Kamis, 30 September 2010

How Much Does it Cost to Replace Brake Pads?

How Much Does it Cost to Replace Brake Pads?

Replacing brake pads on your vehicle is something every vehicle owner has to experience sooner or later. Since the front disc brakes provide 75 percent braking capacity for most all vehicles, they will require more frequent replacement than the rear brakes. Many repair facilities rarely install brake pads without tacking on additional services and charges.

Parts And Labor Rates

    How much does it cost to replace brake pads? The cost varies by make and model.
    How much does it cost to replace brake pads? The cost varies by make and model.

    Brake pads are relatively inexpensive. This depends on the type of vehicle you drive. A common domestic car will feature cheaper replacement parts than an imported sports vehicle. Supply and demand keeps prices down. An average cost when replacing brakes can range anywhere from $25 to $60, depending on quality and availability.

    The cost of brake pads being installed on your car is based on labor rates at most repair facilities. On average, a brake pad replacement will take an hour or more per side. Flat rate labor is commonly applied to labor charges for new brake pads. This means the repair for brake pads is pre-calculated in a repair manual and applied to the bill. If the book says it will take 2.5 hours to install the pads on your vehicle, you will be charged 2.5 hours times the hourly labor rate. Even if the mechanic can get the job done quicker.

    Shopping for parts prices and labor rates can be done in the comfort of your own home. Keep in mind that it's difficult for a repair facility to give you an accurate quote without actually seeing the vehicle and properly determining what it needs. Other services may be required when replacing brake pads, such as machining the rotors or replacing them and servicing the calipers and/or replacing brake pad hardware.

    When shopping prices for the cost of brake pads, search by phone or in person to give you an idea what you will have to pay for parts and what the shop charges for hourly labor rates.

Quality

    New brake pads don't have to break the bank!
    New brake pads don't have to break the bank!

    As with anything in life, brake pads are commonly available in a variety of quality. You get what you pay for. Cheaper brake pads will not last as long as higher quality pads. Inexpensive pads commonly feature stick-on brake shims and a small tube of silicone grease. Higher quality brake pad set are more expensive, but may feature thicker friction material, will last longer and in some cases, provide hardware and staked-on shims.

    Most all brake pads, no matter what quality, bought at parts stores or repair facilities, will feature a lifetime warranty. This means you pay labor only for the reinstallation of the pads when needed in the future.

Consider the DIY Project

    If you really want to decrease the cost of replacing brake pads, a do-it-yourself project will save you hundreds of dollars in labor charges. Keep in mind that labor charges can average between $60 an hour to more than $100, depending on the competitive labor rates in the area. Buying tools to perform the job may be necessary, but you can still save money and then reuse the tools over and over again when necessary. Other services to your disc brakes can still be performed. You can remove the rotors and have them machined at most parts stores or repair facilities and not be charged the labor to remove and replace them. You can also buy rotors cheaper at the parts stores than you would pay for markup and labor cost for a repair facility to install for you.

    As you can see there are many ways to save money when replacing brake pads. Finding the best solution for your budget is the only essential.

Difference Between Brake Shoes and Pads

Difference Between Brake Shoes and Pads

Brake shoes and brake pads are components of different types of braking systems. While brake pads are a component of disc brakes, brake shoes are a part of drum brakes.

Disc Brakes

    Disc brakes appear through rims.
    Disc brakes appear through rims.

    Before getting into pads and shoes, it is important to know the difference between the two types of brakes. Disc brakes will usually be visible through your rims, as shown in this image.

Drum Brakes

    Drum brakes will not be so easily visible but the absence of a disc will tell you they're drum brakes.

Brake Pads

    Brake pads are components of disc brakes. They squeeze the disc to slow down the vehicle.

Brake Shoes

    Brake shoes fit inside drum brakes. When the brake is pressed, the shoes spread and press on the drum, slowing the car down.

Compatibility

    While disc and drum brakes can be used as rear brakes, drum brakes are not used as front brakes. Brake pads cannot be used with drum brakes, nor can brake shoes work with discs.

How to Replace the Brake Master Cylinder in a 1993 Pontiac Bonneville

The brake master cylinder in a 1993 Pontiac Bonneville stores the brake fluid until the pedal and booster send the fluid to the brakes. The Bonneville does have a few added options, such as a brake fluid level sensor, which you must deal with. Other than that, the installation of the cylinder is very much like other vehicles. If you need to replace the master cylinder, this procedure will force air into the brake system that you will need to take care of.

Instructions

Removal

    1

    Disconnect the negative battery cable with a wrench then disconnect the electrical connector on the master cylinder reservoir for the fluid level sensor.

    2

    Place shop rags on the ground directly beneath the line fittings for the cylinder then remove the fittings at the cylinder with a flare-nut wrench and disconnect the lines. Plug the lines with rubber plugs.

    3

    Unscrew the mounting nuts located at the end of the cylinder where it connects to the brake booster and remove the cylinder.

    4

    Pry the reservoir off the cylinder with a flat head screwdriver.

Installation

    5

    Fasten the reservoir to the top of the replacement cylinder, making sure there are new grommets on the mounting holes.

    6

    Connect the cylinder to the brake booster and apply the two mounting nuts with the wrench.

    7

    Reconnect the brake lines to the cylinder onto their fittings with the flare-nut wrench then reconnect the electrical connector to the reservoir and connect the battery cable.

    8

    Fill the brake master cylinder to the full mark with fresh brake fluid.

    9

    Raise the rear of the car, support it on jack stands and remove the wheels. Connect a rubber tube to the bleeder valve on one rear wheel's brake caliper and submerge the tube in a small bottle/container partially filled with fluid.

    10

    Loosen the caliper bleed valve as an assistant presses the pedal; air and fluid will come out of the tube. Close the valve, release the pedal and repeat until there are no air bubbles.

    11

    Repeat Steps 5 and 6 for the other rear wheel, then remount the rear wheels and lower the car off the jack stands. Raise the front end on the jack stands, remove the front wheels and bleed those brakes.

    12

    Remount the front wheels, lower the car and fill the reservoir if necessary.

How to Replace a Brake Line in a Chrysler Town & Country

The brake lines on your Chrysler Town & Country van are important, and while it's rare that the stock lines could rupture, replacing them with ones made of stainless steel can greatly help preserve the vehicle. Check with an auto parts expert to make sure you get the correct replacement line.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the vehicle, making sure you use a jack stand that supports a van like the Chrysler Town & Country. Remove the wheels for access to the brake line and the brake calipers.

    2

    Locate the brake master cylinder underneath the hood. It should be in a corner and look like a metal cylinder with a plastic reservoir tank on top. Trace the brake lines that run from it and to each wheel.

    3

    Study the brake line. It's likely divided into sections with multiple connectors. It will also be bent in ways that a replacement line should also be bent.

    4

    Remove the brake line by disconnecting the two bolts on each connector with two line wrenches. Support the brake hose on the caliper with strong wire to avoid damaging it.

    5

    Install the new brake line, twisting the bolts in place by hand first and then tightening them with the line wrenches. Connect it on the master cylinder's side first to prevent damaging the hose.

    6

    Refill the brake master cylinder as needed. Bleed the system by removing air through the bleeder valves on the caliper. Connect the valve to a container of fluid through a vinyl tube and have someone else press the pedal.

How to Adjust the Pedal Height on a Power Brake Booster

Today nearly all automobiles are equipped with power-assisted braking systems. These provide the driver with a very predictable and consistent response, which gives the driver better control of the braking process. This consistent feedback to the driver depends on the proper adjustment of the various braking components, including the height and free play of the brake pedal. Adjusting the brake pedal height is not difficult, and it saves you a trip to your local mechanic.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle and move the driver's seat as far back as possible to give yourself good access to the brake pedal. Measure the vertical distance from the floor under the brake pedal to the center of the pedal. Compare the measured height to the manufacturer's specification as found in the vehicle's shop manual or an aftermarket equivalent repair manual such as Hayne's or Chilton. These are often available at your local public library.

    2

    Start the car and gently push the brake pedal with your hand while carefully feeling the resistance. The pedal should go down about 1/4 to 3/8 inch, at which point you should feel a light bump and the pedal resistance should increase slightly. This bump occurs when the master cylinder starts to engage, and the distance that the brake pedal travels to reach this point is known as free play. Compare the amount of free play to the manufacturer's specification as found in the vehicle's shop manual or an aftermarket equivalent repair manual.

    3

    Slide under the dashboard and look up to where the brake pedal is mounted. You will see a threaded push rod protruding from the front wall of the passenger compartment. The end of the push rod connects to the upper part of the brake pedal arm. You will also see lock-nuts at one or both ends of the rod. Mark a dot at roughly the mid-point of the push rod using a marker.

    4

    Wrap a small rag around the push rod to protect the threads, and then grip the rod firmly with pliers to prevent it from rotating. Loosen the lock-nuts with a wrench.

    5

    Rotate the push rod clockwise to increase pedal height and pedal free play, and counterclockwise to reduce them. The push rod can be rotated by hand, or with pliers if necessary. Be careful when reducing the free play, as the mechanism will reach a point where the pedal is no longer being lowered but the push rod is being pulled out instead. This is moving the master cylinder piston from its rest position, and brake drag will result. You can gauge how far you have adjusted the push rod by checking the position of the dot that you placed on it.

    6

    Tighten the lock-nuts once the pedal height and free play are within the specified ranges. Be sure to grip the push rod firmly with pliers to prevent it from rotating when the lock-nuts are tightened.

    7

    Examine the brake pedal arm if you cannot bring both the free-play and the pedal height into line with the manufacturer's specifications. On some vehicles you will see holes through the arm above and below the push rod connecting point. Follow the adjusting procedure above to bring the freeplay into the specified range, forgetting about the pedal height, and then tighten the lock-nuts. Disconnect the push rod from the brake pedal arm by first removing the push rod clevis pin retaining clip and then slipping the clevis pin out of the mounting hole in the brake pedal arm. Move the push rod to a higher hole to raise the bake pedal or a lower hole to lower it. Insert the clevis pin through the holes in the push rod clevis and the brake pedal arm and secure in place with the retaining clip.

    8

    Test the operation of the brakes and the brake lights before driving. Take the time to become familiar with the changed feel of the brakes after adjustment

Rabu, 29 September 2010

The History of Power Hydraulic Brakes

The History of Power Hydraulic Brakes

Early automobile brakes consisted of steel bands that tightened around a drum installed on the rear axle. These brakes were a carryover from braking systems used on horse-driven carriages. As automobile speeds approached 80 mph, early systems became inadequate. In 1918, an inventor named Malcolm Loughead discovered how to use hydraulics in automotive braking systems. Loughead's name was later changed to Lockheed, and he co-founded the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in 1932.

Drum Brakes

    Development of internal drum braking systems preceded development of hydraulic braking systems. A Frenchman named Louis Renault is credited with development of the internal drum braking system in 1902. Placement of the brake shoes inside the brake drum eliminated the destructive action of water and dirt on brake parts. Early internal drum brake systems employed mechanical systems to force brake shoes against the brake drum. The primary drawback of using mechanical systems to apply brakes is the cumbersome routing of brake linkage to all four wheels.

First Application

    Malcolm Loughead figured out how to use metal tubing, hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic pistons to apply fluid pressure that forced brake shoes against the internal surface of brake drums. This technological advance was quickly put to use when the first hydraulic brake systems were installed on 1918 Duesenberg automobiles. By 1921, the Duesenberg Model A featured four-wheel hydraulic drum brakes. The development of hydraulic brakes allowed Duesenberg to build production cars with speeds up to 130 mph.

General Acceptance

    By 1931, most of the major American automobile manufacturers were building cars with the new hydraulic brake systems. Ford Motor Company continued with mechanical brake systems until 1939, when the company finally began using hydraulic brakes. Since hydraulic brake tubing could be routed more efficiently than mechanical linkage or cable systems, automobile manufacturers were able to adopt much sleeker body designs. The combination of internal brake shoes, hydraulic brake systems and the development of vacuum brake boosters made it safer to drive cars at faster speeds.

Latest Developments

    Vacuum brake booster systems first appeared on 1928 Pierce-Arrow automobiles. These systems use vacuum from the engine's intake manifold to ease the physical effort needed to apply the brakes. General Motors began switching to electric brake boosters in 1985. Electric power assist systems, along with anti-lock brake systems, are now considered essential elements of a complete hydraulic braking system. Modern four-wheel disc brake systems use on-board computers to ensure the precise amount of hydraulic pressure reaches each wheel to aid in vehicle stability.

How to Take Off the Front Rotor of a Ford Truck

The Ford truck brake system uses a traditional spindle and bearing, with the hub cast into the rotor. Removal is a snap if you follow a few simple steps. Two types of caliper retention have been used over the years. The first is the wedge-type design that uses two wedge-shaped slides to retain the caliper, and the second is the bolt-type that uses a tapered bolt slide pin that slips into the backside of the caliper. Both types are easily removed to allow the rotor to slide off the spindle.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the vehicle and support it with jack stands on the frame of the truck. Remove the wheel to gain access to the brake system. It is very important to support the weight of the vehicle with jack stands and not just the jack. Every year people are seriously injured or killed by jack failures or vehicles that fall off a jack. Be safe.

    2

    Remove the caliper by prying the brake pads back slightly with a screwdriver and removing the caliper slides. If you have the wedge-type slides, then remove them by driving them out with a hammer and punching until they pop out of the back of the caliper. If you have the bolt-type slides, then simply unbolt them. In either case, put the slides aside in a safe place.

    3

    Remove the rotor by first removing the dust cap, then the cotter pin and large spindle nut. Slip the outer bearing and washer out of the rotor, and then reinstall the spindle nut. With a single sharp jerking motion, pull the rotor off the spindle. The spindle nut will catch on the bearing and neatly remove the inner bearing and seal.

    4

    To reinstall, pack the wheel bearings and install the inner bearings and the seal. Then slide the rotor onto the spindle and insert the outer bearing, washer and nut. Tighten the spindle nut until it is snug, and then back off 1/8 turn. Install a new cotter pin and the dust cap.

Selasa, 28 September 2010

Chevy Suburban Front Brakes Tutorial

The Chevy Suburban is the longest living model to exist in the General Motors family to date. The station wagon shaped SUV began production in 1935 and is still produced at this time. The vehicle has endured several generational redesigns and is available in 1/2-ton, 3/4-ton and 1-ton models. The front braking system is like that of other comparable Chevy truck and SUV models in its weight class, considering the year of manufacturing.

Removing the Caliper

    Before starting, siphon out half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder of the Suburban and then replace the snap-on cap.

    With the Suburban in park or first gear and the parking brake applied, the lug nuts need to be cracked loose 1/8 of a turn before lifting the SUV. Lifting the Suburban with a hydraulic floor jack or a manual scissor jack and then supporting the vehicle onto jack stands will be required. Never work on a vehicle--especially something as heavy as a Suburban--supported by a jack only. Complete the removal of the lug nuts and then the wheels to expose the front brakes.

    Remove the caliper guide bolts. This will require a 3/8-inch hex-head insert socket for an appropriate drive socket. The guide bolts have an interlocking sleeve that will extract along with the bolts.

    Once both bolts are removed, use a pry bar or a large straightedge screwdriver to remove the caliper and pad assembly from the rotor.

    Support the caliper to the suspension using mechanics wire, a makeshift hook or a bungee cord.

Replacing the Pads

    The pads are attached to the caliper with seated clips. These clips can be unseated and removed by convincing them with a pry bar or screwdriver. The outboard pad had two horned clips attached to the caliper housing. The inboard pad had a three-pronged clip that sits inside the caliper piston bore.

    Once the pads are removed, a 6-inch C-clamp will be required to depress the caliper piston inward to make room for the new pads.

    Before installing the new pads, grind a clean surface onto the caliper anchor and the caliper mating surface and then apply a liberal coat of silicone brake lubricant or a graphite-based anti-seize compound.

    Before replacing the calipers, apply a coating of the lubricant to the interlocking slides of the guide bolts before installing them.

Replacing the Rotors

    If you're replacing the rotors, you should be able to remove them once the caliper and pad assembly are removed. In some cases, the rotors may be stuck to the hub flange by corrosion and need to be convinced off with a few sharp smacks from a large hammer. Cleaning the mating surface of the hub flange is a good idea to ensure proper placement of the new rotor. A die-grinder with a course reconditioning disc works well.

    Be sure to clean the rust-preventative coating off of the new rotor with a parts cleaner or brake clean.

Wrapping it Up

    Once the rotor and pads have been replaced, reinstall the caliper onto the rotor and then reinsert the lubed guide bolts. Tighten them to 35- to 40-foot pounds using a torque wrench and the 3/8-inch hex-head insert socket. Replace the wheels and lug nuts and then tighten the lug nuts flush to the hub flange. Once you lower the Suburban, re-torque the lug nuts between 120- to 140-foot pounds (depending on the year and torque specifications).

    Pump the foot brake pedal to replace the caliper pistons to their original position and re-seat the new pads to the rotor. Once the pedal feels firm, the pistons should be okay. Recheck and adjust the brake fluid in the master cylinder. Add only new brake fluid, if necessary.

Senin, 27 September 2010

How to Replace Audi Brakes

An Audi is a high-performance vehicle with a high-performance engine installed on every model. High-performance engines put out a lot of power, so Audi installs disc brakes for every wheel. The disc brakes are behind each wheel and secured to each rotor. On the top or the side of the rotor is a frame to which the brake caliper is secured. On the rear of each caliper are two bolts that mount the caliper to the frame. The bolt size and torque specifications will be different on each model, so you will need a metric ratchet set to complete this job.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the four or five lug nuts on one of the Audi's wheels using an Audi tire iron. Raise that wheel off the ground using a car jack.

    2

    Lower that side of the frame onto a jack stand to support the Audi. Remove the wheel from the Audi's frame, and set it aside while you work.

    3

    Remove the bolts from the rear of the brake caliper using a ratchet and correct-size socket from the set. Pull the caliper off the frame, and rest it on the lower control arm.

    4

    Remove the pads from the inside of the caliper by pulling them out. Insert an Audi brake compression tool into the caliper, and turn the handle clockwise to force the caliper's piston onto the caliper. Insert the new pads.

    5

    Place the caliper onto the rotor frame, and tighten the bolts to the torque specifications for that model. Place the wheel onto the frame, and replace the nuts to the wheel. Lower the frame to the ground, and tighten the lug nuts to the torque specifications for that model.

Sabtu, 25 September 2010

How to Remove Brake Boosters on a 1993 Volkswagen Jetta

The brake booster, also referred to as the power booster on a 1993 Volkswagen is a round steel cylinder sandwiched between the master cylinder and the firewall. The brake booster uses engine vacuum to increase the force exerted on the brakes when the driver presses the brake pedal. The power booster also lessens the distance the brake pedal must travel before the brakes engage. Removing the brake booster on a 1993 Jetta is a reasonably easy task that can be accomplished by the home mechanic in a few hours.

Instructions

Removing the Master Cylinder on a Manual Brake System

    1

    Disconnect the ground cable from the negative battery terminal by loosening the retaining bolt, using a wrench. Then pull the clamp off the terminal.

    2

    Unscrew the master cylinder reservoir cap by turning it counterclockwise with your hand.

    3

    Drain the brake fluid form the master cylinder reservoir.

    4

    Unscrew the brake line fittings from the bottom of the master cylinder using a line wrench. Then pull the lines away from the master cylinder. Be aware some fluid might leak from the master cylinder.

    5

    Cover the brake line ends and the orifices in the master cylinder with electrical tape, to prevent dirt and oil from entering the hydraulic system.

    6

    Unscrew the two nuts and washers that secure the master cylinder to the brake booster using a socket.

    7

    Slide the master cylinder forward and away from the power booster, then remove it from the vehicle.

Removing the Brake Light Switch

    8

    Carefully pull the vacuum line out of the brake booster using your hand.

    9

    Locate the brake light switch on the the brake pedal bracket.

    10

    Remove the fuse box cover, by pressing in the locking buttons with your fingers and pulling the cover away.

    11

    Remove the screws that secure the under dash trim panel to the dash.

    12

    Remove the trim panel, by pulling it downward and carefully pry it away from the dash. Then remove it from the vehicle.

    13

    Pull the wiring connector off the back of the switch with your hand.

    14

    Rotate the switch 90 degrees then pull it from the bracket with your hand.

Removing the Brake Booster

    15

    Unscrew the four brake booster mounting nuts, using a socket. They are located inside the vehicle at the brake pedal mounting bracket.

    16

    Slide the brake booster forward slightly, until you can see the brake pedal pushrod coming out of the back of the booster.

    17

    Spread the retaining clips that secure the brake pedal pushrod to the power booster, using your hand. The pull the pushrod from the booster.

    18

    Lift the brake booster from the engine bay.

Jumat, 24 September 2010

How to Replace Front Brake Pads on a 2001 Honda Civic

How to Replace Front Brake Pads on a 2001 Honda Civic

Your brakes are the most important piece of safety equipment on your vehicle. It is important to take care of your brakes in order to maintain the high level of stopping performance they deliver. The Honda Civic is equipped with front disc brakes as standard equipment. Replacing the pads fitted on these brakes should take under an hour in ideal conditions.

Instructions

    1

    Pull the hood release lever inside of the Civic to pop the hood. Move to the hood and lift it open by pulling on the release latch underneath. Disconnect the cable to the negative terminal of the battery, using the ratchet and socket, and set the cable aside. Locate the master brake cylinder reservoir at the rear of the engine compartment on the driver's side. Remove half of the fluid in the brake master cylinder reservoir with a turkey baster. Never reuse brake fluid -- place the fluid in a sealable container and discard it properly.

    2

    Use the lug wrench to loosen the nuts on both wheels. Lift the front of the Civic off the ground using a floor jack. Support the front of the vehicle with jack stands placed underneath. Finish removing the lug nuts and pull the wheels off of the axle to reveal the front brake hardware.

    3

    Use a ratchet and socket to remove the two bolts holding the caliper to the caliper mount. Lift the caliper off of the brake rotor to reveal the brake pads. Suspend the caliper on a suspension component with mechanic's wire.

    4

    Remove the brake pads from the caliper mount and detach the retaining clips from the pads, if equipped. Place one of the old pads over the caliper piston and push it back inside the caliper with a C-clamp.

    5

    Attach the retaining clips to the new brake pads and place them on the caliper mount. Remove the mechanic's wire and slide the caliper over the pads and the rotor. Replace the retaining bolts and tighten them with the ratchet and socket. Repeat the process with the other wheel.

    6

    Mount the wheels on the axle and hand tighten the lug nuts. Jack up the vehicle enough to remove the jack stands, then lower the Civic onto its wheels. Finish tightening the nuts with the lug wrench.

    7

    Reconnect the negative battery cable. Add fresh brake fluid to the brake master cylinder reservoir until it reaches the top fill line. Pump the brakes four to five times so the new pads can set.

How to Remove the Master Brake Cylinder in a 1991 Acura Integra

How to Remove the Master Brake Cylinder in a 1991 Acura Integra

The hydraulic brake system in a 1991 Acura Integra uses a master cylinder to push brake fluid to each caliper or brake drum on the car. The cylinder has seals on it and, over time, these seals can break down and decrease your braking ability. To fix the problem you have to replace the master cylinder with a new or reconditioned model, but first you have to remove the old one.

Instructions

    1

    Pop the hood and locate the master cylinder. It's located on the brake booster on the driver's side firewall. Use the siphon pump to drain the reservoir on the top of the master cylinder into the drain pan.

    2

    Disconnect the brake lines leading into the master cylinder using a line wrench. Then wrap a mechanics rag around the base of the master cylinder to minimize leaks.

    3

    Disconnect the two bolts that hold the master cylinder to the brake booster using an open-end wrench. Then pull the master cylinder away from the car.

Kamis, 23 September 2010

How to Remove the Brake Rotor From a 2001 Isuzu Trooper

How to Remove the Brake Rotor From a 2001 Isuzu Trooper

The 2001 Isuzu Trooper was manufactured with front disk brakes, which use a rotor and pad system to stop the vehicle. The rotors can become warped or rough with age, and require disassembly and replacement. The average backyard mechanic can remove a Trooper rotor in about half an hour.

Instructions

    1

    Jack up the truck at the wheel of the rotor to be replaced, then place it on the jack stands. The jack stands are more secure than the jack alone.

    2

    Remove the wheel with the lug wrench by turning the nuts in a counterclockwise direction. Set the wheel aside.

    3

    Remove the caliper and pads by turning the caliper's rear bolts in a counterclockwise direction. The caliper and pads will slide off of the rotor, and they can be set onto the control arms or secured with zip-ties to prevent damage to the brake lines. Do not let the caliper dangle from the brake lines.

    4

    Remove the center cap by prying it off with a screwdriver, then unscrew the center plate by turning the three screws in a counterclockwise direction. The plate will come off once freed, and expose the wheel bearings and axle/hub nut.

    5

    Remove the center hub nut by turning it in a counterclockwise direction. Some models could have a cotter pin in place; remove it by pulling it up and out with a pair of pliers.

    6

    Remove the rotor by pulling it free of the hub, once the plate and axle nut are removed. The wheel bearings may have rusted to the rotor, and some force could be required.

Rabu, 22 September 2010

How to Make Parking Brake Adjustments in a Toyota Corolla

Adjusting your parking brake on your Toyota Corolla from home saves you time and money because you don't have to take your car to the mechanic. Expect it to take no more than one hour to make the adjustment and you'll feel successful about your accomplishment. The most difficult part of the process is removing the console inside the car, which takes patience.

Instructions

    1

    Locate the hand parking brake on the inside of the car between the driver's seat and the front passenger seat.

    2

    Remove the console covering from around the hand parking brake. There are two pieces to unscrew and remove. Notice the two rods sticking out from the back metal plate. Attached are two nuts that adjust the hand parking brake.

    3

    Use your pliers to turn the nuts around the two rods sticking out the back of the hand parking brake.

    4

    Test your adjustment and pull up on the hand parking brake lever. The lever should click six to nine times. Use your pliers to adjust the nuts again to achieve the desired number of clicks.

    5

    Replace the hand parking brake console covering.

How to Replace the Rotors on a Nissan Frontier

Replacing the rotors on a Nissan Frontier is slightly more complicated than with other vehicles. The hub and bearing assembly is bolted to the brake rotor, so you must deal with it as well as the brake caliper. If you need to change one brake rotor, there is a good chance that you will need to change both. This process can vary depending on the year of the truck and whether it has two- or four-wheel drive.

Instructions

Removal

    1

    Apply the Frontier's parking brake if it isn't on, then loosen the wheel's lug nuts with your tire iron, jack up the front end using the floor jack, position the jack stands under the frame rails and lower the the truck onto the stands. Remove the wheel.

    2

    Unbolt and remove the brake caliper from the rotor; do not stretch or kink the attached brake hose. Locate a spot on the coil spring or other location on the suspension and tie up the caliper with a piece of wire.

    3

    Pull the brake pads out of the caliper mounting bracket and inspect their condition. Unbolt and remove the bracket from the rotor.

    4

    Pry the circular cap off the hub using a hammer and chisel, then pull out the cotter pin and nut lock using needle-nose pliers. Remove the spindle nut and thrust washer using locking pliers.

    5

    Pull out the rotor and hub assembly slightly, push it back onto the spindle to force off the outer bearing and then pull off the rotor and hub assembly.

    6

    Unscrew the bolts connecting the rotor to the hub with your wrench and separate the rotor from the hub.

Installation

    7

    Bolt the replacement rotor to the hub.

    8

    Slide the hub assembly onto the spindle and engage the outer wheel bearing.

    9

    Install and tighten the spindle nut and washer with the pliers, then install the nut lock with a new cotter pin and reconnect the hub cap.

    10

    Bolt the caliper mounting bracket to the rotor and insert the brake pads into the bracket; use new pads if needed.

    11

    Connect the caliper to the bracket with its bolts. If you installed new pads, you will likely need to compress the caliper piston using a C-clamp before it will fit on the bracket.

    12

    Repeat the entire replacement process for the rotor on the other side if needed.

    13

    Reinstall the wheel(s) and hand tighten the lug nuts. Jack up the Frontier off the jack stands using the floor jack and lower the truck to the floor. Finish tightening the wheel lug nuts.

Selasa, 21 September 2010

2002 Buick LeSabre Rear Brake Pad Replacement Instructions

In 1951, General Motors showed the public a modern marvel of concept cars, the LeSabre. This ultra-modern concept included features that were well ahead of their time, including 12-volt electronics, aluminum and magnesium body panels, fuel injection, built-in hydraulic jacks and a rain-activated automatic convertible top. Unfortunately, this version of the LeSabre was extremely expensive to build -- rumored to be between $500,000 and $1,000,000 -- so it never became a reality. In 1959, Buick snagged up the LeSabre name and released a slightly tamer version of the vehicle, though it still had built-in hydraulic jacks. By time the 2002 model year rolled around, the LeSabre had become a staple in Buick's lineup and was the America's best-selling full-sized car. Replacing the rear brake pads on the 2002 LeSabre requires special care, as you need to deal with the parking brake system.

Instructions

    1

    Park the LeSabre on a level surface and leave the parking brake disengaged.

    2

    Unscrew the lid from the master cylinder, and use a clean turkey baster to siphon out about half of the brake fluid. Transfer this siphoned fluid to a small container for later disposal -- do not reuse this fluid.

    3

    Loosen the rear lug nuts, using a ratchet and socket. Raise the rear of the LeSabre with a floor jack, and slide jack stands under the rear control arms. Lower the LeSabre onto the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts, and pull the rear wheels from the vehicle.

    4

    Trace the parking brake cable toward the brake caliper until you find where the end of it connects to the parking brake lever on the caliper. Grip the metal end of the parking brake cable with slip-joint pliers, and pull it downward until it's clear from the parking brake lever. Slip the parking brake cable through the slot on the lever, and position the cable aside.

    5

    Trace the parking brake cable toward the lower control arm until you find the bracket securing the cable to the lower control arm. Remove the bracket bolt with a ratchet and socket, and pull the bracket from the control arm.

    6

    Remove the two caliper-retaining pins, using a ratchet and socket. Pull the caliper up and off the caliper bracket. If the caliper does not pull off easily, pry upward on it with a 6-inch pry bar until it is free from the bracket. Hang the caliper from a nearby suspension component, using a bungee strap -- never allow the caliper to hang by its rubber hose.

    7

    Pull the inner and outer brake pads from the caliper bracket. Pull the brake pad clips -- the thin metal shims -- from the top and bottom of the caliper bracket. Remove the two caliper bracket bolts, using a ratchet and socket, and pull the caliper bracket from the rear hub. Pull the rotor from the LeSabre's rear hub; if it sticks to the hub, lightly strike it with a rubber mallet to free it.

    8

    Inspect the rotor for any visible defects, including deep grooves, mirror-like shine, hot spotting, grinding or cracking. If any defects exist, replace the rotor with a new one. Set the new or old rotor on the LeSabre's rear hub.

    9

    Apply a thin coat of a thread-locking chemical, and allow the chemical to cure for the time specified by its instructions -- typically 5 to 10 minutes. Set the caliper bracket back onto the rear hub, and hand-tighten the caliper bracket bolts. Apply 94 foot-pounds of torque to the caliper bracket bolts, using a torque wrench and socket.

    10

    Press new brake pad clips -- included with the new brake pads -- into the caliper bracket; the clips are asymmetrical, so they only fit in one direction. Spin the rotor to make certain the clips do not rub the rotor.

    11

    Apply a generous coat of disc brake grease -- anti-squeal grease -- to the brake pad clips and the rear of the new brake pads. Slide the new brake pads into the caliper bracket.

    12

    Wipe the old grease off the brake caliper pins, using a clean, lint-free cloth, and apply a coat of disc brake grease to the smooth part of the caliper pins -- do not get grease on the threads. Remove the bungee strap from the brake caliper, and compress the caliper piston using a rear caliper tool. The exact process varies, depending on the type of tool used, but the concept is to press the piston inward while rotating the piston clockwise until it bottoms out inside the caliper.

    13

    Turn the caliper piston slightly, using the rear caliper tool, so the grooves in the piston line up with the alignment tabs on the rear of the inner pad. Set the brake caliper on the brake caliper bracket, and install the caliper pins. Apply 20 foot-pounds of torque to the caliper pins, using a torque wrench and socket. Set the brake-hose-to-lower-control-arm bracket back in place on the lower control arm, and tighten its bolt to 18 foot-pounds.

    14

    Grip the metal end of the parking brake cable with slip-joint pliers, and pull the cable downward until you can slide the cable through the slot in the caliper's parking brake lever. Allow the parking brake cable to retract slowly toward the parking brake lever, until the cable's metal end seats into place in the lever.

    15

    Repeat Steps 4 through 14 to replace the pads on the opposite side of the LeSabre.

    16

    Reinstall the rear wheels onto the LeSabre's rear hubs, and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the rear of the vehicle off the jack stands, using a floor jack, and remove the jack stands. Lower the LeSabre to the ground, and tighten the lug nuts -- in a crisscrossing pattern -- to 100 foot-pounds.

    17

    Press the brake pedal slowly about 2/3 of its total travel, and slowly release it. Repeat this step every 15 seconds until the brake pedal feels firm. This pushes the caliper piston out and seats it on the rear of the inner brake pad. Pushing and releasing at a fast rate may cause the piston to rotate slightly, negatively affecting the alignment of the grooves in the caliper piston to the tabs on the rear of the pad.

    18

    Add DOT 3 fluid to the master cylinder until the fluid level reaches the "Max" line on the master cylinder reservoir. Tighten the cap onto the master cylinder reservoir.

    19

    Take the old brake fluid in the small container to a used automotive oil-recycling center for disposal. Some auto parts stores take old DOT 3 fluid free of charge.

How to Replace the Brake Calipers on a 1997 Ford F-250

How to Replace the Brake Calipers on a 1997 Ford F-250

The brake calipers squeeze the rotors between the brake pads to stop the Ford F250. The rotors can start to leak around the piston as the seals fail. At that point, you need to replace them or risk losing your brakes while out in the truck. The procedure is not as difficult as it may sound. You can complete the job in your driveway in about one half-hour for each wheel. There is no need to spend your money in a repair shop.

Instructions

    1

    Place the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels of the truck. Raise the Ford with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the F250 and raise it to the frame. Remove the lug nuts from the wheel using the lug wrench. Take the wheel off the truck.

    2

    Remove the hose bolt from the caliper using a wrench. Position the drain pan under the hose to catch the fluid from the brake line. Loosen the bolts on the caliper with a socket and ratchet. Pull the caliper out of the mounting cradle. Remove the other end of the brake hose from the main brake line using a wrench.

    3

    Insert the brake pads in the brake caliper. Place the caliper on the mounting cradle and tighten the bolts with the socket and ratchet. Install a new brake hose to the main brake line and tighten it with a wrench. Attach the other end of the hose to the brake caliper and tighten the bolt with a wrench. Place the wheel on the F250 and tighten the lug nuts.

    4

    Remove the jack stand from under the truck and lower the vehicle to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel. Add fluid to the master cylinder after the project is complete to bring it to the proper level. Pump the brakes several times until the pedal is firm.

Senin, 20 September 2010

How to Remove a Mustang Cobra Rotor

How to Remove a Mustang Cobra Rotor

The Ford Mustang Cobra uses a hydraulic braking system which includes a disk-shaped rotor. This rotor is the friction surface that stops the car when the caliper presses the pads against it. The rotor can become warped and damaged, or simply be worn out; removal for replacement will take the average weekend mechanic about 30 minutes to complete.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the Cobra by placing the floor jack head onto a frame rail near the wheel then pumping the lever until the wheel is in the air. Do not place the jack onto the body or suspension components. Once the wheel is up, support the jack with a jack stand in the same general location on a frame rail.

    2

    Remove the wheel by turning the lug nuts in a counterclockwise direction. Pull the wheel directly from the hub and lug bolts, and set it away from the work area. inspect the brake assembly for damage or debris.

    3

    Remove the caliper and pads by turning the twin rear mount bolts counterclockwise then sliding the caliper from the rotor. Cobras have larger than usual braking components, but the general assembly is the same as most cars and trucks. The pads can be taken from the caliper and set aside, and the caliper should be placed onto a control arm or supported with zip ties. Do not leave the caliper dangling by the brake lines.

    4

    Pull the rotor directly away from the hub. If the model has a keeper screw in the center of the rotor, turn it counterclockwise then pull the rotor free. The rotor can now be resurfaced or replaced.

    5

    Reassemble the brake system and replace the wheel, once the rotor is replaced, then lower the Mustang. Repeat the procedure on the opposite wheel as rotors should be replaced in pairs.

Minggu, 19 September 2010

How to Replace the Rear Brake Drum on a 2003 Toyota Tundra

How to Replace the Rear Brake Drum on a 2003 Toyota Tundra

The 2003 Toyota Tundra uses a rear drum brake with shoes instead of pads. The drum can wear over time, especially if the shoes have been allowed to wear down so far that the rivets that hold the brake material to the shoe scrapes the drum. If the drum has ridges or heavy scratches in the brake surface, not changing them will cause abnormal or premature wear to the shoes.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the back wheel of your Tundra with a lug wrench but do not remove them yet. Position a jack under the rear of the truck and raise the wheels off the ground. Position a set of jack stands under the frame to support the truck.

    2

    Remove the lug nuts that you loosened from the wheel studs and remove the tire and wheel from the truck. The brake drum is directly in front of you and can be removed by grasping the sides of the drum and pulling it straight out.

    3

    Install the new brake drum on the rear axle by lining up the wheel studs with the holes in the brake drum and pushing it onto the axle and brake shoes. Make sure the drum is seated all the way on the axle and brake assembly.

    4

    Slide the wheel back onto the wheel studs and install the lug nuts on the wheel studs. Raise the rear of the truck with your jack and remove the jack stands from under the frame rails. Lower the truck to the ground, then use a lug wrench to tighten the lug nuts.

    5

    Repeat the process for the opposite wheel if needed. The brake shoes will more than likely need to be adjusted as the thickness of the new drum and the old drum will differ.

Kamis, 16 September 2010

Signs & Symptoms of Bad Spark Plug Wires

Signs & Symptoms of Bad Spark Plug Wires

Spark plug wires are a critical link in a vehicle's electrical system. Responsible for transporting electrical power from a vehicle's battery to its engine spark plugs, spark plug wires need to function properly to ensure normal engine operation. When spark plugs wires fail, a host of engine problems can result.

Rough Engine Idle

    The most common symptom of bad spark plug wires is a rough engine idle. Spark plug wires are responsible for transmitting the electrical current from a vehicle's electrical system to the engine spark plugs, where the electrical current is used to ignite the engine air/fuel mixture. Bad spark plugs wires can inhibit the normal flow of electrical current that reaches a vehicle's spark plugs, which can cause a rough, erratic engine idle.

Engine Miss

    An engine miss, which normally occurs as the result of erratic or incomplete engine combustion, is another common symptom of bad spark plug wires. Many times, bad spark plug wires cause the flow of electrical current to the engine spark plugs to become erratic, alternating between brief periods of normal flow and brief periods of abnormal, erratic flow. The result of this is periods of erratic and incomplete engine combustion, which can manifest itself as an engine miss.

Engine Hesitation

    Engine hesitation, which is normally most apparent during acceleration, is a condition that often results from either abnormal fuel flow to an engine or abnormal electrical conduction to a vehicle's spark plugs. Bad spark plug wires, whether they degrade internally or develop cracks and breaks in their outer coverings that cause electrical interference, can cause an engine to hesitate if they disrupt the normal flow of electrical current traveling from a car's battery to the engine spark plugs.

Reduced Engine Power

    Proper electrical conduction to a vehicle's spark plugs is needed to ensure proper engine combustion and engine power. Any abnormalities in a vehicle's electrical system, including in its spark plugs and spark plug wires, can negatively affect spark plug firing, which will influence engine combustion and engine power. Bad spark plug wires can result in significant engine power loss if they inhibit or interfere with the normal flow of electricity that reaches a vehicle's spark plugs.

Engine Surging

    A common symptom of a vehicle electrical problem is engine surging, a condition that happens when a vehicle experiences brief spurts of adequate electrical flow to its spark plugs, interspersed with brief periods in which electrical flow is reduced or nonexistent. Engine surging is a common symptom of bad spark plug wires, especially if the wires have cracks or breaks in their outside insulation, a condition that can create significant electrical resistance and lead to abnormal or completely stopped electrical flow to a vehicle's spark plugs.

What Is a Parking Brake Equalizer?

What Is a Parking Brake Equalizer?

Emergency (or parking) brakes work as a secondary system to the standard brakes used on a daily basis. They are controlled by a physical system and regulated by an equalizer.

What an Equalizer Does

    Parking brakes are engaged by pulling a lever somewhere near the driver's seat. That lever tightens a cable that leads to two or four (depending on the vehicle) tires which then engages the brakes. According to AA1car.com a parking brake equalizer is used to distribute the breaking pressure evenly across all tires.

How an Equalizer works

    The equalizer works by connecting the single cable leading from the cab of the car to the undercarriage to two separate cables leading to the individual tires. This evenly distributes the force applied by the parking brake lever.

Why Equalizers are Necessary.

    If uneven braking occurs, especially at high speeds, the steering of the vehicle may be compromised. If you've ever had the brakes on one tire grab while you were driving you will understand why this is bad. By spreading the force evenly the car can be stopped without affecting steering.

Minggu, 12 September 2010

How to Remove the Reservoir From the Master Cylinder

How to Remove the Reservoir From the Master Cylinder

In your car's brake system, a plastic reservoir supplies the master cylinder with brake fluid. If the reservoir cracks or becomes damaged, it can leak fluid or let in contamination. You will need to remove it from the master cylinder to examine it and replace if necessary. Hold the cylinder in a fixed position to keep it protected from damage when you pry away the reservoir.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the car's hood and prop it up to access the engine compartment.

    2

    Locate the master cylinder. This is a metal or plastic component on the driver's side of the engine near the firewall. Four hoses, the brake lines, connect to it.

    3

    Clamp a vise onto the master cylinder's body flange and tighten it.

    4

    Insert a pry bar between the plastic reservoir and the metal cylinder.

    5

    Push the reservoir body away from the cylinder.

    6

    Peel off the rubber grommets that seal the reservoir to the cylinder.

Sabtu, 11 September 2010

How to Change Brakes on a Honda Automobile

It's inevitable; brake pads wear out. Mechanics and dealerships will charge you a lot of money to change the brakes on your Honda automobile. But, if you know your way around a car, changing the brakes on your Honda yourself can be a relatively easy and cost effective way to keep your Honda running smoothly.

Instructions

Front Brakes

    1

    Place the jack under the subframe of the car, behind one of the front wheels. Raise the car into the air, place the jack stand under the car and lower the vehicle onto the stand. Repeat on the opposite side.

    2

    Remove the lug nuts from the wheels using the 19mm socket and impact wrench. Remove the wheels and set aside.

    3

    Locate the two 17mm bolts on the back side of the caliper and remove them using the 17mm socket and the impact wrench. Set the bolts aside.

    4

    Work the caliper loose and pull forward, towards the front of the vehicle. The caliper will slide free.

    5

    Remove the old brake pads. Note any uneven wear. If there is uneven pad wear, lube the caliper slide pins.

    6

    Put the shims on the new brake pads; compare them to the shims on the old pads to make sure that they are seated correctly. Lube the shims with the included packet of lube.

    7

    Depress the caliper piston using the C-clamp. Go slowly to avoid overflowing the brake fluid reservoir.

    8

    Put the pads in the caliper. The wear indicator, or squealer, should be located on the inner pad, on the side facing the caliper.

    9

    Replace the caliper on the rotor assembly and replace the two 17mm bolts using the 17mm box end wrench. Don't use the impact wrench to put the bolts back in; just tighten them as tight as you can with the wrench.

    10

    Repeat Steps 3 through 8 on the opposite side, and replace the wheels, tightening the lug nuts with the 19mm socket and impact wrench

Rear Brakes

    11

    Place the jack in front of a rear wheel and raise the vehicle. Put the jack stand under the car and lower the car onto it. Repeat for the opposite side.

    12

    Remove the lug nuts from the wheels using the 19mm socket and impact wrench. Remove the wheels and set aside.

    13

    Locate the two 12mm bolts on the back of the caliper and the small oval shaped plate behind the bolt head.

    14

    Place the adjustable wrench on the plate, around the curved top or bottom. Place the 12mm wrench on the bolt head. Hold the plate still while removing the bolt. Repeat for the second bolt.

    15

    Work the caliper free, pulling towards the rear of the car. These are not as easy to remove as the front calipers, but will come free with a little effort.

    16

    Remove the old brake pads. Check for uneven pad wear and lubricate caliper slide pins as necessary.

    17

    Install the shims on the new brake pads using the old ones as reference. Lubricate the shims with the supplied packet of lubricant.

    18

    Locate the caliper piston in the caliper. It will be dived into four sections by an incised cross. Use the flathead side of the pry bar to turn the piston clockwise, using the center of the cross; this will move the piston back. Turn slowly to avoid tearing the rubber seal around the piston.

    19

    Place the new pads in the caliper; the wear indicator should be on the inner pad and facing down.

    20

    Replace the caliper on the rotor assembly and replace the two 12mm bolts with the 12mm box end wrench. You will need to hold the metal plate with the adjustable wrench again.

    21

    Repeat Steps 3 through 10 on the opposite side and then replace the wheels and lug nuts using the 19mm socket and impact wrench.

How to Remove a Brake Booster on a 1996 Z71

The brake booster on a 1996 Chevrolet Z71 uses vacuum pressure created by the engine to give extra pushing power to the brake master cylinder. When the booster starts to fail, the Z71 will lose vacuum pressure, and the braking will become substantially more difficult. To fix the problem, the booster will need to be removed from the vehicle entirely and replaced with a new one. This should take just under an hour to do.

Instructions

    1

    Pop the hood. Locate the brake master cylinder on the driver's side of the firewall with brake lines running out of it. Unbolt it from the brake booster with an open-end wrench. Slide the master cylinder off of the studs and away from the booster, letting it hang by the brake lines.

    2

    Pull the vacuum line off of the brake booster by hand. Climb into the truck's cabin and locate the brake pedal push rod connected to the brake pedal and brake booster. Remove the clip holding it in place with a flat head screwdriver then slide the push rod off of the pedal.

    3

    Unbolt the four bolts around the push rod with a 3/8-inch ratchet and socket and a 3/8-inch universal joint. Go under the hood again and slide the booster off of the firewall and away from the engine bay.

How to Replace Front Brakes on 1998 Camry

The brake pads on the Toyota Camry work along with the brake rotors to stop the car with friction. The friction wears the brake pads down until you have to replace them. If you allow the brake pads to wear beyond the recommended minimum thickness, the rivets will begin to cut grooves in the rotors, creating a more expensive repair for you to deal with. It only takes about half an hour to complete each wheel.

Instructions

    1

    Open the engine compartment and siphon about one-third of the brake fluid from the master cylinder with the turkey baster. Place the fluid in the drain pan for recycling later. Place the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels of the Camry. Raise the car with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under it and raise it to the frame. Remove the lug nuts with the lug wrench and pull the wheel away from the car.

    2

    Loosen the caliper bolts with a socket and ratchet. Pull the caliper away from the rotor assembly. Remove the old brake pads and anti-squeal shims. Pull the backing pates from the assembly. Clean the entire assembly thoroughly with the wire brush. Insert the caliper tool and force the piston back into the caliper housing.

    3

    Place the backing plates on the assembly. Put the new brake pads on, followed by the anti-squeal shims. Place the brake caliper back onto the mounting cradle. Tighten the bolts with the socket and ratchet. Install the wheel and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the Camry. Lower the vehicle to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel.

    4

    Add brake fluid to the master cylinder as needed to bring it to the proper level. Pump the brake pedal until it is firm, to seat the brake pads on the rotors.

How to Change a Stop Lamp Switch

How to Change a Stop Lamp Switch

A do-it-yourself auto mechanic must not only be mechanically inclined, but he must possess a degree of electrical aptitude as well. An ignition and brake lamp circuit commonly need of a tweak or adjustment and often prove to be overwhelming to a mechanic unfamiliar with either system. Of the two systems, the stop lamp switch is probably the component most likely to require an adjustment or replacement every few years.

Instructions

Replace a Stop Lamp Switch

    1

    Disconnect the negative (black) battery terminal using either a 5/16 wrench or socket head wrench, depending on the type of battery terminal used.

    2

    Locate the stop lamp switch. The stop lamp switch will be located close to the pivot point of the brake pedal arm. A 5/16 nut and jam nut secure the stop lamp switch firmly in the switch holder.

    3

    Depress the brake pedal by hand to ensure the appropriate switch has been located. If the depressed brake pedal releases the button on the stop lamp switch, the correct switch has been identified.

    4

    Disconnect the two-wire electrical plug connected to the back of the switch and move aside.

    5

    Remove the 5/16 inch nut securing the stop lamp switch to its bracket using a 3/8 inch wrench.

    6

    Slide the stop lamp switch out of its bracket. Take note of the position of the second nut located on the switch before removing it. It is the approximate position the nut will be placed on the new switch.

    7

    Install the nut just removed from the old switch on the new switch by hand to approximately the same position as on the old switch.

    8

    Insert the new stop lamp switch into the switch bracket. Install the first 5/16 nut onto the switch to secure it in place while holding switch in place with one hand. Use the 3/8 inch wrench to tighten the nut in place.

    9

    Connect the two-wire electrical plug onto the new stop lamp switch. The connector will plug into the switch in only one direction.

    10

    Depress the brake by hand and observe the switch operation as the brake is released from the switch plunger.

    11

    Reconnect the negative battery terminal to the battery using either a 5/16 inch wrench or socket head wrench depending on the type of battery terminal.

    12

    Turn ignition key on and function test the brake to ensure brake lights are operable.

Kamis, 09 September 2010

How Do I Replace the Brakes on a 2007 Honda Civic?

How Do I Replace the Brakes on a 2007 Honda Civic?

The brake pads on a 2007 Honda Civic require periodic replacement, typically every 20,000 to 30,000 miles, depending on driving habits. If you drive where there is a lot of stop-and-go traffic or brake in a hard manner, the interval between brake repairs may be more often. Inspect the brake pads at every oil-change interval. If you hear a squeal coming from your brakes, replacing the brake pads right away will prevent further damage from excessively worn pads.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen, but do not remove, the lug nuts on the front wheels of the Civic, using a ratchet and socket.

    2

    Jack up the front of the vehicle and secure it with jack stands.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts from the vehicle and pull the front wheels off.

    4

    Look at the rear of the brake caliper. Locate the two caliper bolts, one upper and one lower.

    5

    Loosen, but do not remove, the upper caliper bolt, using the ratchet and a socket.

    6

    Loosen and remove the lower caliper bolt with the ratchet and socket.

    7

    Swing the caliper upward, using the upper caliper bolt as a pivot point. This exposes the brake pads.

    8

    Grasp the inner and outer brake pads and pull them from the brake assembly. Take note of how they were removed, as the new ones need to be placed in the same position.

    9

    Place the new brake pads in the same position as the old ones.

    10

    Compress the brake caliper piston by positioning the C-clamp so that the fixed portion is contacting the rear of the caliper and the screw portion is contacting the caliper's piston. Tighten the C-clamp until the piston is fully pressed into the caliper body.

    11

    Remove the C-clamp and swing the caliper downward over the new brake pads.

    12

    Hand-tighten the upper and lower caliper bolts. Snug the caliper bolts using the ratchet and a socket.

    13

    Repeat steps 4 through 12 for the brake pads on the other side of the vehicle.

    14

    Place the wheels back on the vehicle and hand-tighten the lug nuts.

    15

    Lower the vehicle to the ground and tighten the lug nuts to 80 foot-pounds with the torque wrench and a socket.

    16

    Press and release the brake pedal repeatedly until the pedal feels firm.

How Remove the Brake Drums on a Toyota Camry

How Remove the Brake Drums on a Toyota Camry

The brake drums are located with the rear wheels on the Toyota Camry and many other vehicles. These drums conceal the brake shoe assemblies, which work primarily with the parking brake. You will need to remove the brake drums in order to work on or change the brake shoes. It is likely that you need to remove both drums together, as if one set of shoes needs changing, the others will also.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the rear end of the car and support it on jack stands. Loosening the lug nuts on the wheels before you raise the car is a good idea.

    2

    Block the car's front wheels with wheel chocks or blocks large and heavy enough to impede movement, then release the car's parking brake.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and the rear wheel using the lug wrench. Use the "five-star" pattern to remove the nuts, moving to the one as closely opposite the nut you previously removed.

    4

    Mark the relationship of the brake drum to the wheel hub using, chalk or paint. Use these marks when reconnecting the drum to make sure you don't alter the dynamic balance of the hub and brake assembly.

    5

    Clip off any pressed washers that are on the studs and holding the drum in place on the hub. Use cutting pliers. You don't need to replace these washers when you reconnect the drum.

    6

    Pull the brake drum off. If it is stuck, remove the plug in the back of the assembly, insert a screwdriver into the hole and turn the adjuster screw star wheel to adjust the brake shoes so the drum will come off.

Rabu, 08 September 2010

How to Replace the Calipers on a '97 Chevy Suburban

How to Replace the Calipers on a '97 Chevy Suburban

The Chevrolet Suburban was introduced in 1936. The 1997 Chevrolet Suburban was manufactured in more than seven sub-models between the 1500, 2500, and 3500 series. The 1997 Suburban was equipped with the option of eight different engines, depending upon the sub-model and size of the Suburban. The 1997 Suburban was produced with standard ventilated front disc brakes, and rear drum brakes. The front disc brakes incorporate the use of calipers, rotors, pads, and the front brake hoses. Replacing the calipers will take approximately 1 1/2 to 2 hours per side depending on whether you have done this type of work before.

Instructions

Replacing the Calipers

    1

    Remove the torque from the front wheel lug nuts using a tire iron. Lift the front of the Suburban with a 2-ton jack or a jack with greater capacity. Place jack stands beneath the front frame rails of the Suburban to support the truck during this project. Remove the lug nuts completely from the wheels, then remove the wheels from the Suburban.

    2

    Place a brake hose clamp or needle-nose vice grips on the small rubber hose that leads from the back of the brake caliper to the frame of the truck. The brake caliper is the large metal part wrapped around the large metal disc or brake rotor. Place the clamp as close to the back of the caliper as possible to eliminate loss of brake fluid during the caliper replacement. Remove the caliper mounting bolts from the back of the caliper using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Turn the bolts counter-clockwise until you can remove them by hand.

    3

    Remove the brake line bolt from the rear of the brake caliper using an open-end line wrench. Turn the brake line bolt counter-clockwise until it is removed from the rear of the caliper. Remove the brake caliper from the brake assembly by hand, using a small pry bar or large flat-head screwdriver to pry the caliper loose if necessary. Remove the brake caliper from the Suburban.

    4

    Install the new brake caliper over the pads and rotor assembly, in the same position as the old caliper. The brake bleeder screw should be facing the rear of the caliper and on the top end of the caliper. This is how you differentiate between the left and right calipers. Install the caliper mounting bolts into the rear of the caliper, and tighten the caliper bolts to 35 foot-pounds using a certified torque wrench and socket. Do not guess on your torque strength by using a standard ratchet.

    5

    Install the brake hose and brake hose bolt into the rear of the new caliper. Tighten the hose bolt until it is snug, and then turn the bolt 1/4-turn farther. This is known as the "snug-and-a-quarter" method of tightening a bolt. This method is used when you do not need to torque a bolt or torquing the bolt will damage parts. Use a standard ratchet and socket to perform the tightening procedure on the brake line bolt.

    6

    Perform steps 2 through 5 to complete the caliper replacement on the second side of the Suburban, then continue to the next section of this project.

1997 Chevrolet Suburban: Bleeding the Brakes

    7

    Ask your assistant to sit in the driver's seat of the Suburban. Instruct him to use the word "up" when the brake pedal is at its top resting position or pumped to a desired back pressure level. Instruct your assistant to use the words "down and holding" when he/she is holding the brake pedal to the floor of the truck. This communication process should eliminate any errors during the brake bleeding process.

    8

    Place a line wrench onto one of the brake bleeder screws. Open the screw by turning it counter-clockwise with a wrench. Ask your assistant to push the brake pedal to the floor and hold it there, using the communication cues above. When the pedal is completely to the floor, tighten the bleeder screw immediately to close the screw.

    9

    Ask your assistant to pump the brake pedal at least 10 times, then let the pedal go to its upward resting position. Open the bleeder screw again, and instruct your assistant to push the pedal down. Tighten the bleeder screw when you hear the words "down and holding." Repeat steps 2 and 3 of the bleeding procedure at least three times on each side of the Suburban. Inspect and fill the brake fluid reservoir while switching between sides of the truck. One pint of standard brake fluid should be more than enough for the entire bleeding procedure.

    10

    Ask your assistant to pump the brake pedal no less than 10 times and hold the brake pedal firm. Open the bleeder screw when you hear the word "up." You should see nothing but brake fluid coming from the rear of the caliper, instead of brake fluid and air pockets. If you see or hear no air pockets, ask your assistant to push the caliper to the floor. Tighten the bleeder screw completely when you hear the words "down and holding." Repeat this step exactly on the other side of the truck to complete the brake bleeding process.

How to Repair Ford Disk Brakes

How to Repair Ford Disk Brakes

Repairing Ford disc brakes can be as simple as replacing the brake pads or involve a more complicated procedure. There are three main components to the Ford braking system. The brake pads require the most frequent attention, while the brake calipers are the least likely component to be serviced. The brake rotors also need attention. The rotors are as involved in the braking process as the brake pads, but unlike the brake pads, they are made of metal. All three of these components can be serviced at the brake service station or repaired by an owner with limited automotive experience.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Ford vehicle in an area that allows you to work safely on both sides. Put the transmission in "park," and apply the parking brake. Place tire blocks behind the rear tires. Loosen the lug nuts on the wheels with the tire iron.

    2

    Put the lifting jack beneath the frame of the Ford vehicle, and lift it until the tires are at least 2 inches clear of the road surface. Place jack stands under the vehicle to support the Ford while you repair the brakes.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and take the wheel off of the wheel bolts. Turn the steering wheel in the direction opposite the side of the Ford on which you will work (to the left for repair of the right brake).

    4

    Remove the two caliper bolts with the 13mm wrench. The two bolts are on the inner side of the caliper.

    5

    Pull the caliper from the rotor. Disconnect the brake line from the caliper by unscrewing the fastener by hand. The connection for the brake line is between the two caliper bolts, angled upwards. Place the drip pan below the disconnected line to capture any leaking fluid.

    6

    Place the new brake pads onto the sides of the new caliper. The pads clip to the caliper by metal clips on the backs of each pad. Connect the brake line to the new caliper.

    7

    Pull the rotor from the wheel bolts. Tap the back of the rotor with a hammer if it is stuck to the wheel bolts or steering knuckle.

    8

    Spray the new rotor with brake cleaner, and wipe it clean with a cloth towel. Place the rotor onto the wheel bolts, top hat section facing outward. (The top-hat section is the raised ring on the inner surface of the rotor.)

    9

    Place the caliper around the new rotor. Replace the caliper bolts, and tighten them with the 13mm wrench.

    10

    Turn the steering wheel so that the wheels are pointing forward. Return the wheels onto the wheel bolts, and screw on the lug nuts.

    11

    Remove the jack stands and lower the Ford to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts with the tire iron.

    12

    Press the brake pedal slowly and hold the pedal down for 5 seconds. Repeat the depressions twice more to inject brake fluid into the new caliper.

    13

    Lift the hood of the Ford vehicle. Open the master cylinder cap, located on the driver's side of the vehicle near the windshield. Fill the reservoir with brake fluid until it reaches the "full" line. Replace the cap and close the hood.

How to Adjust the Rear Brakes on a Taurus

How to Adjust the Rear Brakes on a Taurus

The Ford Taurus' rear brakes are comprised of two main components. There are the brake shoes within the drum assembly that work with the parking brake and then there is the parking brake itself. If the parking brake lever in the car becomes easier to pull, the rear brakes likely need adjusting. You need to adjust both the shoes and the parking brake, but you won't need to disassemble the whole rear brake assembly to do it.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the rear end of the Taurus and support it on jack stands. Block the front wheels and make sure the parking brake is applied. Loosen the lug nuts on each wheel prior to raising the car.

    2

    Remove both the rear wheels. Remove the lug nuts for the wheels in a five-star pattern, moving to the nut on the opposite end of the one you previously removed.

    3

    Take out the rubber inspection plug that is on the backing plate of the brake drum. Insert a narrow screwdriver or a brake adjusting tool into the inspection hole to access the star wheel.

    4

    Turn the star wheel with the screw while turning the brake drum by hand. Turn it until the drum starts dragging, then lift up the adjuster lever so the star wheel will turn in the opposite direction. Turn the star wheel that way until the drum is just able to turn freely.

    5

    Reinstall the plugs in the backing plates. Connect the wheels, using the same five-star pattern on the lug nuts. Release the parking brake, making sure the front wheels are still securely blocked.

    6

    Adjust the parking brake by getting underneath the car, holding the brake cable with pliers so it won't turn and tightening the adjusting nut with a wrench while turning the wheels- this is much easier with at least two people. Tighten the nut until the wheels drag slightly, then turn the nut in the opposite direction until the wheels don't drag.

    7

    Lower the car once you've adjusted the brakes on both sides.

Selasa, 07 September 2010

How to Overhaul Master Cylinders

The master cylinder is the pump that creates the pressure to be transferred to the individual wheels to stop a vehicle. The brake system is under tremendous pressure when the brake pedal is pushed. That pressure is amplified greatly by a vacuum or electric brake booster, better known as power brakes. It is vital that the integrity of the brake system be strong enough to handle the extreme pressure. Any pedal fade or cylinder leaks found in the master cylinder must be addressed by rebuilding or replacing the cylinder.

Instructions

Disassemble the Master Cylinder

    1

    Put on safety glasses, uncap the master cylinder and pour the brake fluid out of the reservoir.

    2

    Clamp the master cylinder in a vise. Remove the push-rod dust boot and the internal snap ring from the open end of the cylinder bore, using snap ring pliers.

    3

    Remove the double cup piston plunger assembly from the master cylinder and place the internal parts on a clean shop rag in the order in which they were removed.

    4

    Spray and clean the entire master cylinder inside and out, using brake cleaner. Dry up any remaining brake cleaner and fluid using a shop rag or compressed air, if available.

    5

    Inspect the empty cylinder bore for scratches. Spray the cylinder bore with penetrating oil and run a brake hone, chucked in a 3/8 drill motor, in and out of the cylinder bore to clean it up and remove any scratches.

    6

    Spray and re-clean the entire master cylinder, including the cylinder bore and fluid reservoir.

Rebuild the Master Cylinder

    7

    Spread the contents of the master cylinder repair kit onto a clean dry shop rag. The kit should include at minimum a new double cup piston, push-rod dust boot and snap ring.

    8

    Pour a small amount of new brake fluid into the cylinder bore.

    9

    Insert the new master cylinder piston and plunger kit in the same order as the old internal parts were removed and are displayed on the shop rag. Consult and follow the instructions for any changes or component improvements in the new kit.

    10

    Push the piston plunger into the cylinder while installing a new internal snap ring into the groove at the end of the cylinder bore.

    11

    Fill the master cylinder with clean brake fluid while the master cylinder is clamped upright in the vise.

    12

    Screw the two short brake lines, one into each chamber of the master cylinder line openings.

    13

    Bend the two lines, without kinking them, so the open end is submerged in brake fluid in the master cylinder reservoir. Pump the piston plunger in the cylinder bore with a screwdriver until no air bubbles are seen coming out of the two brake lines.

    14

    Remove the two short brake lines, reinstall the master cylinder cap and install the dust boot over the open cylinder bore end. The master cylinder is ready to be installed on the vehicle.

Senin, 06 September 2010

How to Install an ABS Relay in a Pontiac Grand Am

You have to change the ABS relay in your Pontiac Grand Am when the ABS warning light is lit on the driver control panel display. It is usually impossible to stop a car that has a malfunctioning ABS relay as the relay controls the entire anti-lock brake system.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Pontiac Grand Am. Set the parking brake. Open the hood and secure it using the safety bar.

    2

    Disconnect the negative battery cable (the black one) by loosening the nut on the clamp using an adjustable wrench.

    3

    Take off the quarter panel trim under the steering wheel by unscrewing the screws on both sides of the panel with a Phillips screwdriver. Look for the black protective box marked ABS. Remove this protective box by unbolting the four bolts using a 6mm hex socket. You should see the black relay.

    4

    Unhook the wiring harness on the bottom of the relay by pressing the buttons on the side of the harness. Gently pull down on the harness while you are pressing the buttons. Once this is disconnected, remove the two mounting fasteners using a 6mm hex socket.

    5

    Place the new ABS relay in the place from which you just removed the malfunctioning relay. Secure it by replacing the mounting fasteners. Tighten them with the socket.

    6

    Plug the wiring harness into the bottom of the relay. Replace the protective box and secure it by replacing the bolts. Replace the quarter panel trim and tighten the screws.

    7

    Reconnect the negative battery cable. Tighten the nut on the clamp. Close the hood. Start the car. Look for the ABS warning light. If it remains off, test drive your car by driving slowly and trying to stop. If it comes on, you should take your car to a mechanic to service the system.

Ceramic Brake Pad Advantages

Brake pads are a very important part of a vehicle's braking system. Although relatively cheap in price and easy to install, brake pads are the heart of a vehicle's braking system, providing the grasping action needed to stop the spinning motion of a vehicle's wheels, which results in vehicle stopping. They come in many different types and varieties, and certain types are better than others. Ceramic brake pads, which are popular, high-quality brake pads, have significant advantages over traditional brake pads.

Increased Braking Power

    One of the most obvious advantages that ceramic brake pads provide compared to traditional brake pads is increased stopping, or braking, power. Ceramic brake pads are better able to maintain their structural integrity (hardness, temperature) during braking than other types of brake pads. A large part of how effective brake pads are at stopping a vehicle is related to how well a set of brake pads resist the friction and heat generated by the braking process. Ceramic brake pads have been proven to resist braking-related friction and heat better than traditional brake pads, which means that ceramic brake pads maintain their structural integrity better and provide increased braking power.

Quieter Braking Action

    Noisy brakes, which are usually caused by faulty and/or cheap brake pads, are a major annoyance for many vehicle owners. One of the advantages that ceramic brake pads have over other types of brake pads is quieter braking action. Ceramic brake pads, due to their higher-quality ceramic coating and superior structural integrity, maintain their structural soundness much better during braking than do cheaper, lower-quality brake pads. Noisy brake pads are often caused by the softening and structural break down of brake pads during braking, especially during repeated braking under heavy loads and/or high speeds. Ceramic break pads are much more durable, and this durability lends itself to quieter braking action.

Less Brake Dust

    Brake dust, which forms when small brake pad fragments break off, is another major cause of noisy, squeaky brakes. Brake dust, especially large quantities of it, can lodge between the brake pads and the spinning brake rotor, a condition that causes the brake pads to lose traction against the brake rotor, which causes the brake pads to vibrate and move, which in turn causes the brakes to squeak or squeal. Ceramic brake pads, on the other hand, due to their increased durability and resistance to heat and friction-related break down, produce very little, if any, brake dust, which therefore significantly reduces the amount of brake-dust generated brake noise.

Increased Longevity

    Brake pads wear out in relation to how often they are used. Vehicles that are driven frequently with a lot of stop-and-go city driving generally wear out their brake pads fairly quickly. Ceramic brake pads last much longer and provide many more miles of quality vehicle braking. Because ceramic brake pads resist wear, erosion, and friction-related break down so well, they simply last much longer than cheaper brake pads that wear and erode much more quickly.

Less Abrasive to Brake Rotors

    Another major advantage that ceramic brake pads have over other, cheaper quality brake pads is that they are much less abrasive and damaging towards a vehicle's brake rotors. Brake rotors, which are cylindrical-shaped metal pieces, are the parts of a vehicle's braking system that are grabbed and squeezed by a set of brake pads to affect vehicle braking. This type of braking action generally produces significant brake rotor wear and damage, damage that eventually necessitates brake rotor replacement. Ceramic brake pads, due to their smoother surface and sounder structural integrity, create less wear and damage, resulting in a longer lasting brake rotor.

Minggu, 05 September 2010

How to Remove Brake Rotors From a 2004 Dodge Ram

The Dodge Ram has endured many years and many generations in the Chrysler Corporation. In 2004, the Ram was available in 1/2-ton, 3/4-ton and 1-ton models. Available engine sizes ranged from a 3.7-liter 6-cylinder--available in the 1/2-ton series--to a 10-cylinder. The 3/4-ton and 1-ton models offered a 5.9-liter diesel engine or the infamous 5.7-liter Hemi engine, which was available in the 1/2-ton as well. While removing the brake rotors was basically the same for the 1/2-ton and 3/4 ton Rams, the 1-ton version added a slightly different procedure.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the Dodge Ram on a vehicle or truck lift to a suitable height to work on.

    2

    Remove the lug nuts using an impact gun and a 7/8-inch impact socket or a 22 mm impact socket. Remove the center cap--secured by the tapered lug nuts--and then remove the wheel.

    3

    Disconnect the two caliper bolts using a hand wrench. Pry the caliper and pad assembly off the rotor and support it to the suspension using a caliper hook or metal hanger.

    4

    Remove the caliper adapter bolts using the impact gun and a suitable socket. Remove the adapter.

    5

    Remove the rotor from the wheel hub assembly. This task may require cutting off rotor retaining clips from two of the lug studs if applicable. Removing the rotor may also require a variation of different procedures. If the rotor wiggles and moves, it will be able to be pulled off without incident. If it is stuck to the hub due to rust and corrosion, the reason it is being removed will have to be considered. If it's being removed and then reused, the rotor will have to be delicately removed with a three-pronged hub and rotor puller. If it is being removed for replacement, you can knock it off with a hammer, striking the flat plate on the edges of the rotor until it breaks free from the hub.

    6

    Clean the surface of the hub facing and edges with a die-grinder and a coarse reconditioning disc before replacing the rotor.

Examples of a Hydraulic System

Examples of a Hydraulic System

Hydraulic systems are systems that move pressurized liquids through confined spaces, such as pipes and tubes. Many modern machines and other types of equipment utilize hydraulic systems, such as cars. However, you can also find them existing in nature.

Vehicle Brakes

    Hydraulic vehicle braking systems came in to prominence among automobile manufacturers during the 1930s. They are multiple piston systems, which means they transmit force between two or more pistons. According to PDH Engineer, when you step up on a hydraulic brake pedal, the force compresses the first piston, known as the input piston, which in turn pushes break fluid through hoses and tubing. The pressure from the fluid causes two other pistons, known as the output pistons, to push outward. These pistons are attached to brake shoes, which apply friction to the walls of the brake drums, slowing the rotation of the wheels.

Jacks

    Workers use hydraulic jacks to elevate extremely heavy objects, such as cars, building supplies and even entire buildings. According to Phys Link, these jacks utilize a basic hydraulic principle, known as Pascals Principle, which the French scientist Blaise Pascal developed in the 17th century. The principle states that if you apply force to a liquid inside of a small cylinder, you will be able to generate a greater force from that same pressure in a larger cylinder. So when you push down on the pump or lever of a hydraulic jack, you are squeezing liquid down into a small cylinder, and pumping it into a larger one via tubing. The resulting pressure is great enough to lift incredibly heavy objects, even though the relative force you need to apply is small.

Dental and Barber Chairs

    According to Londons Science Museum, the American dentist Basil Wilkerson invented the adjustable hydraulic chair in 1877, which many people, particularly dentists and barbers, still utilize today. The chairs work just like hydraulic pumps. In order to elevate one, and its seated occupant, you need to push on a lever, which in turn compresses liquid in a small cylinder. The larger cylinder, in this instance, is attached to the bottom of the seat. So the force you generate pushes the chair upward.

Cardiovascular System

    The human cardiovascular system, as well as the circulatory systems of many other organisms, are also good examples of hydraulic systems. In this type of natural hydraulic system, the heart serves as a central pump, which sends out oxygen to the body using a pressurized fluid, blood. This fluid travels through confined spaces: arteries and veins.

Sabtu, 04 September 2010

How to Adjust the Brake Master Cylinder Push Rod

The master cylinder and brake booster push rods form a mechanical link between the brake pedal and the master cylinder itself. On most vehicles, the actual master cylinder push rod is not adjustable. Instead, an adjustable push rod is used to link the brake pedal and the vacuum booster. This adjustable push rod is used to control both the height and free play of the brake pedal. Proper adjustment is critical to insuring the brakes do not drag and the brake pedal has a predictable response and feel when depressed. Adjusting the push rod is a relatively easy task vehicle owners can do themselves.

Instructions

    1

    Park the automobile. Move the driver's seat to the rearmost position to give yourself easy access to the brake pedal area. Open the vehicle hood, and locate the brake fluid reservoir. This is a transparent plastic container mounted near the rear of the engine compartment on the driver's side. Remove the reservoir cap.

    2

    Start the engine. Have an assistant depress the brake pedal slowly and gently with his hand while you look into the brake fluid reservoir. Note how far the brake pedal is depressed when you first see signs of a splash or turbulence in the brake fluid reservoir. This amount of brake pedal travel is known as free-play. Typically, the free-play should be about 1/4 to 3/8 of an inch. If the free-play is outside this range, you must adjust the push rod.

    3

    Slide under the dashboard, and look up toward the top of the brake pedal arm. You will see a threaded rod extending from the front wall of the passenger compartment attaching to the upper brake pedal arm. You will also see lock-nuts at one or both ends of the rod. Place a visible dot at about the mid-point of this rod with a marker.

    4

    Wrap a small rag around the push rod to protect the threads, and then grip the rod firmly with pliers to prevent it from rotating. Loosen the lock-nuts with a wrench.

    5

    Rotate the push rod to adjust the brake pedal free-play and height. With the lock-nuts loosened, you should be able to rotate the rod by hand. Rotating clockwise will increase free-play, while rotating counterclockwise will have the opposite effect. Use the dot you placed on the push rod as an indicator of how far you have moved the rod.

    6

    Wrap a small rag around the push rod to protect the threads, and then grip the rod firmly with pliers to prevent it from rotating. Tighten the lock-nuts with a wrench. Double-check the brake pedal free-play as above, and readjust if needed.

    7

    Check the operation of the brakes and the brake lights before driving.

Jumat, 03 September 2010

When to Replace Rubber Brake Hoses

When to Replace Rubber Brake Hoses

The majority of a vehicle's brake line is metal. Rubber brake hoses allow freedom of movement to the wheels of an automobile, while connecting them with the brake line. As any brake part needs to be watched for wear due to safety concerns, this is also the case with rubber brake hoses.

External

    There are several issues that could bring about a need for rubber brake hose replacement. Visible damage may be seen on the brake hose, making it clear that a replacement is needed. These show up in the form of cracks or leaks.

Internal

    When trying to determine if a rubber brake hose replacement is needed, issues not visible to the naked eye may occur as well. Break hoses may swell, causing them to be blocked from the inside. This in turn can lead to dangerous, unreliable braking.

Tips

    When replacing a rubber brake hose, it is recommended to go ahead and have them all replaced together even if you feel only one is in need of it. You will also need to change out your brake fluid once your hoses have been replaced.

How to Diagnose Noisy Brakes

If the brakes on your car are making unusual noises, you must determine the cause. Neglecting noisy brakes can put you, your passengers and others in danger. That sound may signals brakes that are about to malfunction.

Instructions

    1

    Look for dust in the brake drums. Many times, dust builds up and causes the drums to make noises since the shoes have been worn down. Once the dust is removed, the sound should cease. You might need to replace the brake drums completely, depending on the amount of wear.

    2

    Assess the brake linings. Replace them immediately if you discover they're worn.

    3

    Investigate your wheel bearings. Replace them if they look worn or cracked.

    4

    Inspect every aspect of your brakes, and if you're still unable to determine the cause of the noise, take your vehicle to a professional mechanic.