Jumat, 31 Desember 2010

How to Replace Rear Disc Brakes in a Honda CR-V

The rear disc brakes on a Honda CR-V are quick and easy to replace on your own. There are no special tools required to perform this procedure. Read further to learn how to replace the rear disc brakes on your CR-V and avoid paying the high cost of having a mechanic do it for you.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the vehicle from the ground with a car jack and be sure to balance it on all sides to prevent tipping. Keep children and animals away from the SUV while you replace the rear disc brakes.

    2

    Use a torque wrench to loosen the lug nuts, and take off the wheel and tire assembly. Place the assemblies face up on the ground to prevent damage to the wheels.

    3

    Disconnect the caliper pin bolts and take off the caliper. Hang it from the frame of the CR-V with wire. Take out the brake pads, shims and pad retainers.

    4

    Lubricate the back of the new brake pads and the sides of the new shims with brake grease. Attach the pad retainers to the caliper bracket.

    5

    Fasten the shims to the brake pads. Install the pad assembly on the caliper mounting bracket.

    6

    Remove the wire from the caliper. Lay the caliper over the top of the brake pads. Install the caliper pin bolts and torque to 16 ft. lb.

    7

    Replace the wheels on the CR-V and lower the vehicle to the ground. Pump the brake pedal in a slow, firm manner to seat the brake pads. Verify that the brake fluid is at the proper level in the master cylinder reservoir, and refill the brake fluid as necessary.

Kamis, 30 Desember 2010

How to Replace Brake Rotors vs. Machining Brake Rotors

When dealing with brake rotors and the possibility of needing new ones, it is important to consider all the options before making a decision. Replacing the brake rotors can be expensive, not only for the parts, but also for the labor if you are not able to do it yourself. Having the old rotors machined can be cheaper and solve the problem just fine.

Instructions

    1

    Understand the process and purpose of machining brake rotors. Over time rotors can wear, causing the metal to flake, chip and crack. This causes excessive wear on the brake pads and other components of the braking system. Machining the rotors gives them a smooth surface again and brings new life to them.

    2

    Know where to take brake rotors to be machined. Most towns and cities have machine shops located within them to handling machining of many different varieties. Simply look one up and call to ask about prices, quality of work, turn around time, experience with brake rotors and any other questions you may have.

    3

    Consider replacing the brake rotor. This is a simple fix, as you can just throw the old rotor out and replace it. Contact your local auto parts store for information on ordering new brake rotors and for the cost. You can also go through a business that deals with brakes, but they will also charge labor time. Don't forget to ask for a guarantee of their work.

    4

    Decide which is the best method for you. If your vehicle is old and there is excessive damage, corrosion or other problems with your existing brake rotors, consider replacing them all together. If they are in generally good shape, have them machined.

How to Remove Rear Brake Calipers

How to Remove Rear Brake Calipers

Although once deemed too expensive, four-wheel disc brakes have found their way onto most of today's commercial vehicles due to their longevity compared to drum brakes. They work by having rotors, which spin with the wheels, being slowed by brake pads that are pressed against the disc with a caliper. A faulty caliper, however, compromising braking power, and may need to be removed for repair or replacement.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheel by one revolution with a lug wrench. Place a scissor jack under the rear jacking area on this side of your vehicle, and raise it until the wheel is not touching the ground. Place a jack stand under the frame rail or lower suspension control arm. Lower the jack so the vehicle's weight is resting on the jack stand. Finish removing the lug nuts, then remove the wheel.

    2

    Loosen the brake line fitting on the brake caliper with a tubing wrench. Remove the wrench, and finish removing the fitting by hand. Remove the brake line from the caliper and push it to one side to make room for removal of the caliper.

    3

    Spray penetrating oil on the caliper retaining bolts and allow it to soak in a few minutes. Loosen the bolts with a socket and ratchet. Place a wrench on the opposite side of the bolt if it wants to turn while trying to loosen it. Slide the bolt from the caliper once it has been loosened, and remove it. Remove the remaining caliper retaining bolt in the same fashion.

    4

    Place a large flat blade screwdriver into the space between the caliper and the rotor, and pry the piston into the caliper slightly to allow the caliper to slide off the rotor easily.

    5

    Pull the caliper straight off of the rotor and remove it from the vehicle.

    6

    Repeat Steps 1-5 for the other rear wheel.

Rabu, 29 Desember 2010

How to Tell If Brake Pads Need to Be Replaced

How to Tell If Brake Pads Need to Be Replaced

Maintaining good working brake pads is one of the best ways to keep your car running smoothly. Regular replacement of your brake pads is not only necessary for safety, it can save you the expensive costs of replacing your rotors if you let the pads get too thin. There are tell-tale signs when it is time to replace your brake pads.

Instructions

    1

    A scheduled replacement is due. Brake pads can last for thousands of miles depending on how you drive. Each car and brake manufacturer issues different service suggestions, but the average recommendation for regular brake servicing is every 20,000 to 40,000 miles, according to 2CarPros.com, an informational website for car owners. Check your car's service manual or the manufacturer's website if you have already replaced the brakes. If you drive in a lot of traffic, are heavy on the brake pedal or drive in hilly terrain, your brakes might need to be changed sooner than recommended by the manufacturer.

    2

    Your brake pads are visually low. If you have basic car knowledge, you know that the brake pads are just inside your wheel. Look through the rims or underneath the car on the opposite site of the wheel to get a look at the pads. If the pad width is less than 1/4 of an inch, it will soon be time to replace the pads. If it is less than 1/8 of an inch, you should replace them immediately.

    3

    You hear a squeaking sound from your wheels. This is usually the sound that many people wait for to know it is time to make a trip to the mechanic. Most modern brake pads also have a metallic wear sensor that emits a chirping sound when the pad levels get down to 30 percent of their width. Although this means you still have a good amount of your brake pad left, you should have them replaced soon. If left too long, the pads will wear all the way down to the metal base and cause grooves in your rotors. If you hear a grinding sound when you brake, it has most likely reached this point.

    4

    You notice increased stopping distance. If it seems like it is taking your car longer to come to a full stop even though you are applying the same pressure to the brake pedal, it might be time to replace your brakes. Also, if the distance you have to push the brake pedal down to get the car to stop increases, this is a tell-tale sign of the same symptom.

How to Fix the Brake Pads on a 2002 Grand Caravan

How to Fix the Brake Pads on a 2002 Grand Caravan

The 2002 Dodge Grand Caravan always employs front disc brakes and pads, as do all vehicles nowadays. However, it may feature rear disc brakes on some all-wheel drive models or it may feature rear drum brakes on front-wheel drive models. While the illustrated procedure demonstrates how to fix the front brake pads, the content can also be used when replacing rear brake pads with some minor differences. Keep in mind the rear pads are smaller and only account for about 30 percent braking capacity for the minivan.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Grand Caravan on a level, hard surface suitable for lifting and supporting the vehicle. Apply the parking brake (only if fixing the front brake pads) and then release the primary hood release from inside the minivan.

    2

    Place a wheel wedge (or block of wood) behind one of the rear tires (or in front of one of the front tires if fixing the rear pads) and then open the hood.

    3

    Suck out half of the brake fluid in the master cylinder with a brake fluid suction device and then replace the cap to the master cylinder. Replace the cap securely.

    4

    Break the lug nuts loose (on the axle you're fixing the brake pads) with a tire iron wrench by turning them 1/4-turn counterclockwise (only).

    5

    Raise the Grand Caravan with a hydraulic jack (one side at a time) and then lower it onto jack stands strategically placed beneath the engine bracket. Keep in mind if you use the rocker panels on a Caravan they may collapse under the weight of the vehicle.

    6

    Finish removing the lug nuts and then remove the wheels.

    7

    Remove the upper and lower caliper guide pin bolts with a box wrench.

    8

    Pry the caliper off of the caliper bracket and rotor using a small pry tool and then wrap heavy-duty wire through the caliper and use the wire to hang it from the front coil spring so it does not dangle from the hydraulic brake hose.

    9

    Pry the outboard pad retaining clip over the raised area of the caliper housing using the small pry bar in order to slide the outboard pad down off of the caliper.

    10

    Pull the inboard pad away from the caliper piston until the pad's retaining clip unseats from inside the caliper piston cavity.

    11

    Compress the caliper piston using a C-clamp and a suitable piece of wood to anchor against the piston in order to prevent damage from occurring to the piston while driving it into its bore with the clamp.

    12

    Replace the replacement inboard pad first by pushing its retaining clip into the caliper piston cavity and then attach the outboard pad and retaining clip.

    13

    Remove the wire from the caliper and then replace it over the rotor and bracket. Align the guide pin bolts and insert them into their respective holes. Tighten the bolts to 35-foot pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    14

    Complete the pad replacement for the other side before replacing the wheels and lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts as tight to the hub as possible with the axle raised. Lower the Grand Caravan to the ground (by reversing the lifting procedure) and then tighten the lug nuts with the torque wrench to 100-foot pounds with a suitable sized socket. Use a crisscross pattern when torquing the lug nuts.

    15

    Pump the foot brake pedal several times until the pedal feels firm and normal. Re-check the master cylinder brake fluid level and add brake fluid if necessary.

Selasa, 28 Desember 2010

How to Reverse Boost Pipes

Boost pipes are pipes that are used in automobile performance intercooler systems. Intercoolers help increase the power in turbocharged vehicles. Intercooling systems cool and maximize airflow from the turbo to the engine, allowing the car to perform more efficiently and reducing the chances of engine failure and wear and tear. From time to time, the boost pipes of the intercooler system can be reversed to help improve airflow.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the vehicle's negative battery cable with an adjustable wrench.

    2

    Remove any cowlings or plastic covers surrounding the intercooler system using a nut driver.

    3

    Locate the main reverse boost pipe that runs from the turbo to the intercooler.

    4

    Use a socket set to loosen and remove the bolts on the boost pipe coupling, which hold the boost pipes in place.

    5

    Flip the ends of the boost pipe around and slide them onto the ports on the turbo and the intercooler respectively. Tighten the couplings with the socket set.

    6

    Replace the plastic covers, or cowlings, with the nut driver. Replace the vehicle's negative battery cable.

How to Replace the Rotor in a GMC Sierra

When your GMC Sierra shudders and pulses to a stop, you know it's time to get new rotors. Rotors, also known as brake discs, only need to be changed if they get warped or too worn down and can't be resurfaced. Luckily, the process is simple and you can do it yourself in your own garage.

Instructions

    1

    Drain two thirds of the brake fluid from the brake cylinder. Then jack up your GMC Sierra using jacks and jack stands. Be sure to block the wheels to keep your truck from rolling while you work. Remove the first tire and wheel assembly.

    2

    Insert a screwdriver through the brake caliper into the brake rotor vane. This keeps the rotor from turning while you mark the position of the front wheel extension on the hub. You should do the same for the position of the old rotor on the hub.

    3

    Unfasten the caliper mounting bolts and then hang the caliper and attached brake line out of the way with mechanic's wire. Be careful not to disconnect the brake line.

    4

    Remove the old rotor and then clean the area around the hub with a damp cloth. Install the new rotor and tighten the holding screws.

    5

    Discard the wire and bolt the caliper assembly back into position with a torque wrench. Replace the wheel assembly and tire and move to repeat this process for each additional rotor.

    6

    Lower your truck when you've finished installing the new rotors. Tighten and torque the lug nuts and then refill the master cylinder with new brake fluid.

    7

    Pump the brake on your Sierra until you get a firm pedal and be sure to road test your GMC to make sure everything is in good working order.

How to Change the Brake Rotors on a 1999 Isuzu Rodeo

How to Change the Brake Rotors on a 1999 Isuzu Rodeo

The brake rotors on the 1999 Isuzu Rodeo can require replacement for different reasons. A common culprit for damaged rotors are the brake pad wear indicators. When the brake pads reach a critical point of wear, the wear indicators become exposed and make contact with the rotor's surface. The scraping against the metal disc causes an audible alert that the pads should be replaced. Prolonged driving once the indicators begin to make contact with the rotors can lead to gouging of the rotor surfaces. Left alone, the rotors will be damaged beyond the point at which resurfacing can be used to remedy the damage. Replace badly scored rotors immediately.

Instructions

    1

    Crack the lug nuts on the Rodeo's wheels with the lug wrench.

    2

    Lift the vehicle and place jack stands beneath the frame to support the Isuzu while you remove and replace the rotors.

    3

    Remove the caliper bolts with the 13 mm wrench. The bolts are located on the back side, near the outer edge of caliper.

    4

    Lift the caliper from the rotor and rest the front brake caliper on the steering arm above the brake assembly. Place the rear brake caliper on an idle jack stand or suspend it with a bungee from the rear wheel well. The main goal is to not put stress on the connection between the brake line and the caliper by hanging the caliper by the line.

    5

    Pull the rotors from the wheel bolts.

    6

    Spray brake cleaner onto the new rotor and place it onto a piece of newspaper or paper towel on the ground. Spray the wheel hub and wheel bolts with brake cleaner.

    7

    Brush the brake assembly area with the wire brush to rid the area of debris, rust, and leaked brake fluid.

    8

    Wipe the rotors clean with a cloth towel and place them onto the wheel bolts.

    9

    Return the calipers over the rotors and screw in the caliper bolts with the 13 mm wrench.

    10

    Return the wheels to the Isuzu's wheel bolts and screw on the lug nuts by hand.

    11

    Lift the vehicle to remove the jack stands. Lower the Rodeo's tires to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

Senin, 27 Desember 2010

How to Perform a 1992 Honda Accord Brake Job

How to Perform a 1992 Honda Accord Brake Job

The brake pads on a 1992 Honda Accord are made of a combination of metallic and non-metallic materials. This creates a friction material suitable for stopping the vehicle but not causing damage to the metal brake rotor. When this material begins to wear out -- typically every 25,000 to 35,000 miles -- you may hear a squealing sound. Replacing the brake pads on the 1992 Honda Accord is a relatively easy task to complete.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen, but do not remove, the front lug nuts with a ratchet and socket.

    2

    Raise the front of the vehicle with a jack and secure it on jack stands.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheel off the Accord.

    4

    Look on the rear of the caliper and locate the upper and lower caliper bolts. Loosen, but do not remove, the upper caliper bolt with the ratchet and socket. This bolt will act as a pivot point for the caliper. Then loosen and remove the lower caliper bolt with the ratchet and socket.

    5

    Pivot the caliper upward and away from the brake pads.

    6

    Grasp the old brake pads and pull them from the mounting hardware, also known as the caliper bracket. Note how the pads come off as the new ones must be placed in the same manner.

    7

    Pull out the metal pad retainers. These are the thin metal shims left in the caliper bracket after removing the pads. The 1992 Accord has one upper and one lower retainer on each side of the vehicle.

    8

    Place the new pad retainers into the caliper bracket; they can only go in one way. Listen for a clicking sound to indicate they are fully seated.

    9

    Mount the new brake pads into the caliper bracket in the same direction as the old ones.

    10

    Place a C-clamp over the brake caliper, with the fixed portion of the clamp positioned so that it contacts the rear of the caliper and the screw portion contacts the caliper's piston. Tighten the C-clamp until the caliper piston is fully pressed into the caliper's body.

    11

    Pivot the caliper downward until it covers the new brake pads then hand-tighten the upper and lower caliper bolts. Tighten the upper and lower caliper bolts to 33 foot-pounds of torque with a torque wrench and socket.

    12

    Repeat Steps 3 through 12 for the brake pads on the other side of the Accord.

    13

    Raise the vehicle off of the jack stands with the jack then lower it to the ground. Depress the brake pedal repeatedly until it feels firm.

Minggu, 26 Desember 2010

How to Change the Brakes on a 2000 Chevrolet Cavalier

How to Change the Brakes on a 2000 Chevrolet Cavalier

The 2000 Chevrolet Cavalier is a small car designed to be a low-cost, everyday commuter vehicle with above-average fuel mileage. With everyday use, the brakes will eventually wear out and need to be changed to maintain the stopping power and safety of your automobile. When you change the brakes on your Cavalier, it is important to change all four brakes so that stopping power is uniform among all of the wheels.

Instructions

    1

    Set the parking brake and place blocks firmly behind the back wheels.

    2

    Lift the front end of the car with a jack and place jack stands underneath to increase safety.

    3

    Remove the bolts on the driver side wheel with a tire iron.

    4

    Pull off the tire to expose the brake and brake calipers.

    5

    Remove the two bolts on the front of the brake caliper with a 3/8-inch hex socket and wrench.

    6

    Pull off the brake caliper carefully and remove the brake pad from inside it, making sure not to remove the brake backing plate.

    7

    Push the piston back into the brake caliper, using a C-clamp, so that it is flush with the rest of the caliper.

    8

    Place the new brake pad into the brake caliper and put it back over the brake rotor.

    9

    Reattach the brake caliper back into place with the two bolts you removed earlier.

    10

    Put the wheel back onto the car and bolt it in place with the tire iron.

    11

    Repeat steps 3 through 10 on the opposite wheel.

    12

    Remove the jack stands and lower the front end of the Cavalier.

    13

    Move the blocks to the front of the front wheels and raise the back end of the car with a jack. Secure it in place with jack stands.

    14

    Repeat steps 3 through 12 for each of the back wheels.

Jumat, 24 Desember 2010

How to Replace the Drum Brakes on a 2005 GMC Sierra

How to Replace the Drum Brakes on a 2005 GMC Sierra

Drum brakes use brake shoes that primarily work with the parking brake, as opposed to the disc brakes that use shoes that work with the brake pedal. The shoes and the brake drum assembly on the GMC Sierra, like the drum brakes on most other vehicles, use a number of levers and springs to operate, and replacing these brakes requires you to disconnect and then reassemble all these components. As is the case with pads, replace the brake shoes for both rear wheels together.

Instructions

Preparation

    1

    Block off the Sierra's front wheels with blocks and then raise the rear end, supporting it on jack stands. Remove the rear wheels.

    2

    Pull the brake drum off the wheel hub; the parking brake must be off to do this. If the drum is held by pressed washers on the studs, clip them off with cutting pliers.

    3

    Apply brake cleaner spray to the entire assembly, catching the residue in a drain pan. Dispose of this residue at an auto supply shop.

Removal

    4

    Disconnect the adjuster spring, located near the top of the assembly, using pliers. Disconnect the retractor spring from each of the two shoes with the pliers.

    5

    Remove the rear brake shoe, the adjuster lever and the adjuster screw assembly, then detach the parking brake lever from the shoe.

    6

    Pull and move the retractor spring out of the way and then remove the front shoe.

    7

    Clean the brake assembly's backing plate and then apply high-temperature grease to the plate's spots that contact the brake shoes. Do the same with the adjuster screw assembly, applying the grease to the threads and socket end.

Installation

    8

    Connect the replacement rear shoe to the parking brake lever and place the shoe onto the backing plate. Connect the retractor spring to the shoe with the pliers.

    9

    Install the adjuster screw assembly and the adjuster lever, engaging them with the rear shoe.

    10

    Position the replacement front shoe onto the backing plate, engaging it with the adjuster lever and screw assembly, and connect the retractor spring to the shoe.

    11

    Attach the actuator spring to its hole in the front shoe, stretch it across to the rear shoe and connect it with the pliers.

    12

    Install the brake drum back on the wheel; turn the adjuster screw's star wheel with a flathead screwdriver until the drum barely slip over the shoes without touching them.

How to Change a Brake Cylinder

How to Change a Brake Cylinder

A leaking or stuck wheel cylinder on one or both of the rear brake assemblies of your car may lead to brake failure and a serious accident. You may find a replacement part on your local auto parts store. However, installing the new cylinder requires a few important guidelines. Before you start, have the vehicle service manual for your particular year and model on hand. You will need the specific procedure to torque, adjust the axle nut for your car during reassembly and bleed the brake system.

Instructions

Remove the Wheel Cylinder

    1

    Park your vehicle in a level surface and use the lug wrench to loosen the wheel lug nuts on the rear wheel/hub assembly you are servicing.

    2

    Set the transmission to Neutral (N).

    3

    Lift the wheel with a floor jack and position a jack stand under the frame for support.

    4

    Block the front wheels using a couple of wood blocks.

    5

    Finish removing the rear wheel.

    6

    Take the grease cap off from the axle end using a screwdriver and a hammer. Then remove the cotter pin and nut lock with a pair of nose pliers.

    7

    Unscrew the retaining nut using an axle nut socket, ratchet and ratchet extension.

    8

    Grab the brake drum and pull it out far enough to dislodge the outer bearing and washer. If the drum seems stuck, loosen the brake adjuster through the hole in the back of the backing plate with a screwdriver and a brake tool to turn the star wheel. This will pull back the brake shoes from the drum.

    9

    Wipe clean the brake shoe assembly using brake parts cleaner and a clean, lint-free rag. Then disassemble the brake shoes. If necessary, remove the other rear wheel and drum to use that brake assembly as a reference during the reassembling process.

    10

    Place a drain pan under the brake assembly to catch any brake fluid spill after you disconnect the brake line.

    11

    Loosen the brake line from the back of the wheel cylinder using a line wrench.

    12

    Unbolt the wheel cylinder two mounting bolts with a wrench or ratchet and socket.

    13

    Finish removing the line fitting, plug the line and remove the wheel cylinder off the backing plate.

Install the Wheel Cylinder

    14

    Remove the side boots from the new wheel cylinder. Then take out the pistons, cups and spring from inside the cylinder. James E. Duffy, in Modern Automotive Technology, recommends coating all these parts with new brake fluid and reassemble the cylinder. This will help prime the new cylinder.

    15

    Place the new wheel cylinder in position and start the brake line fitting by hand to avoid stripping the threads.

    16

    Fasten the two cylinder mounting bolts and tighten them with the wrench or ratchet and socket.

    17

    Finish tightening the line fitting using the line wrench but do not over-tighten.

    18

    Reassemble the brake shoe assembly using the opposite brake assembly as reference if necessary.

    19

    Install the brake drum and the front wheel bearing and washer.

    20

    Tighten the axle-adjusting nut using the axle nut socket, following the procedure indicated by your car manufacturer in your vehicle service manual.

    21

    Install the nut lock and secure it in place with a new cotter pin. Then reinstall the grease cap.

    22

    Mount the rear wheel and tighten the wheel lug nuts using the lug wrench.

    23

    Lower the vehicle and remove the wood blocks from the front wheels.

    24

    Bleed the brakes system, following the procedure in your vehicle service manual.

Kamis, 23 Desember 2010

How to Know If Calipers Are Sticking

A sticking auto brake caliper is more than just an annoyance. If ignored, it can lead to dangerous driving conditions and cause serious damage to other brake system components. Even though different problems in the brake system can create similar side effects, there are ways to determine if it is the caliper piston sticking in your vehicle. Mechanics used to recondition the calipers when a problem occurred, but with current hourly labor rates up to and over triple digits, it's now more feasible to replace the damaged caliper with a remanufactured one.

Instructions

    1

    Test drive the vehicle. A sticking or dragging caliper will not allow the brake pad to disengage from the surface of the brake rotor. Not only does this cause excessive premature brake pad and rotor wear, but the vehicle will be literally driving with the brakes slightly applied all the time. A telltale sign of a severely sticking caliper piston is the vehicle pulling to one side when driving. If you constantly have to hold the steering wheel in place, it may not have anything to do with steering or wheel alignment. This can also stress the transmission of the vehicle.

    2

    Test the heat coming off the wheels after the test drive by placing your hand near the wheel without touching it. Sticking calipers will cause brake pads to constantly drag on the rotors of the braking system and this will create a tremendous amount of heat. The heat will then transfer to the wheel/rim of the tire. Be careful not to directly touch the tire rim as the heat can cause severe burns.

    3

    Lift the vehicle with a floor jack and secure it on jack stands to visually inspect the difference in brake pad wear from one side to the other. While pads wearing more on one side may simply mean that pads are improperly lubricated and stuck in the bridge of a caliper, it could also indicate the onset of a sticking caliper piston.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts with the lug wrench and remove the wheels.

    5

    Place the top of a large C-clamp over the inboard caliper housing and the bottom of the clamp onto the outboard pad and tighten the clamp to ascertain if the caliper piston is sticking or stuck. A properly functioning caliper will allow you to tighten the C-clamp and compress the caliper piston. A sticking caliper is going to be very difficult, if not impossible, to compress. Compare one caliper on the same axle to the other. Be careful when applying this procedure to rear calipers on certain vehicles as some caliper pistons (on some imports) require a screw-in caliper piston and will not compress by squeezing with a C-clamp.

    6

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts and attach the caliper to the chassis of the vehicle with mechanics wire. Do not allow the caliper to dangle precariously from the rubber brake hose.

    7

    Remove the pads from the bridge of the caliper, but mark them or position them after removal in order to remember how to replace them in their exact, original position. If the pads are stuck in the bridge and need to be forced or pried out with a screwdriver, this may be the root of the problem and not the caliper piston sticking. Clean the caliper bridge surface using a wire brush or an angled die grinder and a reconditioning disk. Remove and clean the metal hardware and then replace it. Apply a liberal coat of brake lubricant to the pad contact points of the hardware and the bridge. This could revive the braking system if the problem has not done too much damage to the brake pads already.

    8

    Take an overall measurement of each brake pad's thickness using a tire tread depth gauge or a micrometer. Take several measurements of each pad in different locations and compare the measurements to the other pads. While there will be some variance in wear, perhaps even on the same pad, an obvious visual variance in pad thickness may be an indication of a sticking caliper. A front brake pad wearing down below 4/32 of an inch is getting close to needing replacement. A rear brake pad wearing down below 3/32 is getting close to needing replacement. Rear disc brakes do not work as hard as the front pair, so less friction material on the pad is more acceptable.

Anti-Lock Brake Problems

Anti-Lock Brake Problems

Anti-lock brake systems (ABS) prevent wheels from locking during panic stops or in slippery driving conditions. The system electronically monitors individual wheel speed; when it senses a wheel is about to lock up, it releases that wheel's brake. When the system has problems, it can be costly to repair. Knowing what causes the problems can help keep repair bills under control.

Function and Modes of Operation

    The ABS functions in four modes during brake operation: monitor, hold/isolate, release/dump, and reapply.

    In monitor mode, the ABS is monitoring and comparing the wheel speed sensors. If there is no brake pedal input or wheel lock, this is the normal mode of operation.

    In hold/isolate mode, the system has sensed one or more wheels drop to a speed slower than the others. It calculates that the wheel is about to lock up and energizes the isolation solenoid to prevent additional brake pressure from being applied.

    To regain control, the ABS de-energizes the isolation solenoid and energizes the release/dump solenoid, allowing the wheel to spin and regain traction. The pressurized brake fluid is routed and stored in an accumulator where it stays until it is released back into the system.

    In reapply mode, the stored brake fluid is pressurized and reapplied to the brakes to continue to slow the vehicle.

    This sequence of modes is repeated until normal brake function is regained. The ABS in late-model vehicles can cycle more than 15 times a second.

ABS Parts

    The input devices are called wheel speed sensors. They are magnetic inductors that generate an AC signal or, in the case of vehicles with electronic brake proportioning systems, a DC wave. The signal strength and frequency increases or decreases according to wheel speed. Early speed sensors were located in the differential; later systems are in the axle or hub bearing.

    The output devices are known as solenoid valves. The valves and their coils are located in the modulator valve assembly. The valves open when a coil is energized and a magnetic field builds around it. The iron stem of the valve moves to center itself in the magnetic field, which opens the valve.

    The electronic brake control module (ECBM) is the computer that calculates wheel speed according to sensor input and then energizes the appropriate solenoid valve to control the mode.

Common Problems

    The most common causes of ABS failure involve the wheel speed sensors. The No. 1 cause of an ABS light activating is a contaminated wheel speed sensor. Since the sensor is magnetic, it attracts metal particles in the brake pads. These particles stick to the sensor and dampen the signal. Cleaning the sensor usually restores proper function. If the metal buildup is severe, the particles can wedge between the sensor and its tone ring and crack the sensor. When this occurs, water and grit quickly deteriorate the wiring and chip in the sensor and destroy it.

    Another common cause of ABS failure is corrosion in the modulator valve assembly. This is caused by a failure to change the brake fluid. As the fluid absorbs moisture to the point of saturation, the water attacks the metal components in the valve assembly, causing the valves to stick open or closed.

Other Concerns

    Problems related to premature lockup or no ABS action can be traced to incorrect wheel diameter or mismatched wheel diameter. The trend of replacing factory wheels and tires with larger diameter wheels can cause problems with not only ABS but with the speedometer and other systems.

    There are two remedies. The first is to use tires with the correct outside diameter. As long as the tire is the right diameter, the wheel can be whatever diameter you wish. The second remedy is to recalibrate the vehicle's computer to compensate for the diameter change. Cars and trucks using the CAN (controller area network) computer protocol have this function.

Conclusions

    Precautions when selecting tires and proper maintenance of the system will prevent most ABS problems. Change your brake fluid as directed in your owner's manual or have an authorized service center do it for you.

How to Install a Detroit EZ Locker

How to Install a Detroit EZ Locker

The Detroit EZ Locker is a brand of automatic locking locker that is designed to lock both wheels on the axle with power input. The EZ Locker permits a different variance in wheel speed while negotiating a turn even if torque is absent. It is designed to fit into an existing stock differential carrier and serves as a cheaper alternative to full-carrier lockers.



Before attempting to install a Detroit EZ Locker read and follow the manufacturer's instructions for removing the differential assembly from the axle, as the procedure will differ depending on the specific vehicle.

Instructions

    1

    Thoroughly coat the side gear thrust washers and four outer holes of the clutches with medium-weight grease. Insert a dowel pin into each of the outer holes in each clutch and place a spacer in each clutch with the larger hole out toward the clutch teeth.

    2

    Install a side gear with thrust washer into the ring gear side of the case. The side gear thrust washer should have the smooth side inside and be on the hub of each side gear.

    3

    Install the clutch/spacer assembly into the ring gear side of the differential case

    and pair it with the side gear teeth. Then, push the spacer onto the side gear. Repeat on the other side.

    4

    Rotate the clutch until a slot is visible, and then rotate the other clutch until the cross pin hole is aligned. Push the dowel into the hole in the other clutch.

    5

    Assemble the spring and cap by placing the spring inside the cap. Then insert the spring and cap assembly, with the cap facing toward the dowel pin, through the slot in the clutch. Use a screwdriver or pick tool to compress and seat the spring in the hole. Repeat to produce the second spring and cap.

    6

    Check to be sure the spacers are seated against the side gears and not caught on the c-clips, then rotate the clutches to line up their cross pin holes with the mating holes in the differential case.

    7

    Insert the pinion shaft into the differential case between the clutch/spacers and through the axle shaft spacer block (if there is one). Position the shaft to accept its retaining pin and rotate the clutches and side gears to ensure a smooth fit.

    8

    Install the cross pin retaining device, if any, following the manufacturer's instructions.

Rabu, 22 Desember 2010

How to Remove Front Brake Rotors From a 1997 Chevy 2500

How to Remove Front Brake Rotors From a 1997 Chevy 2500

The brake rotors on the Chevy 2500 pickup truck generally are made of cast iron. The rotors are subject to a great deal of stress as you operate the brakes to slow or stop the truck. As you push the brake pedal, the brakes sustain friction from the brake pads pushing on the rotors. The friction wears the brake pads and the rotors. The brake pads will, of course, wear much more quickly than the rotors, but the rotors do wear and you may need to replace them.

Instructions

    1

    Siphon half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder. Put the fluid into the drain pan for later recycling. Park the Chevy 2500 on a level surface and turn off the key. Place the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels. Lift the truck with the automobile jack on the side that you will be starting with. Place a jack stand under the Chevy near the jacking point and raise it to the frame.

    2

    Remove the lug nuts with a lug wrench. Pull the tire from the truck. Remove the brake caliper from the mounting bracket using a socket and ratchet to loosen the retaining pins. Place the jaws of the brake caliper over the back brake pad and the back of the brake caliper and twist it closed, setting the caliper piston into the housing.

    3

    Remove the locking hub from the wheel assembly using a wrench. Remove the lock nut, ring and adjusting nut from the shaft using a wrench. Be careful that you do not drop the bearings as you pull them out. Pull the brake rotor from the wheel assembly.

    4

    Place the new rotor on the Chevy wheel spindle. Install the bearings and pack them with wheel grease. Install the adjusting nut and tighten it with a wrench. Install the ring and lock nut. Tighten it with a wrench. Install the locking hub and tighten it up.

    5

    Install the wheel on the Chevy truck and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the truck and lower the vehicle to the ground. Repeat the procedure on the other wheel.

Car Problems Due to Frozen Coolant

Water-cooled engines are compact, efficient and, when well-maintained, can provide years of trouble-free service. They do have absolute limits that cannot be exceeded, however. One of these limits, which is a major problem to people in some parts of the world, is the freezing of the coolant and the problems frozen coolant can cause.

Conditions for Coolant Freezing

    Most engine freezing problems are related to water-cooled engines in cars and trucks. Water freezes at 32 degrees F, or 0 Celsius. Unlike most liquids, water expands when it freezes. Since an engine block is not flexible, the expansion can actually crack the cast iron or aluminum block of the engine, ruining the engine. The same principle is at work when water pipes freeze in the winter. This problem was recognized early on which led to the development of anti-freeze. A 1:1 water anti-freeze (ethylene glycol) mix will stave off freezing until -30 degrees F (-35C).

Partial Freezing

    If the coolant in an engine degrades over time, or if coolant boils off and is replaced with water letting the mix fall below 1:1, or if temperatures fall below -30 F, the potential for coolant to freeze becomes increasingly likely. This, however, doesn't mean the engine will be destroyed. In many cases, the coolant will turn to slush more than ice. While this won't crack a block, it will mean coolant can't flow. So even though the engine will heat up quickly and melt the slush in the block, the radiator will remain frozen. When this happens, water can't circulate through the radiator and even in low temperatures the engine can overheat and damage can result. In fact, the damage will probably be much more severe than a typical boil over.
    When an engine runs hot and blows steam out the radiator, you know it is time to turn the engine off. But when the radiator is frozen, there will be no steam and you won't know to shut the engine down until it seizes, by which time it is too late.
    It is important then, when temperatures are low, to keep an eye on the temperature gauge. If it rises quickly and doesn't stabilize at the normal operating temperature, the engine should be shut down and the radiator checked for freezing. As soon as the radiator thaws, the car should be fine and you can be on your way--though the coolant mix should be checked.

Freeze Plugs

    Very low temperatures or diluted anti-freeze will cause the water in the block to freeze solid. This is not good for the engine. When water freezes, the expansion force is in the tens of thousands of pounds. Since the radiator is a reservoir full of water, this expansion can easily rupture the delicate tubes of the heat exchanger. While a radiator is costly to repair, an engine is much more expensive.
    Fortunately, engine designers anticipated this problem and incorporated a feature into engines that helps avoid expensive damage. When the engine was built, the manufacturer bored large holes from the outside of the block into the water jacket. Soft metal plugs are then pressed into these holes to form a tight seal. These are called "freeze plugs" and will be forced out of the block if the water freezes. These freeze plugs act as a way to relieve the pressure. While the freeze plugs must be replaced by a qualified mechanic, the time and expense is far less than for an engine.
    When freeze plugs are forced out, though, an engine will still start normally. However, as soon as the water melts, it will all leak out. The danger is that with no water in the engine, there will be no boil over and the temperature sensor--which measures water temperature--will continue to show low or normal temperatures. If the operator is not diligent the first indication of a problem will be engine seizure. If it is cold and you smell a strong sweet odor, turn off the engine and check for leaking fluid. It may ruin your day, but freeze plugs are an easy fix.

From Bad to Worse

    In some cases, if the temperature falls enough, or if you have neglected servicing of your car for an extended period, not only will the freeze plugs be forced out, but the block will crack. The cylinder heads might crack. Both could happen at the same time.
    As before, the engine may start, but this time not only will all the coolant be lost, but most likely, the oil will be lost as well. Low oil pressure soon after starting the engine along with the sweet smell of anti-freeze may indicate a serious problem.

Avoiding the Big Freeze

    The best advice is to change the radiator fluid in your car or truck every other autumn. A 1:1 mix of water and anti-freeze has shown to give the best protection against both freezing and boil over. Plus, you will have the added benefit of removing harmful acids that build up in engine coolant over time.
    If you live in an area where the temperature often falls below the danger zone, you may want to install a block heater, a well-known preventive in these areas.

Selasa, 21 Desember 2010

How to Get the Back Drums off a 2000 Camry

Removing the rear brake drums from your 2000 Toyota Camry to access the rear brake shoes or replacement of the drums can be done in the driveway or garage at home. Doing the work yourself will save you money, and the parts are available from the Toyota dealer network should you need to replace anything inside the drums. If the drums have never been removed before, they may require extra effort to remove.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear of the car with a lug wrench but do not remove them from the wheel studs yet.

    2

    Position a jack under the rear of the car and raise it until the rear tires are off the ground. Remove the lug nuts from the wheel studs, setting them aside for now.

    3

    Remove the rear tire and wheel from the wheel studs and set it out of the way while you work. Position a set of jack stands under the rear axle of the car and lower the jack until the car is resting securely on the stands.

    4

    Look near the base of the wheel studs where they pass through the brake drum and find the locking rings that hold the drum in place. There are normally two rings but they may have been removed already if the drums have been off the car before.

    5

    Pry the retaining rings off the wheel studs with a flat screwdriver if they are still there. Discard the rings; you will not reuse them.

    6

    Grasp the drum at 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock with your hands and pull the drum straight off the wheel hub and studs. Repeat the process for the opposite drum if you are removing both.

How to Put Brake Pads on an F-150

The brake pads are crucial components of your vehicle's disc-brake system. The Ford F150 uses a braking system that requires the brake pads to contact the brake rotors for the purpose of stopping or slowing the truck. When the vehicle's brake pads are worn, the pads do not have enough surface area to withstand the heat generated during braking, and can lead to brake failure. You can have your brake pads changed by a professional mechanic at a service station, or you can perform this necessary maintenance yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Ford away from the curb, on a relatively flat surface, away from passing traffic. Place tire blocks around the rear wheels.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the front wheels with the socket end of the tire iron.

    3

    Position the jack under the front frame of the truck. Lift the Ford with the jack and place two jack stands beneath the frames. The vehicle should rest on the stands while leaving ample space between the tires and the road for removal and replacement of the wheels.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels from the truck. Lay the tires flat near the wheel-wells. Turn the steering wheel to the left to allow better access to the right-side caliper bolts.

    5

    Remove the caliper bolts on the right brake. The two caliper bolts are on the left side of the caliper and can be removed with the 1/2-inch wrench. Pull the caliper from the rotor.

    6

    Insert the flat screwdriver between the brake pads and the caliper walls. Slide the brake pads from the caliper. The pads are fixed to the caliper by thin metal clips that can be pried from the caliper if the pads do not come off easily.

    7

    Open the brake-fluid bleed valve. Use a 9/16-inch wrench to open the valve located near the upper caliper bolt on the caliper. Place a drip pan or bucket to capture any brake fluid from the valve.

    8

    Place the C-clamp around the caliper piston and the outer edge of the caliper wall. The piston is the circular metal piece that protrudes from the inner wall of the caliper. You need to open it completely to accept the new brake pads. Screw the C-clamp to squeeze the piston against the side of the caliper. The brake fluid will flow from the bleed valve into the drip pan below.

    9

    Slide the new pads onto the sides of the caliper. The metal clips will slide onto the sides of the caliper by hand.

    10

    Place the caliper sound the brake rotor. Replace the caliper bolts with the 1/2-inch wrench. Place the wheels onto the wheel bolts. Screw on the lug nuts by hand.

    11

    Remove the jack stands and lower the truck to the ground with the lifting jack. Tighten the lug nuts with the socket on the tire iron.

    12

    Press the brake pedal three times slowly and hold the last depression for 10 seconds. Add brake fluid to the master cylinder (located beneath the hood on the driver's side of the Ford, near the windshield).

Senin, 20 Desember 2010

How to Replace the Brakes on the VW Passat

How to Replace the Brakes on the VW Passat

Few systems on your VW Passat are as crucial to the safe operation of the vehicle as your brakes. The ability to stop your car where and when you need to means the difference between getting somewhere safely and causing an accident. Like all mechanical parts, brakes wear out over time, and need to be replaced. Replacing the brakes on a VW Passat is a fairly simple job that can be accomplished by your average driveway mechanic in an afternoon.

Instructions

    1

    Put your Passat in park or in reverse if the vehicle is equipped with a manual transmission. Chock the front wheels if working on the rear brakes or the rear wheels if working on the front brakes. Do not engage the parking brake if working on the rear brakes.

    2

    Use your lug wrench to loosen the lug nuts one turn before lifting the vehicle. Lift the vehicle using your jack until the wheel is no longer touching the ground. Remove the lug nuts and remove the wheel. Place the jack stand where it can safely support the vehicle and where it will not interfere with your work area. Lower your Passat until it is securely resting on the jack stand.

    3

    Unplug the connector for the pad wear indicator if your vehicle is equipped with them. Remove the protective caps covering the guide pin bolts. Remove the guide pin bolts using your wrench. You may need to use a second open-end wrench to prevent the inner guide from turning during the bolt removal process.

    4

    Remove the caliper from the rotor assembly and set it to the side. Be careful not to let the weight of the caliper damage the brake line. Remove the old brake pads and the retaining clips. Please note the placement of the individual pads during removal to ensure proper placement of the new pads.

    5

    Use your brake piston tool to retract the piston. Rotate the piston clockwise while pressing it into the piston housing. The piston must be fully retracted to accommodate the thickness of the new brake pads.

    6

    Remove the protective foil from your new pads if they have an adhesive backing. Install the new pads and retaining clips. Replace the caliper and install the guide pin bolts. Tighten the bolts using 26 foot-pounds of torque. Replace protective caps and reconnect the wear indicator wiring as applicable. Press the brake pedal a few times to ensure proper pad seating.

    7

    Lift the vehicle until the jack stand can be removed and the necessary clearance to replace the wheel has been reached. Position the wheel in place and install all lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts until the wheel is firmly seated. Lower the vehicle and verify the lug nuts are properly tightened.

    8

    Repeat the procedure on additional wheels, repositioning the wheel chocks as needed. Remove the wheel chocks once all work is complete.

How to Replace the Front Brake Pads of a 1999 Contour

How to Replace the Front Brake Pads of a 1999 Contour

The brake pads on a 1999 Contour use a friction material that "grabs" onto the brake disc. The front brake pads sit inside a caliper. The caliper has a piston that pushes against the back of the brake pad, which then pushes against the brake disc. When the front brake pad is roughly 1/8" thick on your Contour, a metal tab will scrape against the brake rotor causing a metallic scraping sound when you press on the brake pedal. This will indicate that the front brake pads need to be replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the front of the Contour up onto jack stands. Jack up on the front jack point of the Contour. On the 1999 Contour, use the jack point which is an extension of the frame just behind the radiator. Place jack stands under the front pinch welds and lower the Contour onto the stands.

    2

    Unbolt the lug nuts with an impact wrench and slide the wheel off the wheel hub assembly.

    3

    Slide the c-clamp over the caliper so that the screw end of the clamp will push against the outboard brake pad on the Contour (the brake pad closest to you).

    4

    Tighten the c-clamp until the caliper piston bottoms out. You will create a gap that is approximately 1/2 an inch between the brake caliper and the brake pad.

    5

    Unbolt the caliper pin bolt on the bottom of the caliper using a socket wrench. The pin bolt is on the backside of the caliper and is the bottom-most bolt on the caliper.

    6

    Swing the caliper up from the bottom and pull the brake pads out of the caliper.

    7

    Spray the caliper with brake parts cleaner to remove any brake dust.

    8

    Insert the new brake pads and close the caliper. Then, tighten the pin bolt to 29 foot-pounds using a torque wrench.

    9

    Spray the brake assembly down with brake parts cleaner.

    10

    Mount the wheel back onto the wheel hub assembly and tighten the lug nuts using the impact wrench. Only tighten the lug nuts just enough to keep the wheel in place. Do not fully torque the lug nuts onto the wheel or you may damage them.

    11

    Lower the Contour to the ground and torque the lug nuts to 100 foot-pounds using a torque wrench.

How to Change Brake Pads on 2004 Chev Malibu

How to Change Brake Pads on 2004 Chev Malibu

Originally introduced in 1964, the Chevrolet Malibu base model for 2004 came equipped with a 2.2.-liter in-line four-cylinder engine. A 3.5-liter V-6 was an optional upgrade for all three trim levels of the 2004 Malibu. The 2004 Malibu was produced with front wheel ventilated disc brakes. This brake system consists of a caliper, caliper bracket, rotor and brake pads on both sides of the car. Brake pads wear differently depending upon the upkeep of the vehicle and the type of driving the car experiences.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of the Malibu. Check the brake-reservoir fluid level. If the brake fluid is already at the "Full" mark, remove brake fluid with a turkey baster or siphon until the fluid is about 1/2-inch below the "Full" mark. If the fluid level is already below the full mark, disregard this step and proceed to Step 2 of this project.

    2

    Loosen the front wheel lug nuts with a tire iron. Lift the front of the Malibu with a jack. Place jack stands beneath the front frame rails. Lower the car onto the jack stands carefully. Remove the wheel lug nuts completely with the tire iron, and then remove both front wheels. Spin one lug nut onto the face of the rotor on either side of the car, to hold the rotor in place during the replacement of the brake pads.

    3

    Insert a small pry bar into the opening on the outer body of the brake caliper. Pry the inboard brake pad (behind the rotor) inward as far as you can with the pry bar. Remove the caliper-mounting bolts from the inward facing side of the caliper, with a ratchet and socket. Remove the caliper from the brake assembly, using the pry bar if necessary. Hang the caliper from the front strut spring with a metal clothes hangar or thin metal hook. Do not let the caliper hang by its attached rubber hose.

    4

    Remove the old brake pads from the caliper-mounting bracket. Insert one of the old brake pads against the caliper piston on the inside rear of the caliper. Attach a large C-clamp around the old brake pad and the outer backside of the caliper. Slowly turn the C-clamp clockwise to compress the caliper piston completely. Remove the C-clamp and old pan when you have compressed the caliper.

    5

    Inspect the front brake rotor. Look at the outer and inner face of the rotor for deep grooves, rusting or pitting. If the rotors are scarred badly, replace them as well. Acquire the rotor's thickness by measuring across its top edge. Use a rotor micrometer if you have one or a regular tape measure if a rotor micrometer is not available. The minimum thickness of the rotor should be 0.906 (in ten-thousandths of an inch) for a micrometer reading, or 7/8-inches if using a tape measure.

    6

    Lightly lubricate the metal shims attached to the caliper bracket, using caliper grease. Lubricate the small indents where the brake pad ends are inserted against the shims. Install the brake pads onto the caliper bracket, ensuring the pad with the "L" shaped metal protrusion is on the inside, behind the rotor. There are two pads in a set with an "L" shaped wear indicator, and two without.

    7

    Pull the caliper slides out of the backside of the caliper with your fingers. The slides are the small metal tubes that the caliper-mounting bolts attach to when the brakes are assembled. Lubricate each caliper slide thoroughly with caliper grease. Insert the slides back into the rear of the caliper.

    8

    Install the front caliper back onto the brake assembly. Insert and tighten the caliper-mounting bolts to 26 foot-pounds with a 1/2-inch drive torque wrench and socket.

    9

    Repeat Steps 2 through 7 to complete the replacement of the brake pads on the second side of the car. Remove the single lug nut from the faces of each rotor, only after you have double-checked the torque on the caliper-mounting bolts.

    10

    Install the front wheels back onto the Malibu, and snug the lug nuts up with the tire iron. Raise the Malibu off the jack stands, and then remove the jack stands from beneath the car. Lower the car to the ground. Tighten the front wheel lug nuts to 100 foot-pounds final torque with the torque wrench and a socket.

    11

    Immediately proceed to the driver's seat of the vehicle. With the car off, slowly pump the brake pedal approximately 10 to 15 times. The pedal should become stiff or harder to depress. If the pedal does not become stiff after 15 times of pumping, bleed the brake calipers.

    12

    Check the brake fluid level in the reservoir. Add brake fluid as needed to fill the brake fluid reservoir to the "Full" mark.

Sabtu, 18 Desember 2010

How to Change the Brakes on an Explorer

How to Change the Brakes on an Explorer

Changing the brakes on an Explorer takes some diligence and hard work. It is best if you can find brakes that are equivalent to the original. The metal used in the original brake pads are designed to dissipate heat at a fixed rate, depending on the type of rotor used; it could be single or double rotor vented. Too little metal causes rotor warpage and too much causes excessive squealing.

Instructions

    1

    Grab the floor jack and raise the vehicle on its stands. Remove the front wheels and open the bleeder screw just inside the caliper. This is a 8mm or 10mm bolt with a hole that allows fluid to escape.

    2

    Spread the brake pads apart and compress the brake caliper piston back to its bore. This is accomplised by inserting a screwdriver between the pad and the rotor, then pull outward. This forces the pad to push in on the piston and keep pushing until it stops. Close and tighten your bleeder screw.

    3

    Remove the two bolts that run through the caliper, then remove caliper. Don't let it hang by its hose; hang it up or set up on the lower control arm.

    4

    Remove the brake pads. Be sure the springs that keep the pad tight do not move. This is what causes the squealing sound.

    5

    Install your new brake pads. Lie them down and apply the anti-squeal compound that comes with them and allow 10 minutes to set up. Install the new pads between the springs inside the mounting bracket.

    6

    Install the caliper on top of the brake pads. Use two through-bolts and fasten. Place the wheels back on and lower the vehicle from the jack.

    7

    Check and fill the brake fluid if necessary. Start the vehicle and pump the brake pedal slowly until the brakes have readjudsted and reestablished into position. It may take many pumps on the pedal to get the piston out and to fasten the pads to the rotor.

How to Change the Rear Brake Pads on a 1988 MR2

How to Change the Rear Brake Pads on a 1988 MR2

Most sports cars utilize a four-wheel disc brake setup for the best possible performance under braking and the 1988 MR2 is no exception. The rear brake pads usually see the least amount of use due to the transfer of weight to the front of the vehicle in most stopping situations, but it doesn't mean this item should fall to neglect. Changing out the rear pads is a relatively quick process that you can do in as little as 45 minutes under normal conditions.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels and lift the rear of the vehicle with a floor jack. Support the rear end with jack stands. Finish removing the lug nuts and dismount the wheels from the axle.

    2

    Remove the retaining bolts on the caliper using a ratchet and socket and lift it off the brake disc. Use mechanic's wire to suspend the caliper in mid-air on a suspension component.

    3

    Remove the brake pads from the caliper bracket. Detach the retaining clips from the brake pads. Use a brake caliper piston tool to push the piston back inside the caliper.

    4

    Attach the retaining clips to the new brake pads and place the pads on the caliper bracket. Remove the mechanic's wire and slide the brake caliper over the brake disc and pads. Reinsert the retaining bolts and tighten them with the ratchet and socket.

    5

    Repeat the procedure on the other rear wheel. When finished, mount the wheels back on the axle and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Remove the jack stands and lower the vehicle to the ground. Finish tightening the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

Kamis, 16 Desember 2010

Rotor Rust Removal

Rotor Rust Removal

Brake rotors are a component of disc-brake systems, which use hydraulics to slow down and stop an automobile. When the brake pedal is depressed, brake fluid applies pressure to the rotors, causing the brake pads to tighten on the rotor. The rotor is a smooth metal disc, polished on two sides, on which the brake caliper holding the discs attaches to, with one disc on each side of the rotor. Poorly maintained rotors often rust over time and require corrosion removal to ensure the brakes operate properly and safely.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the wheels with disc brakes with a lug wrench. Doing this while the car is on the ground allows you to loosen the lug nuts easily.

    2

    Jack up the front of the vehicle. Place an auto jack under a sturdy frame area at the front of the car until the wheels are slightly off the ground. Place jack stands under a solid frame rail near the wheels for safety.

    3

    Remove the tire lug nuts. Using a lug wrench, remove the wheel's lug nuts until the entire rim and tire come off the car.

    4

    Remove the brake calipers. Brake calipers are typically mounted using two Allen-head fasteners at the top of the caliper. Using the breaker bar and the appropriate Allen socket, loosen the caliper until it easily slides off the rotor. Hang the caliper assembly over one of the front-wheel control arms. Do this for each wheel.

    5

    Slide the rotor off and remove the rust. While wearing safety goggles, spray the rotor liberally with brake cleaner. Using a wire brush, or steel wool, scrub the rotor until the rust is removed. Re-spray brake cleaner as needed. When finished, wash the rotor with dish detergent and water to remove any dust or metal shavings.

    6

    Place the rotors back onto the wheel assembly. Put the calipers over the rotor, then fasten them with the Allen socket and breaker bar until snug. Put the wheel back on and tighten the lug nuts in a criss-cross pattern (one lug, then the opposite lug) until snug.

How to Make a Double Flare Brake Line End

The brake system in your vehicle is made up of many different components. Almost all of these components connect to each other via brake lines, which carry the brake fluid from one place to another. To prevent leaks, these brake lines have a double flared end which allows the fitting to properly seal against the adjacent fitting. Making these flares can be a bit daunting at first and requires some special tools. If you're restoring a car or just installing new brake lines, the first step is to double flare your brake line ends.

Instructions

    1

    Cut the brake line tubing using the brake line cutting tool. Use the inner/outer reamer to deburr the inside and outside of the cut end. This will ensure that the flares turn out as clean as possible.

    2

    File the cut end of the brake line square and flat using a file and polish up the end around the cut using the emery cloth. Open the flaring tool and locate the number on the tool that matches the diameter of your brake line tubing. Push the end of the brake line into the flaring tool so that the end of the tubing sticks up as far as the step on the tool indicating the size of tubing.

    3

    Insert the tubing adapter that comes with the flaring tool into the center of the brake line using your hands. Install the flaring tool over the tubing adapter, then tighten down the flaring tool until the tubing adapter bottoms out. Loosen the flaring tool by hand and remove the tubing adapter from the tube.

    4

    Reinstall the flaring tool over the brake line by hand and to tighten down the flaring tool until it bottoms out. Loosen the flaring tool and remove it from the brake line.

Rabu, 15 Desember 2010

How to Remove Brake Rotors From a Chevy Avalanche

Having to remove the brake rotors from a Chevy Avalanche is not as complicated as you might think, provided you own some tools and have some technical knowledge. Whether you're removing them to replace them or removing them to bring to a machine shop and have them turned on a lathe, you can do the job yourself and save some significant money on labor charges incurred at the local repair shops or the dealership.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Avalanche on a level paved or concrete surface. Release the hood latch. Apply the parking brake. Place the wheel chock behind one rear tire.

    2

    Open the hood and remove at least half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir using the turkey baster and discard. Replace the master cylinder cover securely.

    3

    Remove the center cap on the front tires and break the lug nuts loose with the breaking bar and a socket.

    4

    Lift the front axle of the Avalanche and place the jack stands under the front frame rail.

    5

    Remove the lug nuts and the wheels.

    6

    Compress the piston of the left front caliper inward using the small/medium pry bar wedged between the rotor and the porthole in front of the caliper. Press the piston in methodically and all the way until it bottoms out.

    7

    Remove the caliper bridge bolts located on the back of the knuckle using the ratchet and a socket.

    8

    Pry the caliper and bridge (together) and support to the frame with a bungee cord.

    9

    Remove the rotor. If you're replacing the rotor, you can knock it off with a ball peen hammer if it's stuck to the hub by rust. If you're saving the rotor to be reused, you'll need a heavy rubber mallet to remove if it is stuck to the hub with rust so you do not damage or warp the rotor.

    10

    Put everything back together when you're done by reversing the order. Don't forget to torque the lug nuts with the adjustable torque wrench set at 140 foot pounds and to pump the foot brake pedal to restore the hydraulic pressure back to the caliper pistons. Adjust the level of the brake fluid in the master cylinder using only new DOT-3 brake fluid.

How to Remove the Drum Brakes From a 1998 Ford F150

How to Remove the Drum Brakes From a 1998 Ford F150

Many vehicles are still manufactured with drum brakes on the rear axle and disc brakes on the front wheels. This is acceptable because the majority of the vehicle's braking is handled by the front wheels. You can remove the drum brakes from the rear of a Ford F150 yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Place blocks on the front side of the front wheels, while the truck is parked on a solid level surface. Do not engage the emergency brake.

    2

    Loosen all rear lug nuts one-half turn, but do not remove them.

    3

    Slide the jack under the center of the rear differential and raise the rear of the vehicle. Insert two jack stands under the frame near each rear wheel. Remove the rear lug nuts and the two rear wheels.

    4

    Remove the brake drum by pulling it off the rear axle. This may require that a brake adjuster spoon or large screwdriver be inserted into the elongated slot on the bottom of the brake backing plate to turn the star wheel adjuster loose.

    5

    Snap two pictures, one for each wheel's brake, because they are not symmetric. The forward shoe on many brakes have a different length brake pad on top.

    6

    Remove the brake shoe return spring located over the star wheel adjuster at the bottom of the backing plate, using the handle of the brake pliers or a large screwdriver. Remove the star wheel adjuster.

    7

    Remove the springs and spring linkage rods from the top shoe stud located at the top of the brake backing plate.

    8

    Push and twist the shoe retaining spring washer to unlock it, from holding the shoes to the backing plate. To remove the washer from the nail pin protruding from the backing plate use the brake tool or a pliers.

    9

    Remove the brake shoe washer guide located on the top shoe pin. The brake shoe washer guide looks like a flat propeller

    10

    Unsnap the snap ring that holds the emergency brake cable and assembly to the brake shoe, using snap ring pliers. Remove the brake shoes from the brake assembly and replace if necessary.

    11

    Brush clean and inventory all of the removed brake parts to prepare for reassembly.

    12

    Repeat the same brake shoe procedure for the other wheel.

Senin, 13 Desember 2010

How Often to Replace Brake Rotors

A recommendation on how often brake rotors should be replaced on a vehicle.

History

    Rotors have come down in price significantly in the past decade. Supply and demand has been a major contributor, as well as many countries are now offering manufacturing both foreign and domestic auto parts at a competitive rate in the aftermarket auto parts industry. To stay competitive with the aftermarket auto part stores, even dealers have come down in price. The other factor in pricing is the redesigning of the rotors. Many vehicles now offer what is referred to as a "knock-off" rotor, which means once the caliper is unbolted from the bridge, the rotor is simply removed from the hub. Older vehicles had hub-bolted rotors where grease seals and bearings had to be repacked and pressed. Some older four-wheel-drive vehicles had to have the four-wheel-drive hubs disassembled in order to remove the rotors. Many automakers are now offering both front and rear disc brakes with a "knock-off" rotor, which saves both time and money for replacing.

Geography

    The need to replace rotors more often stems from the geographical aspect of the United States. Many places that do not experience severe winter weather will get longer lifespan out of several components. Areas that have severe winter weather that use corrosive sand and salt on the roads will greatly reduce the lifespan of many components exposed to the environment. Rotors are no exception.
    With that in mind, places like southern states have a better chance of turning the rotors on the vehicles opposed to replacing them because the corrosiveness has not seized the rotor to the hub like it would in the areas that experience severe winter weather. There are circumstances in the Northeast where rotors have to be literally hammered off the hub of the vehicle in order to remove.

Types

    There are two types of common rotors. One is a "vented" rotor where two plates are melded together with cooling vents in between. These are generally always used for front disc brake applications and also in rear on larger and heavier vehicles that offer four-wheel disc brakes. The other type of rotor is a single plate or solid rotor. Solid rotors are generally used only for rear disc brake applications and are generally found on smaller, lighter vehicles.

Function

    When applying the brake pedal in a vehicle, brake fluid builds up hydraulic pressure and extends the pistons of the calipers, which squeeze the pads together over the front and rear surface of the rotor. Pads are commonly made with a semi metallic material, and rotors are obviously metallic, so there is a great deal of heat created by that friction.
    Depending on the braking habits and conditions the driver is experiencing, certain conditions such as pulsations can occur where the surface of the rotor exceeded its limit and warped slightly. This is called run-out in the rotor, and that would have to be measured against the amount of thickness the rotor has left in order to successfully machine or turn the rotor down on a lathe in order to true it and eliminate the run-out. The problem there is now the rotor is thinned down to a more compromised state and the chances of run-out reoccurring are greater than simply replacing the rotor.

Expert Insight

    Many mechanics would rather replace knock-off rotors when completing a pad replacement for many reasons. The first and foremost is for minimal comebacks and to lower customer complaints. The cost to replace rotors on common vehicles is hardly more than the price of the part to replace it since the caliper needs to come off the vehicle in order to replace the pads. As a rule of thumb, when pads need to be replaced, rotors are recommended or required to be replaced.

What Are the Causes of Brake Noise?

What Are the Causes of Brake Noise?

The brake system is absolutely necessary for the safe operation of a vehicle. If a vehicle's brake system isn't functioning properly the driver may not be able to stop the vehicle in time to avoid other vehicles or obstacles. It is understandable that some drivers are concerned when any noise comes from their vehicle's brakes. Sometimes the source of the noise is harmless but other times it is a symptom of a serious problem with the brake system.

New Pads

    Sometimes when new brake pads are installed on a vehicle they make noise. After the car is used with the new brake pads for a few weeks, the noise from the new pads diminishes until it completely disappears. Noise from new brake pads occurs mostly with pads made from harder materials.

Temperature

    Especially with metallic brake pads, the outside temperature can cause brake squeal. This brake squeal occurs mostly when the weather is cold and a little damp, such as on a cold winter's morning. As the vehicle is driven and the brakes are used on and off, the brake pads heat up and the noise disappears.

Warning Indicator

    Some brake pads are equipped with a warning indicator built into the pad. A thin piece of metal is placed in the pad at the point where the pad is worn down enough it needs to be replaced. The thin piece of metal will contact the metal brake disc and create a squealing noise each time the vehicle's brakes are applied. This squeal is to let the driver know the brake pads have worn down to the point they need to be replaced. Drum brakes may also make a sound when the brake shoes need to be replaced, but the sound is not a squeal, but more of a low-pitch hum or moan.

Problems

    Brake noise can also signal a problem with a vehicle's brake system. Many factors can cause noise to come from a vehicle's brakes. Brake discs that are cracked from the heat of braking or have a rough surface can cause brake noises. If the brake discs simply have an uneven surface they may be able to be refinished, where some of the surface is shaved off to make the disc smooth again. If the disc is cracked it should be replaced to avoid brake system failure. Brake noise can also be caused by loose brake pads. With either type of brakes, a grinding noise is a sign of metal-on-metal contact between the brake shoes and drum or pads and rotor, meaning the shoes or pads are worn completely away and must be replaced.

Warning

    If you hear an unusual sound coming from your brakes, have your vehicle checked by a qualified mechanic immediately.

How to Adjust the Emergency Brake on a 2002 Silverado

How to Adjust the Emergency Brake on a 2002 Silverado

You can adjust the emergency brake on your 2002 Chevy Silverado right from your home garage or driveway to save time and money. Adjusting the emergency brake is just a matter of taking up the slack in the parking brake cable. You will know it's time for an adjustment when you park your vehicle on a downhill slope and the emergency brake doesn't keep the vehicle from slipping.

Instructions

    1

    Place wheel chocks behind and in front of the front wheels of the Silverado.

    2

    Raise up the rear end of the Silverado with a jack. Slide jack stands under the vehicle next to each of the rear wheels. Lower the vehicle onto the jack stands for support.

    3

    Get under the Silverado and find cables that come together. At the point where they come together you will find an adjuster nut. Use a screwdriver to turn the adjuster nut.

    4

    Spin the rear wheels to verify they spin freely. If they don't spin freely, turn the adjuster nut the other direction.

    5

    Raise up the vehicle with the jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the vehicle to the ground and remove the wheel chocks.

Minggu, 12 Desember 2010

AC Delco Brake Instructions

AC Delco supplies OEM and aftermarket brake pads for all General Motors vehicles. They also have a variety of aftermarket brake pads for non-GM vehicles. When choosing replacement brake pads, it's best to use the same kind of pads as those installed in the vehicle on the assembly line. Inspect your brake pads at every other oil change and plan to replace them as soon as you find they're 3-millimeters thick or less. Anyone with good mechanical aptitude can install AC Delco brake pads in a few steps.

Instructions

    1

    Turn the front lug nuts on your vehicle counterclockwise with the lug wrench until they're loose enough for hand removal. Do not take the lug nuts off at this time.

    2

    Position a wheel chock at the front and one at the back of the vehicle's left rear wheel. This will prevent the vehicle from rolling during the brake repair.

    3

    Lift the front end of the vehicle with the floor jack until you can place a jack stand under each of the front lift points, located directly behind the front wheel wells. Lower the vehicle carefully onto the jack stands with the floor jack.

    4

    Take the lug nuts off the vehicle's front wheels by hand. Remove the front wheels by hand to expose the front brakes.

    5

    Set a drain pan under the left-front brakes. Wash any visible brake dust off the brake rotors, brake caliper and hub using brake cleaner.

    6

    Remove both of the brake caliper bolts using your socket set. Pull the caliper out of the caliper bracket by hand and turn it over. Remove the old brake pads from inside the caliper by hand and then discard them.

    7

    Wash the dust, dirt and old grease out of the caliper with brake cleaner. Apply a solid layer of white lithium grease to the caliper slide pins.

    8

    Force the caliper pistons to retract using the caliper piston tool. Remove the tool from the caliper and insert the new AC Delco brake pads.

    9

    Lower the caliper into the caliper bracket by hand. Thread each of the caliper bolts in manually before tightening them with the socket set.

    10

    Move to the vehicle's right-front with the tools and supplies. Repeat steps five through nine to install AC Delco brake pads on that side.

    11

    Put the wheels and lug nuts back onto your vehicle by hand. Lower the vehicle off of your jack stands using the floor jack. Tighten the lug nuts with a torque wrench to the recommended torque spec which you can get from your vehicle's repair manual, the local dealer or a tire shop.

How to Replace Honda Element Disc Brakes

How to Replace Honda Element Disc Brakes

The Honda Element features front disc brakes, but it also may use rear drum brakes or rear disc brakes. The procedure to change the front or rear disc brakes is quite similar, but the parts are different. The front rotors are vented because of the intense heat they endure. This is because they perform 70 percent of the braking power for the SUV. The rear rotors are solid and the pads are smaller than the front.

Instructions

    1

    Remove half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using a brake fluid suction baster and then discard the fluid. If you're replacing the front disc brakes, apply the parking brake, but if you're replacing the rear, place a wheel block in front of one of the front tires instead. Applying the parking brake will prevent you from removing the rear calipers.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts by about a quarter before lifting the axle.

    3

    Use the jack to lift the Element and then support the vehicle on jack stands.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts and tires.

    5

    Place the 6-inch C-clamp over the caliper assembly so the top of the caliper is on the inside housing and the screwing drive is on the backing plate of the outboard pad. Slowly tighten the clamp to compress the caliper piston inward fully. Remove the clamp.

    6

    Remove the two caliper bolts using a metric box-end wrench, then remove the caliper and tie it from the suspension with some rope so the rubber brake hose is not damaged.

    7

    Remove the two pad wire clips from the pads and then the pads from the caliper brace, taking note of the wear sensor positions on the pads. The wear sensors are the small metal and angled tabs on the upper corners of the pads. You'll need to replace the new ones the same way.

    8

    Remove the two caliper brace bolts located on the back of the knuckle. Use the breaker bar and a metric socket to break the bolts loose and then switch to a wrench once they're broken free.

    9

    Remove the two rotor retaining screws, using an impact screwdriver and a hammer to break them free.

    10

    Remove the rotor. If necessary, knock the rotor off by striking it from behind with a hammer.

    11

    Clean the replacement rotor with brake cleaner spray to clean off the rust preventative coating on it. Wipe it dry with a shop rag and then place the new rotor onto the hub flange. Replace the rotor retaining nuts.

    12

    With a wire-bristled brush, clean off the pad tabs contact points on the caliper brace and then lubricate with silicone brake lubricant. Replace the brace and the two bolts. Tighten the bolts to 90-foot pounds with the torque wrench and a metric socket.

    13

    Prep the pads with the shims provided in the replacement box, unless they're already staked onto the backing plates of the pads. Replace the pads and wire clips and then place the caliper over the pads.

    14

    Align the caliper bolts into the caliper and tighten them to 40-foot pounds with the torque wrench and socket. Repeat the pads and rotor replacement for the other side.

    15

    Replace the wheels and lug nuts. Tighten the nuts as much as you can with the wheels suspended and then re-tighten them with a torque wrench at 80-foot pounds.

    16

    Make sure the cap to the master cylinder is on and then pump the foot brake pedal to seat the pads and extend the caliper pistons. Once the pedal feels firm, recheck the brake fluid level in the master cylinder. Top off the cylinder with DOT 3 brake fluid.

    17

    Remove the wheel block and/or disengage the parking brake. Test drive the Element for proper braking operation.

Sabtu, 11 Desember 2010

How to Replace the Brake Light Switch on a Chevy Suburban

How to Replace the Brake Light Switch on a Chevy Suburban

Your car's brake light switch works like a relay that tells the brake lights to turn on when you press down on the brake. If your brake lights do not work, and you have tested the bulbs and know that they are not broken or dead, it could be that your brake light switch needs replacing. The brake light switch on a Chevrolet Suburban rests behind the brake pedal arm. Changing a brake light switch yourself saves time and money.

Instructions

Instructions

    1

    Open the driver side door and position yourself so you can access the brake pedal. You can use a flashlight if you need more light.

    2

    Locate the brake pedal switch on the underside of the brake pedal and unplug the wiring harness.

    3

    Unbolt the brake light switch using a wrench, and replace it with the replacement unit. Be sure to tightly bolt the switch into place.

    4

    Plug the wiring harness into the new switch. Test your brake lights to make sure they work by pressing the brake pedal.

Ford F250 Front Brake Caliper Removal

Ford F250 Front Brake Caliper Removal

Because of the Ford F250s weight and its ability to tow heavy objects, the F250 pick-up truck uses heavy-duty disk brakes. At the top of the brake disk is the brake caliper, which consists of four pistons and a number of seals. As the brake pedal is depressed, the pistons within the caliper press against the disk, thereby slowing down the truck. Over time, the pistons and seals require attention, and the disk itself may develop gouges if left unattended for too long. Repairing or replacing either the caliper or the disk itself requires the removal of the caliper.

Accessing the Caliper

    The front wheel must be removed to access the brake caliper, so the truck must be parked on a flat surface and the parking brake applied. The wheel is secured to the wheel hub with several large lug nuts. Before lifting the truck to remove the wheel, it is important to first loosen each of the lug nuts while the tire is held stationary by the weight of the truck. Once the lug nuts have been loosened, the front of the truck can then be raised with a floor jack underneath the trucks frame. No vehicle should be supported solely by a floor jack since jacks can unexpectedly fail or the vehicle could fall off of the tip of the jack. Therefore, place a safety stand under both sides of the front of the truck, underneath the frame, then lower the truck onto the stands with the jack and pull the jack out from underneath the truck. Remove the now-loosened lug nuts, then pull the wheel off of the truck to expose the brake caliper.

Removing the Caliper

    If the purpose of removing the caliper is to replace the caliper pistons or the seals within the calipers, first depress the brake pedal, which will cause the pistons to slide out of their bores and contact the disk. When the caliper is then removed, the exposed pistons will much easier to remove from the caliper than if they were entirely within the base of their bores. At the back of the caliper, meaning the portion of the caliper which faces the wheel well, is the brake fluid hose. The hose features an integral nut, which screws into the back of the caliper. If the caliper is removed before the fluid hose is disconnected, the weight of the caliper can damage the hose. The hose should therefore be disconnected first. There will be a small amount of brake fluid inside the hose, so a small plastic bag and a rubber band to secure the bag to the hose should be close at hand. The bag will serve the dual purpose of catching the brake fluid, as well as preventing dirt or debris from entering the brake line, which can severally damage the brake system. Loosen the integral nut on the hose with a wrench, then pull the hose out of the back of the caliper and immediately place the hose into the plastic bag. Close the bag around the hose with a rubber band. Also at the back of the caliper are four large retaining bolts. It is these bolts that hold the two halves of the caliper together and secure the caliper assembly to the disk. Remove all four bolts with a wrench, then pull the caliper assembly off of the disk.

How Do I Know If My Car Has an ABS System?

How Do I Know If My Car Has an ABS System?

Designed to help prevent skidding and loss of control on slippery surfaces, anti-lock brake systems (ABS) can be found on many of today's cars and trucks. These systems work independently of driver control to control the force to those wheels which the control module senses are locking up when the brake is applied. This information is sent to the control module via speed sensors located at each wheel.

How to know if your car has ABS brakes

    While ABS brakes are very common now, not all cars and trucks are equipped with them. You can determine if your car has an ABS system in four ways.
    The easiest method is to read your owner's manual. The next method is to look at your dash's instrument panel when turning the ignition key to the "ON" position, but not all the way to the start position. All of the warning and informational lights will be illuminated and any car equipped with an ABS system should display an "ABS" or "Anti Lock" light at this point.
    If you do not see a light for the ABS system, two methods remain to determine if your vehicle has ABS brakes.
    The first visual check is to look for an ABS pump under the vehicle hood. This pump is located near the brake master cylinder and will be connected to the master cylinder by one or two metal brake lines. Additionally, the pump itself will have several other brake lines attached.
    The final method for determining the presence of ABS brakes is to get in a position from which you can see the back of one of the front wheels. Turning the steering wheel all the way to one direction or the other will make it easier to see behind the wheel. If the car has ABS brakes, there will be a flexible rubber brake hose attached to the brake caliper and a wire attached to the speed sensor in the hub area. Cars without ABS brakes will only have the flexible brake line.

Jumat, 10 Desember 2010

How to Remove Caliper Bolts

Caliper bolts are designed to secure the brake caliper to the vehicle rotor, allowing the brake pads to sit inside the caliper. When the brake pedal is applied, the pads are moved toward the rotor by a hydraulic piston in the caliper to stop the vehicle. The caliper bolts are about 5 inches long with the last inch threaded so that the caliper can slide along the bolts to adjust the brakes properly. Save time and money by removing the caliper bolts yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Set the emergency brake of the vehicle and place a wood block behind one of the rear tires to prevent the vehicle from rolling. Loosen the lug nuts on the tire with a tire tool about one full turn.

    2

    Lift up the vehicle with a floor jack and place a jack stand under the axle near the tire you are removing. Lower the vehicle so that it rests on the jack stand. Remove the floor jack.

    3

    Take the tire off the wheel hub by unfastening the lug nuts with the tire tool. Set the tire aside. Locate the caliper bolts on the top and bottom of the brake caliper.

    4

    Unfasten the brake caliper bolts with a socket wrench to loosen them until you can slide the bolts out of the caliper by hand. Set the bolts aside.

How to Install an ABS Relay in a Ford Explorer

For safety reasons, you have to change the ABS relay in your Ford Explorer when the ABS warning light is lit on the driver control panel display. It is usually impossible to stop a vehicle that has a malfunctioning ABS relay as the relay controls the entire anti-lock brake system.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Explorer and engage the parking brake. Open the hood and secure it using the safety bar. Disconnect the negative battery cable (the black one) by loosening the nut on the clamp using an adjustable wrench.

    2

    Find the engine relay center located in front of the battery. Release the cover by lifting up on the clips on either side of the cover. Set the cover aside. Look for the relay labeled ABS. On each side of the relay, there is a screw. Remove these screws using a Phillips screwdriver. Pull up on the relay to remove it.

    3

    Unhook the wiring harness on the bottom of the relay by pressing the buttons on the side of the harness. Gently pull down on the harness while you are pressing the buttons.

    4

    Plug the wiring harness into the bottom of the new ABS relay. Place the new ABS relay in the place from which you just removed the malfunctioning relay. Secure it by replacing the mounting fasteners. Tighten them with the screwdriver.

    5

    Replace the cover and secure it with the clips. Reconnect the negative battery cable. Tighten the nut on the clamp. Close the hood.

    6

    Start the engine. Look for the ABS warning light. If it remains off, test drive your vehicle by driving slowly and trying to stop. If the ABS warning light comes on, you should take it to a mechanic to service the system.

How to Repair a Rear Drum Brake on a 1978 Ford Mustang King Cobra

The 1978 Ford Mustang "King Cobra" uses a duo-servo style rear drum brake system. In this type of system , as the brake shoes are expanded against the drum by the wheel cylinder, the shoes try to follow the rotation of the drum. As the front shoe rotates, it forces the rear shoe hard into the drum to provide stopping power. This is the reason the rear shoe is always larger than the front shoe. Repairing the rear drum brakes on this car is similar to other Ford vehicles equipped with a similar brake system.

Instructions

Disassembly

    1

    Force wheel chocks in front of and behind the front wheels. Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts 1/2 turn using the lug wrench. Position a floor jack under the center of the rear differential (also called a rear end), and lift the car until the rear wheels are off the ground.

    2

    Slide jack stands under the rear axle tubes on the rear end, and lower the Mustang onto the stands. Remove the rear wheels using the lug wrench. Lay the wheels and lug nuts aside to prevent loosing the lug nuts and tripping over the wheels.

    3

    Slide the drums off the brake shoes. It is not uncommon for the drum to be stuck to the axle hub. If this occurs, a few sharp blows, with a hammer, around the outer edge of the drum will loosen the drums enough to be removed. Wash the brake shoes and drums off with soapy water to remove accumulated brake dust.

    4

    Pull out slightly on the self-adjuster lever located between the bottom ends of the shoes, and rotate the serrated adjuster wheel behind it until it is as loose as possible. Remove the two return springs that connect the shoes to the pivot pin, located at the top of the brake assembly backing plate, using the return-spring tool in the brake spring tool set. Set the return springs, adjuster cable, cable guide and parking brake bar (located between the two shoes just below the wheel cylinder) aside.

    5

    Pull the lower edges of both brake shoes away from each other until the adjuster drops out from between them. Push the shoes together and slip the lower spring off the adjuster lever. No special tool should be needed to do this. Lay the adjuster lever and lower spring aside.

    6

    Push in on the two hold-down springs that attach the shoes to the backing plate, using the hold-down spring tool, and rotate the spring 1/4 turn to release the springs from the hold down pin. Lat the front shoe aside. Spread the u-clip that attaches the parking brake lever to the rear shoe, using a screwdriver, and remove the shoe from the lever. Lay the shoe aside.

Assembly

    7

    Clean the backing plate thoroughly with soapy water and a scrub brush. Dry it using shop towels. Apply a dab of silicon brake grease to the pivot pads on the backing plate. These are the raised areas on the backing plate that the shoes contact when they are installed.

    8

    Install the new rear shoe (the larger of the two shoes) onto the parking brake lever, and attach it to the backing plate using the hold down springs. Attach the new front shoe to the backing plate in the same manner. Position the parking brake bar between the shoes and slide the adjuster cable onto the pivot pin. Install the two return springs and the adjuster cable guide using the return spring tool to pry the springs onto the pivot pin.

    9

    Slip the adjuster lever into the hole on the brake shoe, and hook the adjuster cable to it. Attach the lower spring to the rear shoe, and slip it into the adjuster lever while pushing the shoes toward each other. Pull the shoes away from each other, and slip the adjuster between them.

    10

    Slide the small side of the shoe-adjusting gauge into the new brake drum, and spread it out against the inside of the drum. Tighten the thumbscrew on the gauge to lock it in place. Slide the larger side of the gauge over the shoes. Rotate the adjuster on the brake system until the gauge makes slight contact as it is passed over the shoes. Slide the new drum into place over the shoes. Repeat the steps for the remaining rear brake assembly. Reinstall the rear wheels.

    11

    Raise the Mustang off the jack stands, and remove the stands. Lower the car to the ground, and tighten the lug nuts one final time. Test drive the car to verify it stops properly and the parking brake functions properly.