make the adjustment yourself from home using a few tools you can purchase from an auto parts store. If you normally do your own repairs, you probably already own these tools.

Instructions

    1

    Lift up on the parking brake handle five clicks.

    2

    Put two wheel chocks in front of the two front wheels and two wheel chocks behind the front wheels. Put the jack under the rear of the vehicle and raise the Savana high enough to slide jack stands under the frame rail on either side of the rear of the van. Lower the Savana onto the jack stands using the jack.

    3

    Find the adjustment nut on the parking brake cable under the Savana.

    4

    Use a wrench to tighten the adjustment nut. Test the adjustment by spinning the left rear wheel in a backward motion. If it takes both hands to spin it backward and it locks when you try to spin it forward, then you have adjusted it correctly.

    5

    Disengage the emergency brake and spin each of the rear wheels. They should spin easily without any drag.

    6

    Raise the vehicle with the jack, remove the jack stands, and lower the vehicle to the ground. Remove the wheel chocks.

The Installation of Brakes on a 1998 Dodge Ram Pickup

The Installation of Brakes on a 1998 Dodge Ram Pickup

Large trucks, such as the 1998 Dodge Ram, require frequent inspection of the brake pads, as they are heavier than passenger cars and wear out brake pads quicker than cars. Typically, the pads should be checked at every oil change interval, and you can anticipate replacing the pads every 20,000 to 30,000 miles. Towing and heavy hauling can shorten the lifespan of brakes, leading to more frequent repairs. The pad replacement process is the same for all three sizes of the 1998 Ram -- 1500, 2500 and 3500.

Instructions

    1

    Open the Ram's hood and locate the plastic brake fluid container at the rear of the engine compartment, on the driver's side. Remove the lid from the container and siphon out half of the fluid, using a turkey baster.

    2

    Loosen the front lug nuts on the front wheels, using a ratchet and socket.

    3

    Raise the front of the Ram, using the floor jack, and place jack stands under the frame rails. Slowly lower the jack until the weight of the truck rests solely on the jack stands. Leave the jack in place, but not bearing any weight.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts from the Ram's front wheels and pull the wheels from the vehicle.

    5

    Look on the rear-most portion of the brake caliper and locate the two bolts, one upper and one lower. These are known as caliper pins. Loosen and remove the caliper pins, with the ratchet and socket, notice the pins are threaded at the top, then are non-threaded pins at the bottom 1/3.

    6

    Remove the caliper by pulling it up and away from the brake assembly, notice the pads remain attached to the caliper. Attach the caliper to a suspension component, using the bungee strap.

    7

    Place the flathead screwdriver under one side of the metal clip on the rear of the outer brake pad. Pry upward on the clip, with the screwdriver, and pull the pad from the caliper.

    8

    Place the 8-inch C-clamp over the caliper so the stationary side is contacting the rear of the caliper and the screw portion touches the inner brake pad. Tighten the C-clamp and observe as the pad descends toward the caliper body. Continue tightening until the pad fully contacts the caliper body. Loosen and remove the C-clamp.

    9

    Place the flathead screwdriver beneath the inner brake pad and pry upward, slightly. Grab the pad by hand and pull it from the caliper. Notice metal, finger-like, clips secure the pad inside the cavity of the caliper piston.

    10

    Place the new inner brake pad over the cavity in the caliper piston, lining up the metal clips with the piston cavity. Press the pad downward until the metal clips are fully inserted into the piston, and the pad sits flat against the caliper.

    11

    Place the outer pad against the caliper, and press it onto the caliper until the clips seat in the grooves on the caliper's body.

    12

    Spray the caliper pins with the brake parts cleaner and wipe it clean with the shop rag. Apply a generous coat of anti-seize to both the non-threaded pin and the threaded portion of the caliper pin. This prevents the pin from locking up and eases future removal.

    13

    Remove the caliper from the bungee strap and place it on the brake assembly. Tighten the upper and lower caliper pins to 22 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and socket.

    14

    Repeat Steps 5 through 13 for the pads on the other side of the Ram.

    15

    Place the wheels on the vehicle and hand-tighten them. Raise the truck using the floor jack, remove the jack stands from under it and slowly lower the Ram to the ground.

    16

    Tighten the lug nuts to 135 foot-pounds of torque, using the torque wrench and a socket.

    17

    Look at the brake master cylinder container, under the hood, and locate the level marks: "Max" and "Min." If the fluid is not between the "Max" and "Min" marks, add new DOT 3 brake fluid until it reaches this point.

    18

    Create line pressure in the brake system by pressing and releasing the brake pedal until it feels firm.

Selasa, 22 Maret 2011

How to Rebuild a Lucas Caliper

How to Rebuild a Lucas Caliper

Solid brakes are a critical safety component in any automobile. Modern disc brake systems employ a combination of master cylinders and wheel calipers. If your car pulls to one side when you apply the brakes or if you notice a loss of brake fluid, chances are that one of your wheel calipers is not functioning properly and should be rebuilt. Fortunately, once the caliper is out of the car, rebuilding it is fairly easy.

Instructions

    1

    Secure the wheel caliper in the bench vice. Gently apply air pressure to the brake line so that the piston slides almost all the way out. Wiggle the piston with your fingers and pull it out of the caliper. If it is stubborn, remove the piston with the channel-lock pliers. Once the piston is out, remove the piston boot and seal, using the flathead screwdriver to pry it out of the groove.

    2

    Remove the black, rubber piston seal from the piston by inserting the flathead screwdriver into the groove and prying it out. Slide the piston seal off and discard it. Clean the piston and caliper bore with brake-cleaner spray.

    3

    Install the new piston seal. Dip the new seal into new brake fluid. Ensure that it is oriented properly and slide the new seal onto the piston. The wide edge of the seal should be facing toward the end of the piston that slides into the caliper. Examine the piston and caliper bore and ensure that both are spotless and clean.

    4

    Dip the piston and seal assembly into new brake fluid and carefully slide the piston into the caliper. Ensure that the new seal seats properly as the piston enters the caliper bore. Clean the boot seal groove with brake-cleaner spray and install the new cylinder boot and seal. Tap it gently into place with a large socket and the rubber mallet. Spray the entire assembly with brake cleaner and remove any residual brake fluid from the exterior. The caliper is now ready to install.

How to Remove a Honda Accord Front Wheel Rotor

The Honda Accord brake rotor is a metal plate that turns on the axle and causes the vehicle to stop when the brake pads are pushed against the rotor by the cylinder on the brake caliper. Occasionally, the rotor can get scratched or gouged from dirt or rocks and cause the brakes to stop unevenly. Removing the brake rotor is a job that you can do in about an hour or two, saving yourself some money.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Honda Accord on a level surface and set the parking brake to prevent the vehicle from moving. Place a wood block behind one of the rear wheels and loosen the lug nuts a couple of turns with a tire tool on the wheel you are going to remove.

    2

    Raise the vehicle up in the front with a floor jack and slide a jack stand underneath the axle next to the wheel. Lower the floor jack and move it out of the way.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts with the tire tool and set the wheel out of the way. Unfasten the top and bottom bolts on the brake caliper with a socket wrench and slide the bolts out by hand.

    4

    Take the brake caliper off the rotor and remove the brake pads from the inside of the caliper. Suspend the caliper from the vehicle frame with a wire hanger to keep it out of the way. Never let the brake caliper hang from the brake line.

    5

    Move the rotor back and forth gently to loosen it up from the wheel hub and slide the rotor off the hub. Remove the rotor from the hub of the Honda Accord and set it in a safe place.

Sabtu, 19 Maret 2011

How to Remove the Parking Brake Cable

From time to time, the cable that runs from the parking brake lever inside the vehicle to the actual brake will weaken, break or simply stretch. When this happens, you must replace the cable for safe operation of the vehicle. To remove the cable there are a number of safety measures to perform before undertaking this job.

Instructions

    1

    Chock the front tires to prevent the vehicle from rolling forward off the jacks that are under the rear axle. Without stoppers in front and behind the front tires you risk the vehicle rolling forward or backward and falling off the jack stands. If you are under the vehicle when that happens, you will be seriously hurt if not killed.

    2

    Jack the rear axle of the car up to allow the back wheels to rotate freely. Place jack stands under the rear axle to stabilize the car as you work under it on the brake system.

    3

    Loosen the lug nuts on the wheel and take the wheel off the vehicle. Once you have removed the wheel you need to remove the drum from the wheel. The drum may stick a bit so gentle tapping may be required to loosen it from the wheel. Once the drum is off the wheel, you will be able to see the brake shoes. The brake mechanism and the end of the emergency cable attachment point can be located. Remove the old cable by disassembling the mechanism. Exercise caution to dismantle only to the point where the cable comes free.

    4

    Remove the old cable by feeding it through the opening and thread the new cable back through the opening. Reattach the brake mechanism. Now it is possible to remount the drum and attach the rim and wheel.

    5

    Use the socket wrench to loosen the two bolts that hold the end of the cable to the inside of the wheel. For seized bolts, apply a small amount of penetrating oil. Allow the oil to work for about 15 minutes and then try again. Disconnect the cable from the backside of the wheel.

    6

    Follow the cable forward and locate where it enters the inside of the car. Move inside the car and find the cable. Continue to follow the cable until you locate the attachment point either on the console or next to the brake in the floorboard of the driver side seat.

    7

    Loosen the nut that applies tension to the cable until the cable is free from the parking brake handle and mechanism on the inside of the vehicle.

Jumat, 18 Maret 2011

How to Inspect a Brake Pad Before Installation

Some vehicles with disc brakes have wide-open rims and easily accessible and visual calipers to allow you to look in at the pads to monitor their thickness. Of course, you can't see the inboard pad, so you're getting only half the job done. And just because the visual outboard pad has plenty of friction material doesn't always mean the inboard pad does as well. Some vehicles do not even offer the luxury of viewing the outboard pad without removing the wheel, and for other vehicles, you must remove the caliper to see the wear on the pads.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle on a flat, paved surface. Apply the parking brake if you're checking the front brake pads, but do not apply it if you're checking the rear pads. Many rear disc brake vehicles incorporate the caliper as part of the braking system, and if you apply the parking brake, you may not be able to remove the caliper to inspect the pads.

    2

    Place a wheel chock behind one of the rear tires if you're checking the front pads or in front of one of the front tires if you're checking the rear pads.

    3

    Break the lug nuts loose on both left and right tires of the axle you're inspecting the pads on using a breaker bar and a socket. Lift the axle, one side at a time, with the floor jack and place the jack stand(s) in a safe and secure place. You can inspect one side at a time or lift both sides to elevate the entire axle. Remove the lug nuts and the wheel.

    4

    Look at the caliper to see if there is a porthole in the front housing of it. On some vehicles this will give you a visual of the pad from the side. Compare the distance of the backing plate of the pad to the surface of the rotor. Some vehicles may have a metal hardware clip preventing you from inspecting the pads this way. And some may not even have a porthole. No matter if the vehicle does or does not, the best way to inspect the pads for sure is to remove the caliper.

    5

    Locate the two caliper bolts and remove them with the ratchet and a socket. Sometimes one bolt is different from the other one, so pay attention to which is the upper and lower as you remove them.

    6

    Pry the caliper off the pads and rotors (and in some cases, the pads will be clipped directly to the caliper as you pry it off) using the flathead screwdriver. Remove the pads from the caliper or the caliper anchor, and again, in the event you're just inspecting them and not replacing them, incorporate a relationship with each pad and its position in the anchor or caliper to replace it in the same manner you removed it.

    7

    Determine the wear of each pad. Things to look for are that the pads are wearing evenly with one another and evenly across the plain of the individual pad itself. Uneven or angled wear on a single pad could mean the pad is getting cocked or stuck in the anchor. Uneven wear between the two pads could mean one pad isn't sliding well or is stuck in the anchor. The thickness of the friction material of the pads that are wearing evenly and properly is equally important. Depending on driving conditions and braking habits, you want a good thickness of the pad.

    8

    Use the depth gauge to measure the thickness of the pad in 1/32-inch increments (common U.S. measurement). Place the depth gauge stop on the friction material of the pad and depress the lever to the backing plate of the pad to get the reading.

How to Install Brake Pads on a Ford F150

How to Install Brake Pads on a Ford F150

Replacing the brake pads on your Ford F150 is part of the disc-brake maintenance schedule. This will ensure proper braking and operation of the brake system. Some F150 models come equipped with front and rear brake pads, while other models come with brake shoes installed on the rear wheel assemblies.

Instructions

Remove the Brake Pads

    1

    Remove half the brake fluid from the brake master cylinder with a hand siphon pump.

    2

    Loosen the lugs on the wheel assembly with a lug wrench.

    3

    Shift the transmission to neutral.

    4

    Chock the wheels you will not be working on using wooden blocks.

    5

    Raise the wheel that needs the new brake pads using a floor jack, and safely support the vehicle on a jack stand.

    6

    Remove the tire.

    7

    Unscrew the brake caliper mounting bolts from the brake rotor with a wrench or ratchet and socket.

    8

    Secure the caliper on the vehicle body with a piece of wire to avoid damage to the brake hose attached to the brake caliper.

    9

    Remove the brake pads and retaining clips by hand from the caliper bracket on top of the brake rotor.

Install the Brake Pads

    10

    Clean the wheel/hub assembly with brake parts cleaner and a shop rag.

    11

    Place one of the old brake pads over the brake caliper piston, and compress the piston into its bore with a C-clamp.

    12

    Install the new brake pads and new retaining clips on the brake caliper-mounting bracket by hand.

    13

    Mount the brake caliper over the caliper bracket and tighten the two caliper mounting bolts with a wrench or ratchet and socket.

    14

    Set the tire over the wheel/hub assembly and secure the tire with the wheel lugs.

    15

    Lower the vehicle.

    16

    Finish tightening the wheel lugs with the lug wrench.

    17

    Depress the brake pedal several times to adjust the new brake pads over the brake rotor.

    18

    Refill the brake master cylinder with new brake fluid until the level reaches somewhere between the "Low" and "Full" marks.

Kamis, 17 Maret 2011

How to Replace Rotors on a 2000 Nissan Altima

How to Replace Rotors on a 2000 Nissan Altima

The 2000 Nissan Altima came equipped with four-wheel anti-lock disc brakes. The main components of disc brakes are the rotors, which are smooth metal discs connected directly to the wheels of the vehicle. The brake pads are squeezed against the rotor to slow and eventually stop the Altima during braking. Brake pad wear indicators grind into the surface of the rotor, causing scoring. Scored rotors will wear brake pads prematurely and compromise the stopping power of the anti-lock braking system. While there is the option of resurfacing scored rotors, warped rotors must be replaced as soon as possible.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Nissan Altima in an area that will allow you to safely work on both sides of the vehicle. Put the transmission in park, and engage the parking brake.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts with a lug wrench or 21 mm socket and breaker bar.

    3

    Raise the Altima with a lifting jack so that the tires are completely off the ground, and place jack stands beneath the frame of the vehicle. Remove the lug nuts and take the wheels from the wheel bolts.

    4

    Remove the two caliper slide bolts on the side of the caliper farthest from you with a ratchet and 13 mm socket.

    5

    Remove the caliper from the rotor and caliper bridge and place it on top of the steering arm. Remove the brake pads by pulling them from the front and back side of the rotor. The brake pads rest in the caliper bridge on either side of the brake rotor.

    6

    Remove the two bolts on the caliper bridge with a ratchet and a 15 mm socket. Pull the caliper bridge from the rotor.

    7

    Pull the rotor from the wheel bolts. Spray chain lubricant on the wheel bolts to loosen the bond of rust holding the rotor to the wheel.

    8

    Clean the new rotor with brake cleaner. Wipe all of the surfaces of the rotor clean before installing it.

    9

    Replace the caliper bridge onto the new rotor. Screw in the caliper bridge bolts with the ratchet and 15 mm socket.

    10

    Inspect the brake pads for wear. Replace the brake pads if necessary. Insert the brake pads onto the caliper bridge, on either side of the rotor.

    11

    Place the caliper over the caliper bridge and screw on the caliper slide bolts with the ratchet and 13 mm socket.

    12

    Place the wheel onto the wheel bolts and screw on the lug nuts.

    13

    Remove the jack stands, and lower the Altima to the ground with the lifting jack. Tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

Rabu, 16 Maret 2011

How to Replace Brake Rotors on a Ford Focus

How to Replace Brake Rotors on a Ford Focus

The Focus is an entry-level small car from Ford Motors. The Focus made its worldwide debut during the 2000 model year. The original 2000 offering was plagued by recalls. Ford managed to quickly address the initial design deficiencies, and later Focus models fared much better as far as reliability. Over the years, most Focus trim levels were supplied with standard front-disk brakes and rear-drum brakes; however, rear disk brakes were available as an option on many models. The rear-disk-brake design incorporates a mechanical emergency brake mechanism into the brake hydraulic piston. Because of this, the rear-brake service procedure requires that the pistons be screwed rather than pushed back in to the cylinders. Focus owners can easily do their own disk-brake servicing so long as they are aware of the correct procedures for the front and rear brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Park the car on a firm and level surface. Put automatic transmissions in park and manual transmissions in first or reverse gear. When servicing a front brake, set the emergency brake and securely block both rear wheels. When servicing a rear brake, do not set the emergency brake but securely block both front wheels. Loosen the lug nuts about one full turn each. Jack up the car and support it securely on a safety stand. Completely remove the lug nuts and pull off the wheel.

    2

    Remove the protective rubber caps from the heads of the two caliper bolts and remove the bolts. Grip the caliper assembly and roll it back and forth a few times to spread the brake pads slightly. Then lift the caliper assembly off the disk. Take care not to stretch or damage the rubber brake hose. Hang the caliper out of the way on the nearby suspension spring, using a wire hook or piece of cord.

    3

    Pry the outside brake pad wire-retaining clip off the outside of the caliper bracket with a screwdriver. Take care not to damage the clip. Slide the pads and shims out of the caliper bracket.

    4

    Retract the caliper piston. When servicing front brakes, hook a large C-clamp over the back of the caliper and place the spindle end against the piston face. Tighten the C-clamp to push the piston back into the cylinder. Be careful not to damage the piston seal.

    When servicing rear brakes, hook a large C-clamp over the back of the caliper bracket and place the spindle end against the piston face. Tighten the C-clamp against the piston to put firm pressure on the piston face, but do not try to force the piston back. Grip the outside of the piston with large Channellock pliers and rotate the piston clockwise to screw it back into the cylinder. Keep the backward pressure on the piston by retightening the C-clamp after every few turns of the piston. Be careful not to damage the piston seal.

    5

    Grasp the disk and pull it off the hub. If the disk is seized to the hub, firmly tap the center part of the disk with a rubber or plastic mallet to loosen it. If you plan on reusing the disk, do not hit the disk outer rim or the braking surface area.

    6

    Reverse the steps to reassemble the brake, using the new brake disk. Thoroughly clean the hub and caliper bolts with brake-cleaning fluid before installing the new disk. Lubricate them well with brake grease before reinserting them into the caliper mounts. Start the car and pump the brakes a few times to extend the retracted brake piston to the proper position. Lower the car. Test the brakes before driving normally.

How to Visually Inspect Car Brakes

How to Visually Inspect Car Brakes

Your brakes are the most important part of the vehicle and keeping them in good shape should be a priority. Regularly inspecting your car's brakes can help identify potential problems that can be fixed before they turn into major issues. Most visual inspections consist of looking at the condition of the brake pads and rotors, as well as the brake lines and calipers. Always inspect your brakes at least twice a year to prevent problems and insure that they perform at their best.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts with a lug wrench and lift the vehicle off the ground with a floor jack or garage lift. Finish removing the lug nuts and pull the wheel off of the axle. This will expose the brake hardware. Apply brake cleaner to the brake hardware and wipe it off with a shop towel.

    2

    Check for instances of rust on the calipers and hub. Small amounts of surface rust on the caliper can be removed with a wire brush. Rust on the caliper can be rubbed off with the application of the brakes during a short drive, but consider replacing the rotors if there is a heavy amount of rust.

    3

    Check the brake pads for signs of wear. Brake pads that are less than 1 mm thick should be replaced with new pads. Remove the pads by removing the caliper from the brake rotor and check them for uneven wear. Unequal wear on the brake pads signals problems in the brake hardware.

    4

    Check the brake rotor for signs of wear, including excess grooves, discoloration and warping. If the rotor has grooves on its surface, run a fingernail across the grooves. If your fingernail catches one or more of the grooves, your rotor needs to be turned in order to remove them.

    5

    Check the brake flex hose at the caliper for signs of aging and wear, including cracks in the rubber lining of the hose. The hoses themselves should be soft and flexible. Brake fluid on the hose indicates a leak and the hose should be replaced. Check the brake lines that run underneath the vehicle for signs of corrosion and rust.

Selasa, 15 Maret 2011

How to Change the Brakes on a 1999 Ford Truck

How to Change the Brakes on a 1999 Ford Truck

Changing the brakes on a 1999 Ford truck involves removing and replacing four components. The brake caliper, brake pads, caliper mount and rotor must be replaced with new components sized to fit the truck. Brake rotors are shipped with a layer of packing oil on the surfaces to protect the rotor. Remove the oil before you put the new rotor to use. Also, monitor the level of brake fluid during brake replacement to ensure that an ample supply is available to the braking system after the repair.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Ford truck on a relatively flat surface. Engage the parking brake and place tire blocks behind the rear tires.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts with the socket end of a tire iron, or with a 21 mm socket and breaker bar.

    3

    Lift the truck with a lifting jack, and place jack stands beneath the frame.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts fully, and pull the wheels from the wheel bolts.

    5

    Remove the two caliper slide bolts from the inside wall of the caliper, using a 13 mm wrench.

    6

    Remove the two bolts on the caliper mounting bracket, using a 15 mm wrench.

    7

    Pull the caliper from the caliper mounting bracket.

    8

    Remove the brake pads from the caliper mounting bracket, and pull the caliper mounting bracket from the rotor.

    9

    Pull the rotor from the wheel bolts. Tap on the back side of the rotor if it is stuck to the wheel bolts or the steering knuckle.

    10

    Unscrew the fastener that connects the brake line to the caliper. Place a drip pan beneath the brake line to catch any leaking brake fluid.

    11

    Spray the new rotor with brake cleaner spray, and wipe all the surfaces of the rotor with a clean cloth.

    12

    Place the new rotor onto the wheel bolts, making sure that the "top hat" section of the rotor is facing outward.

    13

    Place the caliper mounting bracket around the rotor. Screw on the caliper mounting bracket bolts with a 15 mm wrench.

    14

    Place the new brake pads into the new caliper. Place the new caliper onto the caliper mounting bracket, and screw on the caliper slide bolts with the 13 mm wrench.

    15

    Connect the brake line to the new caliper, and screw the fastener to secure the connection.

    16

    Replace the wheel to the wheel bolts and screw on the lug nuts.

    17

    Lift the truck to remove the jack stands, and lower the truck to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts with the socket and breaker bar or the socket end of the tire iron.

    18

    Lift the hood of the truck, and remove the cap to the master cylinder.

    19

    Press the brake pedal three times, and hold the pedal in the depressed position.

    20

    Fill the master cylinder with brake fluid. Replace the cap on the master cylinder and close the hood.

How to Install 1967 Camaro Brake Lines

How to Install 1967 Camaro Brake Lines

The 1967 Chevrolet Camaro uses hydraulic lines to transfer brake fluid from the master cylinder to the calipers and wheel cylinders at each wheel. Over time, the steel lines attached to the vehicle's frame can rust and begin to leak, and the rubber lines that connect the calipers and wheel cylinders to the steel lines can become brittle with age and leak. Replacing hydraulic brake lines is within the abilities of the home mechanic and can be done with only a few simple tools.

Instructions

Removing a Brake Line

    1

    On a level surface, raise the vehicle and support with jack stands placed underneath the frame or axles. Never work under a car held up only by a jack.

    2

    Remove the wheels.

    3

    Remove the cap on the master cylinder, which will be located on the driver's side of the engine bay on the firewall (behind the dashboard). Drain the brake fluid from the cylinder.

    4

    Disconnect the brake line from the master cylinder or proportioning valve by loosening the fitting.

    5

    Follow the brake line and remove the brake line retention brackets that hold the steel line to the frame.

    6

    Disconnect the rubber brake line from from the wheel cylinder or brake caliper. The flexible rubber lines will attach to the steel lines on the frame.

    7

    Remove the brake line from the vehicle.

Installing a Brake Line

    8

    Connect the new rubber brake lines to each wheel cylinder or brake caliper, and also to the new metal brake lines.

    9

    Follow the metal brake line towards the master cylinder and reinstall the bolts and clips that secure the brake line to the frame.

    10

    Reconnect the brake line to the master cylinder or proportioning valve.

Bleeding the Brake System

    11

    It is best to have another person assist you with filling the brake system with fluid and bleeding air from the lines.

    Fill the master cylinder reservoir with fresh brake fluid. Do not allow the master cylinder to run dry at any time during the bleeding process.

    12

    Attach a small length of clear hose to the bleeder valve on the master cylinder. Submerge the other end of the tube in a container filled with brake fluid. Make sure the hose stays submerged in the brake fluid at all times to prevent air from entering the lines.

    13

    Have an assistant inside the vehicle operate the brake pedal. Pump the brake pedal up and down a few times and then hold it down. Open the bleeder valve on the master cylinder while your assistant holds the pedal down. After you open the valve, the brake pedal will slowly fall towards the floor. Close the valve just before the brake pedal reaches the floor.

    14

    Repeat the process and watch the brake fluid flowing through the clear tube. Continue bleeding the master cylinder until no air bubbles appear in the tube.

    15

    If there is a bleeder valve on the proportioning valve, bleed it next using the technique listed above.

    16

    Move to the wheel closest to the master cylinder. On most vehicles this will be the left front. Bleed this wheel using the technique listed above, except use the bleeder valve on the wheel cyclinder.

    17

    Continue bleeding the brakes at each wheel in the following order: right front, left rear and finally right rear.

    18

    Reinstall the wheels and tires.

    19

    Lower the vehicle.

Senin, 14 Maret 2011

How to Replace a Rear Brake Pad

How to Replace a Rear Brake Pad

Rear brake pads, called "brake shoes," are used on vehicles equipped with drum brakes in the rear of the vehicle. A drum brake consists of a steel housing (a drum) and pads (brake shoes). When you press the brake pedal, it pushes hydraulic fluid through the system, which pushes the shoes against the drum. Since these are friction wear parts, over time, the brake shoes will wear down and you will have to replace them. Usually this is necessary when the brake pad is 1/8-inch thick.

Instructions

    1

    Place the socket end of the wrench over the lug nuts and turn the wrench 1/8 turn counterclockwise.

    2

    Put the vehicle in 1st gear. If it is an automatic, then leave it in park and engage the emergency brake.

    3

    Jack up the rear of the vehicle using the rear jack point. This should be near the trunk area and will be an extension of the vehicle's main frame.

    4

    Finish removing the lug nuts from the wheel and take the wheel off the hub assembly.

    5

    Remove the spindle bolts and take off the outer drum. You may need to hit the outer drum with a hammer to knock the rust and corrosion loose before being able to remove the drum.

    6

    Carefully remove the return spring for each of the brake shoes using the brake spring removal tool.

    7

    Hold the back of the retainer pin and place the brake shoe removal tool over the retainer clip. Press the tool in, and then turn it counterclockwise which will remove the spring and the retainer. The brake shoes should come right off at this point.

    8

    Spray all of the brake parts down--including the inner drum--with brake parts cleaner. Put the new brake shoes on. Installation is the reverse of removal.

    9

    Put the wheel back on and tighten the lug nuts. Then, lower the vehicle to the ground and torque the lug nuts to 100 foot-lbs. with the torque wrench.

How to Replace a Caliper in a Mazda6

The Mazda6 may be a small car, but the importance of the brakes is huge. Any wear or cracks on a brake caliper means it must be replaced. Get help or advice from your mechanic or another expert before you dare take on such an important task yourself.

Instructions

Removing the Old

    1

    Disconnect the cable from the negative battery terminal. Do this before any auto maintenance. The cable should snap right off the terminal.

    2

    Remove the tire and wheel assembly once the car is securely raised.
    Use the "five-star" pattern to remove the lug nuts, removing the nut across from the one previously removed.

    3

    Detach the parking brake cable clip from the caliper assembly if you are working on a rear caliper.

    4

    Unhook the brake hose from the caliper. Throw away the washers on the bolt; you need to use new ones when re-installing. Plug the hose with a piece of rubber so you won't lose or contaminate the brake fluid.

    5

    Take the caps off the caliper mounting bolts and remove the bolts. Pivot the caliper up so it clears the rotor and slide it inboard off the pin sleeve.

Installing the New

    6

    Install the new caliper on the rotor/bracket. Torque the caliper mounting bolts appropriately and install the bolt caps.

    7

    Connect the brake hose to the caliper. Using new washers with it, tighten the bolt to 16 foot pounds to 21 foot pounds. Make sure the brake hose isn't twisted.

    8

    Reattach the parking brake cable clip onto the rear caliper.

    9

    Fill the master cylinder with clean brake fluid to the maximum level and bleed the hydraulic system.

    10

    Reconnect the wheel and lower the car. Pump the brake pedal several times until firm to seat the pads.

Sabtu, 12 Maret 2011

How to Replace a 1990 Honda Rotor

The 1990 Honda models were manufactured with hydraulically actuated disk brake systems that require routine rotor maintenance. Replacing or resurfacing the rotor can improve the stopping power and lifespan of the braking system. The average backyard mechanic can replace a Honda rotor in about 20 minutes.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the front end of the Honda onto a pair of jack stands with a floor jack, placing the stands on the frame rails. Do not place the stands onto the engine mounts or suspension parts. Remove the front wheels by turning their lug nuts in a counterclockwise direction, then pulling the wheels loose. Set them aside, away from the car.

    2

    Remove the calipers by turning the rear caliper mount bolts (two per caliper) counterclockwise, then sliding the calipers off of the rotors. Remove the pads from the calipers, and set them onto the top control arms. Do not let the calipers dangle by the brake lines.

    3

    Pull the rotors free from the hubs, or pry them loose if they are rusted together. Replace the rotors with fresh units, and press them onto the hubs over the lug bolts. They may rest slightly off center, as the wheels hold these parts together once assembled.

    4

    Place the pads back into the calipers, if applicable, or replace them with new pads. Slide the calipers over the rotors, and turn the caliper mount bolts clockwise. Replace the wheels by turning the lug nuts in a clockwise direction, in an alternating pattern. Lower the Honda from the jack stands with the floor jack.

How to Replace the Rotor in a Chrysler Sebring

If your Chrysler Sebring is shaking and shuddering to a stop more often than not, chances are that's it's time for new rotors. Rotors, also known as brake discs, only need to be to replaced if they become warped or worn down and can't be resurfaced. Luckily, the process for changing them is fairly easy and you can do it in your own garage.

Instructions

    1

    Drain half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder. Raise your Sebring using a jack and jack stands to properly support your car.

    2

    Block the wheels that you aren't working on to keep the car from rolling while you work. Remove the first tire and wheel assembly.

    3

    Unfasten and pull out the caliper mounting bolts. Next, tighten a c-clamp onto the caliper to retract the piston into the caliper bore. This should allow you to pivot the caliper off of the brake disc.

    4

    Remove the c-clamp and then suspend the caliper and attached brake line using wire or something similar to keep it out of the way. Just don't let the caliper get connected from the brake hose while you work. Pull off the old rotor and set it aside. Clean the area with a damp cloth to remove any corrosion.

    5

    Install the new rotor onto the wheel mounting studs. Use the c-clamp again to retract the piston to get the caliper and brake line back into place on the rotor. Tighten the caliper mounting bolts with a torque wrench to 65 ft. lbs. (88 Nm).

    6

    Put the wheel assembly and tire back together and then repeat this process for each rotor. Then lower your Chrysler Sebring, tighten and torque the lug nuts, and refill the master cylinder with new brake fluid.

    7

    Pump the brake until the pedal is firm and then road test your Sebring to make sure that the installation was successful.

The Consequences of Not Replacing Worn Brake Rotors

The Consequences of Not Replacing Worn Brake Rotors

Driving on badly worn rotors leads to a host of brake problems. Well-maintained rotors keep your automobile safe. The key to being safe lies in paying attention to signs of worn rotors. If your brake system makes any squealing sound, vibrates, pulsates, wobbles or shakes, the entire system needs to be checked. Checking the system means inspecting the rotors and pads for wear and the fluid level of the system. Worn rotors can lead to dire consequences.

Brake Fade

    Worn rotors have less mass and therefore heat up rapidly, because the rotors no longer can absorb and dissipate the heat evenly. The rapid heat absorption leads to brake fade and accelerated pad wear. In brake fade, the rotors and pads get so hot that it boils the brake fluid in the calipers, which results in spongy brakes and less brake force. In the case of accelerated pad wear, the heated rotor develops rough spots, and these in turn eat away at the pad faster. If the rotor overheats, in most cases there isn't enough rotor to resurface, and the rotor needs to be replaced.

Brake Pulsation

    According to Carroll Smith, a leading brake expert, brake rotor warp does not exist. Brake rotors do not become so heated that the brake rotor material warps. He explains that brake rotors become uneven due to pad material being transferred to the rotor, and not the rotor itself warping. The pads become so hot that the heat melts the pad material onto the rotor, forming a new material called cementite. Cementite is a rough material and a poor heat sink. Brake rotor unevenness leads to pad wear, and if unchecked, pulsation with high-speed braking. This means the tires wobble and vibrate, leading to a jerky steering column and to anti-lock brake system failure. Replacement of the rotor is critical in this case.

Corroded Brake Rotors

    Badly worn rotors also result from rust, corrosion and lack of use. Rust or corrosion causes unevenness in a rotor. If you drive in extreme winter conditions where they throw salt on the road, corrosion of the rotor occurs, especially if you leave the car parked for long periods of time. If you drive with a partially corroded rotor, the corroded parts wears at a different rate then the non-corroded areas of the rotor. This uneven wear results in excessive thickness variation and a badly worn rotor. Worn rotors make the caliper piston travel farther when the brakes are applied. If the distance between the caliper piston and the rotor exceeds specifications, brake fluid leaks or the piston sticks, causing brake failure. Resurfacing of the brake rotor is warranted in this case.

Jumat, 11 Maret 2011

How to Remove a Chevy Eight Lug Rear Wheel Cylinder

Many GM truck models, such as the Chevy Silverado and the GMC Sierra, have eight-lug wheels. The eight-lug wheels come equipped with rear wheel cylinders behind both rear wheels. The rear wheel cylinders are the main components that open and close the rear brakes toward and away from the brake drums. If the rear wheel cylinders malfunction or stop working, the cylinders cannot compress or open the rear brakes. Replace the rear wheel cylinders as soon as possible after they stop working or the rear brakes will not be able to function.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Chevrolet truck on a flat surface and set the parking brake.

    2

    Loosen all of the lug nuts from the wheel that needs the wheel cylinder replacement with a lug wrench.

    3

    Jack the rear of the truck up and place a jack stand under the proper rear jacking point. Lower the truck onto the jack stand and leave the jack in place.

    4

    Finish unscrewing the lug nuts from the wheel. Pull the wheel off of the brake drum and place the wheel near the work area.

    5

    Pull the brake drum off of the brake shoes. If the drum is stuck, use a rubber mallet to tap the back of the drum until it is off of the brake shoes. Place the drum on the ground.

    6

    Remove the top two brake shoe retainer springs from the top anchor pin and from the brake shoes with the brake spring removal tool. Remove the bottom two retainer springs with the brake spring removal tool. Pull the brake shoes apart and off of the backing plate. Place the brake shoes on the ground.

    7

    Place a drip pan on the ground underneath the wheel cylinder. Loosen the single hydraulic line fitting that is attached to the wheel cylinder with a hydraulic line wrench. Only loosen the hydraulic line fitting; do not remove it yet.

    8

    Loosen and remove the two mounting bolts on both sides of the wheel cylinder with a ratchet and a socket. Pull the mounting bolts out of the wheel cylinder and place them on the ground. Finish loosening and removing the hydraulic line from the wheel cylinder with the line wrench. Screw a hydraulic line plug into the end of the hydraulic line. Tighten the plug with the line wrench until the plug is tight. Pull the wheel cylinder off of the backing plate and discard it into the drip pan.

    9

    Secure the new wheel cylinder to the backing plate with the two mounting bolts. Tighten the mounting bolts down tight with the ratchet and socket. Loosen and remove the plug from the hydraulic line with the line wrench. Screw the hydraulic line fitting into the new wheel cylinder and tighten the line down tight with the line wrench.

    10

    Reattach the brake shoes to the backing plate with the top and bottom brake shoe springs. Use the brake spring removal tool to reattach the springs to the brake shoes. Slide the drip pan out from under the brake shoes.

    11

    Push the brake drum back over the brake shoes. Slide the wheel back over the brake drum and screw the lug nuts on tightly.

    12

    Jack the truck up and remove the jack stand. Lower the truck to the ground and remove the jack. Finish tightening the lug nuts down tight with the lug wrench. Start the engine and press the brake pedal five or six times to fill the new cylinder up with brake fluid. Turn the engine off and open the hood. Check the brake fluid level inside of the brake fluid reservoir and add fluid if the reservoir is low.

How to Change the Brake Pads on a 2002 Chrysler Sebring

How to Change the Brake Pads on a 2002 Chrysler Sebring

While many of the systems on your car are computer-controlled and require expensive equipment to service, brake -ystem repairs are still a good way to lower the maintenance costs of your Chrysler. Regular maintenance of the brake system on your Chrysler Sebring will allow you to identify worn brake pads before they cause damage to expensive brake components like the brake rotors and calipers. Brake-pad replacement requires only common hand tools and can be done in a couple of hours.

Instructions

    1

    Raise and support the front wheels using wheel chocks, a floor jack, and jack stands. Position the jack stands under the front sub-frame and lower the Sebring onto them to support the weight of the vehicle. Never rely on a floor jack alone to support the weight of the car. Remove the front wheels using the lug wrench.

    2

    Position a drain pan under the brake assembly. Clean the brake caliper with brake-parts cleaner to remove brake dust and prevent inhalation of the dust.

    3

    Remove the caliper slide bolts that attache the caliper to the caliper support bracket. Lift the caliper off the bracket. Remove the brake pads from the caliper bracket. Apply a small dab of silicone brake grease to the brake-pad contact points on the anti-rattle clips snapped to the caliper bracket. Apply a small dab of silicone brake grease to the caliper slide bolts.

    4

    Place an old brake pad onto the caliper piston, open the bleeder screw on top of the caliper, and use a C-clamp to push the piston completely into the caliper. Close the bleeder screw and clean off any spilled brake fluid.

    5

    Slip the new pads into the caliper bracket. Lower the caliper over the new pads and into position on the caliper bracket. Secure the caliper to the bracket using the caliper slide bolts. Torque the caliper slide bolts to 28 ft-lbs. using the torque wrench.

    6

    Repeat the process for the remaining brake assembly. Reinstall the wheels, and lower the car onto the ground. Pump the brake pedal a few times to expand the caliper pistons. Test-drive to verify the brake system functions properly.

Rabu, 09 Maret 2011

How to Change Brake Calipers

Knowing how to change brake calipers can save a lot of time and labor costs. They are also one of the most integral parts of a brake system and should be handled extremely carefully.

Instructions

Change the Brake Caliper

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the tires that are over the affected brake calipers. This is a required step when dealing with any kind of brake repair or change.

    2

    Raise the car by means of a car jack or lift. Make absolutely sure the car will not shift. A safety stand works well in this kind of situation.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts from the tire, making sure to put them in a safe place in order to prevent loss. Remove the tire and set it aside, exposing the brake mechanism.

    4

    Position a drain pan underneath the caliper and then locate the bolt, known as a "banjo" bolt, that connects the brake caliper to the brake hose. Loosen the "banjo" bolt.

    5

    Locate the bolts attaching the brake caliper to the wheel assembly and remove them. Let the brake fluid flow into the drain pan, taking care not to get the corrosive liquid on any painted surfaces or bare skin.

    6

    Drain the brake caliper to be changed and determine whether your brake caliper is "non loaded" or "semi-loaded." Should your brake caliper be "semi-loaded," you will not have to know-how to strip the original brake caliper of its mounting components.

    7

    Strip the brake caliper to be changed of its mounting components. This includes the rubber boots and the bolts and sliders of the original brake caliper. Examine these components to make sure they are not rusted, warped, torn or damaged in any way.

    8

    Apply lubricant to all of the mounting components that will be required to move once the caliper has been changed, such as the caliper sliders. Then install the mounting components on the new brake caliper.

Install the Changed Brake Caliper

    9

    Compress the caliper piston. Make sure that the piston is compressed completely, which should be done with a special caliper brake turning tool. Since different calipers have different ways of being compressed completely, consult an auto parts dealer or experienced auto mechanic on the best way to compress your brake caliper.

    10

    Replace the brake caliper on the end of the brake hose. Leave the connection loose.

    11

    Place brake pads on the new brake caliper, and then lubricate the caliper bolts and reattach the caliper to the wheel assembly. Once the new caliper has been installed, realign the brake hose so that it sits normally and finish tightening the "banjo" bolt.

    12

    Bleed the braking system by making sure the brake fluid in the master cylinder is full and attaching a length of clear tubing to the bleeder valve of the caliper. Open the caliper's bleeder valve, and have someone else fully press the brake pedal, which will force brake fluid and any impurities such as air bubbles into the jar for you to see. Repeat this procedure until no air bubbles appear in the jar, and then repeat the process again and close off the bleeder valve as your friend presses down on the brake pedal.

    13

    Refill your brake fluid.

    14

    Replace the tire and fasten the lug nuts onto the mounts. Head to the other side of the car and repeat the same process. Once you are done, test the brakes for yourself and then take the car for a very slow test drive.

How to Replace Brake Pads on a 2000 VW Beetle

How to Replace Brake Pads on a 2000 VW Beetle

The brake pads on your Volkswagen Beetle will wear down over time and eventually need changing. The pads ride in the brake calipers on the disc, and whether you're changing the pads on the front or rear end, you need to change them on both sides together. Your 2000 model Beetle can have FN3 calipers or FS III calipers, and the process can vary slightly depending on that type, so check with your mechanic first.

Instructions

Removing the Old Pads

    1

    Raise the end of the car that you are changing the pads on and support it on jack stands. Block the wheels on the opposite end and remove the wheels on the end that is raised.

    2

    Siphon at least two-thirds of the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir using a turkey baster or suction gun and dispose of it as per the laws and ordinances in your area.

    3

    Clean the entire brake disc and caliper assembly using an aerosol brake cleaner and a drip pan for the dripping residue. Never clean brakes off with compressed air.

    4

    Compress the brake caliper piston using a C-clamp. Compress it slowly and check the fluid in the master cylinder reservoir as you do so, making sure the fluid doesn't overflow and spill out.

    5

    Detach the caliper by prying off the retaining spring with a flat screwdriver (only FN3 calipers have the spring, not FS III) and removing the guide pin bolts with an Allen wrench; the bolts will have caps you must remove first.

    6

    Remove the inner and outer brake pads from the caliper. If one is installed, disconnect the electrical connector--for the wear sensor--from the inner pad. On FN3 calipers, you must pry the adhesive-backed caliper off with a screwdriver.

Installing New Pads

    7

    Prepare the new FN3 style brake pads for installation by peeling off the back to expose the adhesive. Apply an anti-squeal compound to the pads' backing plates if you have FS III calipers.

    8

    Install the brake pads into the caliper. On FN3 calipers, install the outer pad within the caliper mounting bracket and the inner pad in the caliper with the arrow on the pad pointing downward. On FS III calipers, both pads go into the caliper.

    9

    Place the caliper back on the disc.

    10

    Clean and lubricate the guide pin bolts using the brake cleaner and a high-temperature grease, then install them in the caliper and tighten them to 21 ft.-lbs. Reinstall the retaining spring on FN3 calipers.

    11

    Reconnect the wheels and lower the car once you've changed the brakes on both sides.

    12

    Press the brake pedal repeatedly until it feels firm. Check the fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir and add fresh DOT 4 brake fluid as needed.

How to Diagnose Grabbing Brakes

Brakes should work smoothly and evenly when you press on your brake pedal. Brakes that grab, drag, or become pulsating, generally mean parts are not working correctly. Learn what causes brakes to grab, an important step to diagnose grabbing brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Inspect your brake discs, because your vehicle may grab suddenly when one or both brake discs wear out. On some cars, you can do this without removing the wheels. Alloy wheels with holes in the middle, for example, allow you to see through the spaces to examine the disc and brake pads.

    2

    Examine your brake pads. Damaged pads could cause an auto to pull to one side when applying brakes. In this case, replace them by taking off the wheel, removing the two bolts that hold the caliper, removing the worn out brake pads, pressing together the brake piston and putting the caliper back on.

    3

    Check for scoring on your brake rotors. Scoring refers to intense scratching or grooves, a situation that could cause brake-related problems such as grabbing. Badly scored rotors result in binding. Simply stated, binding cause wheels to slow improperly, a condition that could prevent your vehicle from stopping in a straight line. In an extreme case, your brakes could fail.