Selasa, 31 Agustus 2010

How to Remove the Rear Brake Rotors in a '97 Explorer

How to Remove the Rear Brake Rotors in a '97 Explorer

The rear brakes in a 1997 Ford Explorer don't do a lot of heavy work, but they are responsible for operating the parking brake, which can cause issues. For example, if you drive down the street with the parking brake on, you'll wear down the brake shoes at the same time. Or maybe your brake rotors have a lot of miles on them and need to be replaced. To fix problems like that, you have to remove the rotor.

Instructions

    1

    Park the SUV on a level surface. Jack up the rear of the truck with the jack and set it on jack stands. Then remove the rear tires with the tire iron.

    2

    Unbolt the brake caliper from the rear suspension using a 3/8-inch ratchet and socket, then pull the caliper off of the rotor and support it by the rear suspension, resting it on top of the axle.

    3

    Look at the backside of the brake rotor and find the adjuster plug for the brake shoes. Loosen the adjuster using the drum-brake spoon. Then look for keeper nuts on the front side of the rotor. These go around the lug nuts and are installed by the factory, but not required to keep the rotors in place. Pull them off of the rotors with the needle nose pliers.

    4

    Lift the rotor off of the wheel hub with your hands and set it to the side.

Senin, 30 Agustus 2010

How do I Change Brakes on a 1995 Toyota Tercel?

How do I Change Brakes on a 1995 Toyota Tercel?

The 1995 Tercel -- Toyota's subcompact vehicle -- was first sold in the United States in 1980. The 1995 Tercel was the first year of the fifth and last generation, as the Echo was being release in just a few years. The 1995 Tercel featured new exterior with sharper lines than before. It also boasted a brand new 1.5-liter engine producing 93 horsepower, up from 83 horsepower the previous year. The 1995 Tercel has front disc brakes and rear drum brakes. Over time, the front brake pads on the vehicle will wear out -- typically every 25,000 to 30,000 miles -- and require replacement.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of the Tercel and locate the master cylinder fluid container, near the rear driver's side of the vehicle. Remove the lid from the container and remove half of the fluid, using the turkey baster. This prevents spillage when you retract the caliper pistons.

    2

    Loosen the front lug nuts -- with the ratchet and socket -- from the wheels, but do not remove them at this time.

    3

    Place the floor jack beneath the vehicle and raise the wheels from the ground. Make certain the jack is lifting a solid piece of the vehicle's undercarriage.

    4

    Place the jack stands beneath the vehicle to secure it in the event the floor jack collapses.

    5

    Remove the lug nuts from the vehicle's front wheels and pull the wheels off.

    6

    Loosen and remove both caliper bolts from the rear of the caliper with the ratchet and socket.

    7

    Grab the brake caliper and pull it upward, removing it from the caliper bracket. Attach it to a suspension or frame component, using the bungee strap. Never allow the caliper to hang by its rubber hose. Notice the brake pads remain in the caliper bracket after the caliper is removed.

    8

    Grab the brake pads and pull them from the caliper bracket. Take note of their exact positions, as the new pads must be installed in the same position.

    9

    Place a C-clamp over the brake caliper. Position the fixed portion of the clamp so it is contacting the rear of the caliper's body and that the screw portion is positioned directly above the caliper's internal piston -- the metal cylinder inside the caliper. Place an old brake pad between the C-clamp's screw and the caliper's piston, to prevent damage to the piston. Tighten the C-clamp to retract the piston into the caliper. Stop tightening after the piston has fully pressed into the caliper. Loosen the C-clamp and remove it and the old brake pad.

    10

    Loosen and remove the two caliper bracket bolts, using the wrench and socket. Lift the bracket away from the hub.

    11

    Grab the rotor -- the metal disc -- and remove it by pulling it toward you. Close the jaws of the micrometer and press the "Zero" or "Reset" button to calibrate the machine. Place the jaws of the micrometer over the disc portion of the rotor and close the jaws to measure its thickness. If the rotor falls below .669 inches, a new rotor is required. If it is above .669 inches, have the rotor resurfaced by a machine shop or repair facility.

    12

    Place the new or resurfaced rotor on the vehicle, just as it was removed. Place the caliper bracket over the rotor and tighten the bracket bolts to 65 to 70 foot-pounds, using the torque wrench and socket.

    13

    Slide the new pads onto the caliper bracket. Grooves in the bracket help guide the pads into place.

    14

    Remove the caliper from the bungee cord and place it back on the caliper bracket. Hand-tighten the caliper bolts.

    15

    Tighten the caliper bolts to 65 to 70 foot-pounds, using the torque wrench and socket.

    16

    Repeat steps 6 through 16 for the brake pads on the opposite side of the Tercel.

    17

    Place the front wheel on the Tercel and hand-tighten the lug nuts.

    18

    Remove the jack stands from under the vehicle and carefully lower the vehicle to the ground.

    19

    Tighten the lug nuts, in a cross-pattern, to 80 foot-pounds, with the torque wrench and a socket.

    20

    Fill the brake master cylinder container, with DOT 3 brake fluid, until the level is between the "Min" and "Max" lines. Replace the lid on the master cylinder container and close the hood.

    21

    Press and release the Tercel's brake pedal until it feels firm.

Minggu, 29 Agustus 2010

How to Change the Brake Pads on a 1994 Ford Ranger

How to Change the Brake Pads on a 1994 Ford Ranger

The 1994 Ford Ranger has disc brakes installed on the front wheels; each brake consists of a brake caliper, brake pads and brake rotors. The caliper compresses the pads against the rotor, which mounts to the axle hub. This action slows the pickup to a halt, but has the side effect of wearing out the brake pads over time. How long the pads will last varies greatly, depending on your driving style, environment and the brand of the pads used. With that in mind, its best not to skimp on brake pads when purchasing replacement parts.

Instructions

    1

    Slide the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels to prevent the Ranger from rolling backwards. Set the parking brake and put on your safety glasses.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on both front wheels with the lug wrench. Dont remove them yet, but rather loosen them to the point where you can remove them by hand later.

    3

    Position the floor jack under the front of the Ranger and lift the pickup with the jack. Place the jack stands under the front frame on both sides and set the truck down on the stands, using the floor jack.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts from both front wheels, then take the wheels off by hand. Put the drain pan under the right-front brake and clean the caliper and rotor surfaces with the brake cleaner to remove the brake dust buildup.

    5

    Unbolt the caliper with the socket set. Pull the caliper off the rotor, by hand, then pull the brake pads out of the caliper.

    6

    Clean the inside of the caliper by spraying it thoroughly with brake cleaner. Lubricate the caliper slides with white lithium grease. Retract the caliper pistons with the caliper piston tool.

    7

    Insert the new brake pads, slip the caliper back over the rotor and then bolt it back down.

    8

    Move to the left-front and perform steps 5 through 7 on that side.

    9

    Reinstall both front wheels and all the front lug nuts, by hand. Lift the Ranger off the jack stands with the floor jack, move the stands out of the way and lower the Ranger to the ground.

    10

    Tighten the front lug nuts to 100 ft-lbs with the torque wrench and then move the wheel chocks out from behind the rear wheels.

Sabtu, 28 Agustus 2010

How to Replace the Brake Rotor on a 90 to 97 Accord

The Honda Accord was manufactured with front brake rotors from 1990 to 1997, and these rotors required routine maintenance or replacement. The hydraulic caliper, semi-metallic pads and wheel bearings work with the rotor to provide stopping power. The average backyard mechanic can change a rotor in about 30 minutes.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the car's front end and set it onto the jack stands with the floor jack. Position the stands under the frame rails, not the suspension or engine mounts.

    2

    Remove the front wheels by turning their lug nuts in a counterclockwise direction. Set the wheels away from the car.

    3

    Remove the caliper and pads by turning the rear caliper bolts (two per caliper) counterclockwise, then sliding the caliper off of the rotor. The pads are not fastened to the caliper and may fall out; remove them and set them aside. Place the calipers onto the top control arms of the suspension. Do not allow the calipers to hang by the brake lines.

    4

    Pull the rotors off the hubs, or pry them loose if they are rusty.

    5

    Replace the rotors with new units, then press them onto the hubs. They may not stay on completely, as they are held in place with the wheels once fully reassembled.

    6

    Replace the pads with fresh units by placing them into the caliper and pressing them down onto the caliper piston. The piston may be difficult to compress unless the master cylinder is uncapped to relieve pressure.

    7

    Slide the calipers onto the rotors, and turn the rear caliper bolts clockwise to secure them.

    8

    Replace the wheels by turning their lug nuts clockwise, in an alternating pattern.

    9

    Lower the Accord from the jack stands with the floor jack.

How to Test a Brake System

How to Test a Brake System

Your brake system is a complex setup of wires, fluid, pads and pedals. To test your brake system, you can run a couple of simple diagnostics and then take your car for a test drive. Brake fluid will need to be regularly refilled, and brake pads replaced. If your brakes have begun squeaking or feel too touchy or loose, it may be time to run some diagnostic tests and determine the problem.

Instructions

    1

    Release the hood. The hood release is found on the driver's side of the vehicle, typically under the steering wheel on the left side. Put on thick gloves to work under the hood.

    2

    Locate the master cylinder. The master cylinder is almost always on the driver's side, right above where the brake pad is located inside the car. Your owner's manual will have a diagram showing you where the master cylinder is located.

    3

    Examine the fluid level. Sometimes the fluid will be in a clear container. Look at the level of the fluid through the container instead of taking the cap off. Make sure the fluid is between the high and low lines that mark the most and least fluid you should have at any time. Refill the brake fluid if necessary.

    4

    Sit in the car with the engine off. Give the brake four slow, solid pumps. Resistance should build with each pump. By the fourth pump, the brake should be resisting at the top of the pedal. This means the brake pads are still good.

    5

    Set up a test-drive area in a wide open space with no obstacles, cars or pedestrians. Test your deceleration power at several speeds, but never driving above the speed limit for the area you are in. Make sure the brake stops at a reasonable pressure, not too touchy or too loose.

Jumat, 27 Agustus 2010

Car Brakes Explained

Car Brakes Explained

When you press the brake pedal on your car, several things are going on. The force of your foot on the pedal is multiplied and converted to pressure; that pressure is transmitted through the system, and friction converts kinetic energy into heat. Then the vehicle slows or stops depending on the amount of force you apply. A complex sequence of events leads up to this.

Brake Pedal Function


    The brake pedal is a simple class 2 lever attached to the master cylinder piston by a rod. As force is applied to the brake pedal, it is multiplied through leverage. For example, the brake pedal on a 95 Mustang has a ratio of 3 to 1. The force is multiplied by 3, i.e., a force of 100 psi becomes 300 psi at the master cylinder.

Master Cylinder


    The master cylinder converts force into system pressure. The rod attaching the pedal assembly to the master cylinder, moves the master cylinder piston down the bore of the master cylinder. The key thing to remember here is Pascal's Law. It states that fluids are virtually non-compressible, and any force applied to a closed hydraulic system will be felt equally and instantly throughout the entire system. So, the brake fluid is forced, under pressure, down the bore of the master cylinder by the moving piston into the rest of the system.

Combination Valve Function


    The combination valve is the next part of the system, and it allows us to control how much pressure is applied to each wheel, and when it is applied. Without the combination valve, the vehicle would have to be designed with equal weight, and identical brake assemblies, at all four wheels.

    The combination valve is made up of three types of parts. First, the pressure differential switch is the part that turns on a brake warning light when part of the system fails. As long as fluid pressure is equal in both sides of the system, the contact is centered in the switch and no light is on. If one side of the system has a pressure loss, the higher pressure on the other side of the system will push the contact and provide a ground for the light to be illuminated. All combination valves have this feature.

    The second part is the proportioning valve. This part lowers hydraulic pressure to the rear brakes, improving brake bias and control during heavy braking. While some proportioning valves are found in the combination valve it may also be found in the outlet of the master cylinder, or on the rear suspension instead.

    The last part the combination valve may contain is the metering valve. This valve holds off pressure from the front brakes until the rear drum brake shoes overcome return spring tension and make contact with the drum. This prevents front brake lock-up during light pedal application during slippery driving conditions.

    The combination valve may contain all or some of these parts, depending on brake system design.

Calipers and Wheel Cfylinders


    Calipers and wheel cylinders are the hydraulic output parts of the brake system, and multiply pressure while applying force to pads and shoes.

    As the pressure from the force of the brake pedal application enters the caliper it meets up with the second part of Pascal's Law. The output force is directly proportionate with the ratio of the input piston diameter to output piston diameter. For example, if the diameter of the master cylinder piston is one inch and the diameter of the caliper piston is 2 inches and we assume an input force of 100 psi, then the output will be 200 psi. This is the amount of clamping pressure the pads have on the rotor.

Conclusion

    The force of the pads clamping on the rotor, or shoes pressing against the drum, now can convert the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle into heat energy. As the kinetic energy is converted, less and less of it is available for conversion, and the vehicle slows and eventually stops.

The Location of the ABS Sensor on a 2001 Cavalier

The Location of the ABS Sensor on a 2001 Cavalier

The phrase ABS sensor refers to your Cavalier's wheel-speed sensors. During typical vehicle operation, the wheel-speed sensors monitor the movement of a rotary gear called the toothed-ring. The information collected by the sensors goes to the power control module. Depending on road conditions, the PCM uses the information to adjust the braking pressure. This helps you avoid spin-outs and stops one or more of the brake calipers from locking up. You can locate your 2001 Cavalier's ABS sensors with a few tools right at home. Replacing any one of the four sensors should take less than 50 minutes.

Instructions

    1

    Open the driver's door on your 2001 Cavalier and apply the emergency brakes. Turn the ignition into the "Off" position and remove the key from the lock cylinder.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on your Cavalier's driver-side front tire a quarter-turn with a lug wrench. Raise the car with a hydraulic jack until the bottom of the tire visibly measures 6 inches from the ground. Place a jack stand under the frame rail near the hydraulic jack to help support your Cavalier.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts from their studs completely and take off the tire. Put all of the lug nuts in your pocket or within your Cavalier's interior for safekeeping.

    4

    Locate your Cavalier's outer ball joint and tie rod arm. Both sit directly behind the rotor and hub assembly on the right. The tie rod looks like a large screw that twists into the ball joint. On the immediate left of the ball joint, against the back of the hub assembly, you should see an L-shaped component with wires plugged into its bottom. This is one of the four ABS sensors for your 2001 Cavalier. Each of your tires has a sensor located in the same position. Unplug the wiring harness at the bottom of the sensor and remove its securing bolt with a socket wrench to replace it.

How to Replace the Rotor in a Chevy Avalanche

Trustworthy brakes are important, especially on large vehicles like the Chevy Avalanche. Rotors don't need to be replaced often, but if they become warped or worn down then it's time to swap them out for new. A good option for the mechanically inclined is to do the job yourself and save money on the labor.

Instructions

    1

    Purchase new rotors at your local auto parts store for your Chevy Avalanche. Replace the front or rear set of rotors at the same time to keep things even, or replace all four at once to maximize braking performance.

    2

    Siphon about two-thirds of the brake fluid from the master cylinder before replacing the rotors on your Chevy avalanche.

    3

    Get your Avalanche off the ground by using jacks and jack stands to support it. Block the rear or front wheels to prevent it from rolling while you work.

    4

    Remove first tire and wheel assembly. Use the tire iron provided with your vehicle to remove the lug nuts from the outer wheel, or a socket or air ratchet.

    5

    Move the caliper out of the way. The caliper is held in place by two bolts. You can release them using a C-Clamp to push the pistons on the caliper to give enough clearance to slide it off. Suspend the caliper with mechanic's wire to avoid disconnecting the brake line.

    6

    Take off the star washers holding the rotor in place. Chevy Avalanche rotors are held on by press-on star washers that you can either remove or cut off (unless it is an older model in which case the rotor is held by a screw). Remove the old rotor and set it aside.

    7

    Install the new rotor, replace the screw or star washer, then replace the caliper, caliper mounting bolts, and finally the wheel assembly and tire.

    8

    Repeat these steps for each set of rotors. When you're done, lower the vehicle, tighten and torque the lug nuts, then add new brake fluid. Pump the brakes until you get a firm pedal and test drive your Chevy Avalanche to make sure that the rotors are working properly.

How to Change Brake Rotors on a 95 GMC Safari

The brake rotors on the GMC Safari are an important part of the braking system. You cannot stop without them. If they have damage such as grooves in the surface, the rotors are not effective. Regardless of the reason you need to change the rotors, you should replace the brake pads at the same time. If you try to use old brake pads with new rotors, you might cause damage to the rotors. The work only takes about 30 minutes for each wheel.

Instructions

    1

    Park the GMC on a level surface and the ignition off. Set the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels of the vehicle. Lift the front end of the Safari on the side you will be starting with. Place a jack stand under the Safari near the jacking point. Remove the lug nuts using the lug wrench and take the wheel off the minivan.

    2

    Loosen the locking pins on the brake caliper using a socket and ratchet. Pull the caliper away from the wheel assembly. Discard the brake pads. Secure the caliper to the strut using a wire tie. Do not allow the caliper to hang by the brake hose or you will stretch and damage it.

    3

    Pry the grease cap from the wheel hub using the screwdriver. Remove the cotter pin from the shaft using the pliers. Remove the spindle nut using a wrench. Pull the flat washer from the shaft. Pull the wheel bearings from the shaft. Be careful that you do not drop the bearings or you will damage them.

    4

    Remove the rotor from the hub assembly and discard it. Put the new rotor in place on the shaft. Install the wheel bearings and then place the flat washer on the shaft. Install the spindle nut and tighten it with a wrench. Install a cotter pin, then spread it apart with the pliers.

    5

    Force the piston back into the caliper housing using the c-clamp. Cut the wire tie securing the caliper to the strut with the pliers. Place the new brake pads into the caliper. Place the caliper on the mounting cradle and tighten the locking pins with the socket and ratchet. Put the wheel on the Safari and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

    6

    Remove the jack stand from under the GMC. Lower the Safari to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheels. When the project is complete, pump the brakes several times to properly seat the brake pads on the rotors.

Mustang Master Cylinder Removal

The brake master cylinder on your Ford Mustang works as a hydraulic pressure pump to actuate the brakes every time you depress the pedal. Worn out pistons, valves or damage to the unit may cause the master cylinder to lose pressure and fail. Removing the brake master for service or replacement is an easy but involved process. You will need to bench bleed the rebuilt or new unit before installation and possibly bleed the entire brake system once the master cylinder is in place.

Removing the Master Cylinder

    The master cylinder on your Mustang is easy to access through the engine compartment. It mounts on the brake booster (a cylinder-shaped component) on the firewall, right in front of the steering wheel. To start removing the cylinder, unplug the fluid level sensor at the base of the brake fluid reservoir on top of the unit.

    When disconnecting the brake lines at the master cylinder, place a shop rag under the unit to catch any fluid spills and use a flare wrench to avoid damaging the fittings. After that, plug or cover the line openings to prevent contamination of the system. Now you can unscrew the mounting nuts and bolts, if your Mustang model is equipped with hydro boost, and remove the cylinder from the engine compartment.

    Once you finish servicing the master cylinder or have the new unit ready, bench bleed the cylinder to get rid of any air trapped inside. You can do this by placing the master cylinder on a vise. Connect clear rubber hoses to the unit fittings and insert the other end of the lines into the reservoir. Fill the reservoir with DOT 3 brake fluid and pump the cylinder piston in and out, until you see no bubbles going through the hoses.

Reinstalling the Master Cylinder

    Now you can reinstall the unit on the brake booster. When connecting the lines, start the retaining nuts by hand to avoid damaging the threads. Then tighten the lines with the flare wrench and plug the level sensor electrical connector.

    Test the brakes by pumping the brake pedal several times and make sure it feels firm. If the pedal feels spongy, you will need to bleed the brake system. You can do this by following the instructions on your car owner's manual or vehicle service manual.

Kamis, 26 Agustus 2010

How to Change the Breaks on a Mazda 6

When you push down on the brake pedal of a Masda 6, this initiates the braking system to send hydraulic brake fluid into the wheels, which in turn applies pressure to the calipers and rotors forcing the Mazda's wheels to stop. Over time, the brakes on a Mazda 6 will need to be replaced due to everyday wear and tear.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Mazda 6 on level ground. Place a car jack under the front frame of the Mazda 6. Lift it off the ground.

    2

    Remove the lug nuts on the front driver's side wheel using 4-way tire iron. Set the lug nuts aside and pry the mounted wheel free from the Mazda 6.

    3

    Remove the ABS brake line hose. The hose can be pulled free with your hand. Tuck the hose safely away atop the wheel's front axle.

    4

    Remove the caliper. The caliper is a pinching device that clamps to the rotor and the front axle. The caliper will be attached by three bolts. Remove the bolts with a socket wrench set.

    5

    Remove the brake pads from the caliper. The brake pads are attached by clips and bolts. Use the socket wrench set to remove the bolts, and use pliers to remove the clips.

    6

    Attach the replacement brake pads to the Mazda 6's caliper. Use the socket wrench set to attach the bolts, and use pliers to attach the clips.

    7

    Assemble the caliper back on the rotor. Attach the ABS brake line hose back onto the caliper. Use the socket wrench set to tighten the bolts and secure the caliper.

    8

    Mount the wheel back on the front axle. Tighten the lug nuts back in a criss-cross pattern to evenly distribute torque.

Rabu, 25 Agustus 2010

How to Replace Ford Rotors

How to Replace Ford Rotors

The brake rotors are some of the most important parts on your vehicle but also among the easiest to replace. When it is time to replace the rotors on your Ford, you can easily do this by following a few basic steps that will help keep your vehicle stopping smoothly and safely.

Instructions

    1

    Pick a flat spot to work on the vehicle. Park the car there, and secure the parking brake. Place two wheel chocks behind the tires of the car at the end opposite to that of which you will be replacing the rotors.

    2

    Open the hood of the vehicle. Find the brake system's master cylinder and fluid reservoir. Remove the cap. This will release the pressure in the lines to the brake calipers and allow you to remove the old rotors more easily.

    3

    Use the jack to raise the car enough to be able to remove the wheel and tire. Secure the vehicle by placing two jack stands under the axle.

    4

    Remove the wheel's lug nuts with a tire iron, and pull the wheel and tire off.

    5

    Locate the two brake caliper mounting bolts. These will be at the top and bottom of the caliper housing, with the head of the bolts facing to the inside. Remove these bolts using an Allen wrench. Slide the caliper off the rotor and tie it out of the way with the heavy-duty wire. This will keep it from dangling and having its own weight damage the brake lines.

    6

    Grab both outside edges of the brake rotor and pull it directly away from the axle, sliding it off the hub. Get the new rotor and slide it back on to the hub so that it is flush against the hub.

    7

    Slide the brake caliper onto the new rotor, and align the holes for the caliper mounting bolts. Insert the bolts and tighten them firmly with an Allen wrench to the torque specifications given by Ford for the model vehicle on which you are working.

    8

    Remount the wheel and tire, and tighten the lug nuts, also to manufacturer's specs. Remove the jack stands, and lower the vehicle. Replace the cap to the brake fluid reservoir and remove the wheel chocks.

How do I Bleed Rear Disc Brakes in a 1996 Ford Taurus?

How do I Bleed Rear Disc Brakes in a 1996 Ford Taurus?

Ford offered the 1996 Taurus with two-wheel front disc brakes and rear drum brakes. After-market options allow you to add four-wheel disc brakes, and newer models came stock with four-wheel disc brakes. Some higher-end 1996 models offered the four-wheel disc option. When replacing any component in the brake system, you need to bleed the air out of the brake lines. The process takes about an hour and is the same method for rear drum or rear disc brakes on the Taurus as well as for other models of Fords manufactured during that time.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the Taurus's passenger rear wheel off the ground with a jack. Place a jack stand under the vehicle's pinch weld located about four inches from the wheel well toward the center of the vehicle along the seam. Remove the tire by using the lug wrench to loosen and remove the lug bolts.

    2

    Locate the bleed screw. On drum brakes, the screw is on the back side of the drum just above the axle. On disc brakes, it is on top of the caliper. Loosen the screw sufficiently with a wrench so it is easy to loosen and tighten rapidly. However, don't leave it so loose that fluid drips out.

    3

    Attach the rubber tubing to the bleed screw. Submerge the other end of the tubing into a clear plastic bottle partially filled with brake fluid.

    4

    Raise the hood of the vehicle. Locate the brake fluid reservoir. Clean the top of the reservoir and remove the top. Set it aside. Fill the reservoir to the fill line. While bleeding the brakes, make sure the reservoir does not drop below half-full. Fill the reservoir as necessary. Once you complete the process, top off the reservoir and replace the cap.

    5

    Have an assistant depress the brake pedal firmly and hold it in position. Loosen the bleed screw for a few seconds, and watch for air bubbles in the plastic container. When the flow into the plastic container stops, tighten the bleed screw and have the assistant release the pedal. Repeat this process until no air bubbles come out of the tube. Repeat the process three more times. Completely tighten the bleed screw.

    6

    Replace the tire and lug nuts. Raise the vehicle with the jack to remove the jack stands. Lower the vehicle to the ground with the jack. Tighten the lug nuts to factory specifications.

    7

    Repeat steps one through six for the driver rear brake, then the passenger front brake and then the driver front brake. Even if your rear brakes are the only ones that need bleeding, failing to bleed all four can result in air bubbles in the line. Check the brake fluid level in the reservoir, and fill it as necessary with DOT-3 brake fluid. Replace the cap on the reservoir. Test your brakes.

How to Replace Pads Without Changing Rotors

Disc brakes slow your vehicle down when the brake calipers compress the brake pads against the brake rotors. This friction of the pads coming against the rotors will slow or stop your vehicle. All this friction will create wear, necessitating the replacement of the brake pads. Although disc brake rotors will eventually need to be replaced, the rotors are made from cast iron and should last through several sets of brake pads. The brake pads can be replaced without having to remove the rotors.

Instructions

    1

    Raise your vehicle with a hydraulic jack and place jack stands under the vehicle's frame. Lower the hydraulic jack. Remove the wheels by loosening and removing the lug nuts with a lug wrench in a counterclockwise direction. Lower the wheels to the ground.

    2

    Remove the brake caliper holding bolts (though it can vary, usually there are two bolts) in a counter-clockwise direction with an adjustable wrench. Slide the caliper off of the rotor. Be careful: The flexible rubber brake hose will still be attached to the caliper.

    3

    Slide the brake pads (two per caliper) out of the caliper. Use a flat-blade screwdriver to pry the pads out if necessary. Hang the caliper to the vehicle's wheel well with a bungee cord, so you don't strain the rubber brake hose.

    4

    Compress the pistons back into the caliper by attaching a C-clamp to the back of the caliper and over the end of the piston and tightening it down by turning the handle in a clockwise direction. Remove the C-clamp once the piston is fully retracted into the caliper.

    5

    Slide the new brake pads into the caliper. Remove the bungee cord and slide the caliper back onto the rotor until the mounting holes line up. Replace the holding bolts and tighten them with an adjustable wrench in a clockwise direction.

    6

    Repeat these steps for the other side of the vehicle. Replace the wheels and tighten the lug nuts with a lug wrench in a clockwise direction. Raise the hydraulic jack enough to release the jack stands and remove them. Lower the hydraulic jack slowly and set it aside. Re-tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

How to Adjust the Rear Brakes on a 1998 Mercury Mystique

The rear brakes on the 1998 Mercury Mystique are non-servo drum brakes that have a self-adjuster quadrant built into the system. Under normal driving conditions, the quadrant keeps the brake shoes adjusted and rarely needs manual adjustment. If the brake shoes or adjuster quadrant are replaced, the brake shoes are adjusted to the same diameter as the inside diameter of the brake drums. The average home mechanic can complete this adjustment in about an hour if no other repairs are being performed.

Instructions

    1

    Release the parking brake and block the right front wheel with wheel chocks in front of and behind the wheel. Raise the left rear wheel off the ground using a floor jack. Position a jack stand under the pinch weld on the lower edge of the body of the car about six inches in front of the rear wheel opening. Remove the lug nuts using a lug wrench. Lay the wheel and lug nuts aside.

    2

    Slide the rear brake drum off the hub assembly. If the drum is stuck, a few sharp blows with a large hammer around the edge of the drum will loosen it from the hub. Clean loose brake dust from the inside of the drum and the brake shoes using a spray bottle filled with water. This will prevent inhalation of the dust.

    3

    Loosen the lock nut on the drum adjusting gauge by turning the knurled knob. Slide the small side of the gauge into the drum, with the shoulders of the gauge resting on the edge of the drum.

    4

    Expand the two halves of the gauge by pulling them apart until the gauge is the same size as the inside diameter of the drum. Tighten the knob securely.

    5

    Insert a pocket screwdriver between the knurled cam of the adjuster quadrant and the quadrant. Pry out on the adjuster can until the large side of the brake shoe adjuster gauge will slide over the brake shoes with a slight amount of drag on the gauge.

    6

    Reinstall the drum and the wheel. Remove the jack stand and lower the floor jack until the wheel is on the ground. Repeat the procedure for the other side of the car.

Senin, 23 Agustus 2010

Why Does the Steering Wheel on a 2003 Malibu Shake When I Brake ?

Why Does the Steering Wheel on a 2003 Malibu Shake When I Brake ?

The 2003 Chevrolet Malibu steering column attaches to the steering rack and pinion. The rack and pinion is responsible for transferring the steering force to the wheels. Vibrations originating in the wheels, drive force transfer to the wheels or in the suspension can transfer through the rack and pinion to the steering column. Vibrations in the steering column are transferred to the steering wheel where it is felt by the driver.

Front Drive Axles

    The transversely mounted engine in the 2003 Chevrolet Malibu connects the transmission's drive to the front axle. Power is transferred to the front wheels through the drive axles and CV joints. The CV joints, or "constant-velocity joints," allow the drive system to transfer power to the wheels at a constant velocity, regardless of the turn position of the wheel. CV joint failure causes vibration during wheel movement, especially during turning.

Warping or Uneven-Wear on the Front Rotors

    Rotors are the "discs" in a disc brake system. Excessive heat, causing the metal to bend and flex, results in warped rotors. Uneven brake wear causes high and low spots on the rotor surface. Both conditions result in a pulsing or throbbing as the uneven distribution of pressure while braking causes the brake pads to grab unevenly. This creates a pulsing or throbbing sensation that is transferred through the steering column. Significant rotor warping or uneven brake pad wear may also cause the vehicle to pull to one side or the other while braking.

Suspension

    Ball joints, control arms and the tie-rod ends found on the 2003 Malibu help stabilize the vehicle's suspension. Failure in these parts may cause excessive vibration during braking that is transferred through the rack and pinion and up through the steering column, where it is felt through the steering wheel.

Engine Mounts

    The engine mounts stabilize the engine during operation. Engine torque, or rotational force, is stabilized by the mounts during acceleration and engine-controlled deceleration. Vibration in the steering system due to engine mount failure is apparent not only during engine controlled braking, but also during acceleration.

Unbalanced Wheels

    Significantly unbalanced wheels cause uneven braking. The lighter section of the wheel passes by the brake system followed by the heavier, unbalanced portion passing through. The steering is affected when the drag of the front left wheel is not balanced with the drag on the front right wheel. Imbalanced braking between wheels causes the vehicle to rapidly pull slightly left and then right and back again. During rapid deceleration, the alternation of drag force between the right and left front wheels causes the steering wheel to vibrate.

How to Replace the Brakes on an Odyssey

How to Replace the Brakes on an Odyssey

The main function of the brake pads on the Honda Odyssey models is to bring the vehicle to a safe stop. The brake pads are designed to be compressed to the brake rotors by the brake caliper cylinder. As the brake pads begin to compress to the brake rotors, the Honda Odyssey will begin to slow down. When the caliper has fully extended the brake pads to the brake rotor, the Honda Odyssey will come to a complete stop.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Honda Odyssey on level ground. Pull the hood lever to open the hood. Remove the lid from the brake-fluid reservoir.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on both front wheels by turning them counterclockwise with the tire tool.

    3

    Slide the floor jack up under the Odyssey. Jack the front of the Odyssey up from the cross frame between both of the front wheels. Position the safety stands underneath the side rails. Make sure that the safety stands are near the back side of both front wheels.

    4

    Loosen and remove all of the lug nuts from both front wheels. Remove the wheels and set them beside the vehicle.

    5

    Locate the brake caliper on the front driver-side brake rotor. There are two 13 mm bolts that connect the brake caliper to the caliper bracket. Remove these two bolts with the ratchet and socket.

    6

    Insert the pry bar into the top of the brake caliper. Pry the brake caliper back and forth until the caliper loosens up from the brake rotor.

    7

    Remove the brake caliper and hang it to the front strut or the frame rail with the elastic cord or a small rope. Remove one of the brake pads from the brake caliper. Slide the C-clamp into the brake caliper and compress the caliper cylinder into the brake-caliper housing.

    8

    Remove the other brake pad and slide the new brake pads in place inside of the brake caliper. Remove the cord or rope from the brake caliper and slide the brake caliper back over the brake rotor.

    9

    Line the two bolt holes up on the brake caliper and screw the two 13 mm bolts into the rear of the caliper. Tighten both bolts down tight with the ratchet and socket.

    10

    Put the front driver-side wheel back onto the hub and screw the lug nuts onto the lugs. Tighten the lug nuts down with the tire tool. Follow the same instructions above for replacing the brakes on the front passenger side. Jack the front of the Honda Odyssey back up and remove the safety stands. Lower the Odyssey back to the ground.

    11

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels. Jack the rear of the Odyssey up and place the safety stands under it. Follow steps 4 through 10 for the rear brakes, then jack the rear of the Odyssey back up, remove the safety stands and lower the Odyssey back to the ground..

    12

    Crank the motor and pump the brake pedal up and down five or six times to compress the new brake pads to the proper distance from the brake rotor. Turn the engine off.

    13

    Check the brake-fluid level inside of the brake-fluid reservoir. If low, add brake fluid until the level is on the full mark. Close the hood.

Sabtu, 21 Agustus 2010

How to Remove My 1994 Buick Front Brake Disc

The front brake disc on a 1994 Buick is used by the braking system to slow down the vehicle. The brake calipers compress the pads against the disc, arresting the vehicle. The disc wears down with the pads, and when the pads eventually wear out, the discs should be removed so that they can be replaced or resurfaced. In this case, the project vehicle is a 1994 Buick Regal, but the process is similar for other 1994 Buick models as well.

Instructions

    1

    Set the parking brake. Lift the front of the Buick with the jack and set the front down onto a pair of jack stands. Unbolt the wheels from the car using the tire iron.

    2

    Unbolt the brake calipers with the ratchet. Suspend the caliper from the chassis using the "J" hook. Mark the surface of the disc with the paint marker to note the relation of the hub to the rotor.

    3

    Slide the brake disc off the wheel hub using your hands.

How to Change the Disc Pads on a Honda Odyssey

How to Change the Disc Pads on a Honda Odyssey

When you change the brake pads on the Honda Odyssey, you need to make sure that you inspect the brake rotor as well. Damage to the brake rotors can occur if you let brake pads wear beyond the recommended thickness. The rivets will cut grooves in the surface of the discs. If there are issues with it, you will need to have the rotors resurfaced, or you must replace them. It only takes about a half-hour per wheel to replace the brake pads on a Honda Odyssey.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Honda Odyssey on a level surface and turn the key off. Place the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels of the car. Open the engine compartment and locate the brake master cylinder. It is at the back of the engine compartment on the driver side of the car. Siphon some of the brake fluid from the reservoir using a turkey baster. Put the fluid in the drain pan for recycling.

    2

    Raise the Honda with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the vehicle near the jacking point and raise it to the frame. Remove the lug nuts with the lug wrench and pull the wheel from the car.

    3

    Remove the bolt attaching the brake hose to the bracket with a wrench. Loosen the bottom caliper bolt with a socket and ratchet. Pivot the caliper up and off the wheel assembly. Remove the shims and brake pads retainers from the brake caliper. Remove the brake pads from the caliper. Insert the piston tool and tighten the handle until the caliper piston seats itself inside the caliper housing.

    4

    Insert the new brake pads and shims into the caliper. Insert the brake pad retainers. Pivot the caliper down onto the wheel assembly and tighten the bolt with the socket and ratchet. Install the wheel on the Honda and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the car. Lower the vehicle to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel.

    5

    Add brake fluid to the master cylinder as needed. Pump the brake pedal until it is firm.

Brake Pads: Ceramic Vs. Composite

Brake Pads: Ceramic Vs. Composite

For many motorists, ceramic brake pads are an upgrade to the older, semi-metallic composite pads or non-asbestos organic friction materials. Heavier vehicles, such as trucks or large sports utility vehicles, should stay with using semi-metallic linings as higher loads and braking temperatures cannot be adequately handled by the ceramics. Cars originally fitted with ceramic pads or non-asbestos organic linings may be safely retro-fitted with ceramic brake pads.

Composite Brake Pads

    Composite brake pads should be used on heavier vehicles.
    Composite brake pads should be used on heavier vehicles.

    Composite brake pads contain steel wool or fibers that provide strength and carry heat away from the brake rotors. The downside to composites is they tend to be noisy and abrasive, causing greater wear to the rotors. As composites wear, they produce visible brake dust that sticks to the alloy wheels which then need cleaning more often as the dust accumulates.

Ceramic Brake Pads

    Ceramic brake pads first appeared in the early 1990s. Copper fibers replaced steel in ceramic composites, producing a brake pad that reduced friction on the pads and rotors, eliminating the squeal of steel-based composites. As ceramic pads wear, they produce a lighter, less visible dust that does not stick to alloy wheels. As a result, drivers find ceramics to be much cleaner. Ceramic pads are longer lasting than steel-based composites as the ceramic material wears more evenly.

Porsche Ceramic Composite Brakes

    In the year 2000, SGL Carbon, the largest manufacturer of carbon and graphite products in the world, announced the startup of production for ceramic composite brakes in Meitingen, Germany. The Porsche brakes, used on all four wheels, are made of SIGRASIC, a light, hard and fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material. The ceramic brake disc weighs more than 50 percent less than the older, steel-based composite disc.

Additional Features of Ceramic Brakes

    Ceramic discs have an extremely hard surface that produces a consistent level of friction during application while reducing wear on the rotors. Ceramics do not corrode and therefore remain unaffected by the salt found on North American roads in winter. The ceramic disc also has noise-dampening features not uniformly used in steel-based composites.

Noise Reduction and Wear Life

    Angled or beveled edges on the front and back edges of the ceramic pad (chamfers) increase the clamping force of the pads against the rotors, thereby reducing noisy vibration. Slots cut vertically, diagonally or horizontally in the pads change any vibration that occurs to a frequency higher than can be detected by the human ear. Insulator shims provide a noise-dampening layer to further absorb vibrations that may produce noise. Durability tests have shown that ceramic brake pads last considerably longer than steel-based composites.

Cost Consideration

    Ceramics cost more than conventional steel-based composites, but their longer wear, zero corrosion and quiet performance may offset the cost differential. It remains for the car owner to comparison shop and choose the brake pad that best suits his vehicle and where and how it is driven.

How to Remove Brake Calipers on a 75 Ford Truck

As optional equipment, Ford offered disk brakes on its pick-up trucks in 1975. Unlike traditional drum brakes, where shoes expand outward and press against a brake drum, these disk brakes instead featured a number of pistons within a caliper which expanded and pressed pads against a disk. This design substantially increased the longevity of the brake system by reducing heat and minimizing debris buildup. However, the calipers do have a limited lifespan and must therefore be removed and either repaired or replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the hood and unfasten the master cylinder's cover.

    2

    Insert a fluid pump into the rear reservoir within the master cylinder, then pump approximately 2/3 of the brake fluid out of the master cylinder.

    3

    Loosen each of the wheel's lug nuts with a lug nut wrench. Loosening the lug nuts before raising the truck will ensure that the nuts can be easily twisted off of the wheel with the tire off of the ground.

    4

    Elevate the truck with a jack and position the truck onto safety stands, then remove the jack.

    5

    Remove the loosened lug nuts with the lug nut wrench, then lift the wheel off of the truck to expose the brake caliper.

    6

    Position a drain pan underneath the flexible brake hose connected to the caliper.

    7

    Disconnect the flexible brake hose from the caliper with a wrench, then allow the remaining brake fluid to empty into the drain pan.

    8

    Remove the caliper's securing bolts with a wrench, then slide the caliper off of the brake disk.

How to Install the Rear Brakes on a 1996 Ford Ranger

How to Install the Rear Brakes on a 1996 Ford Ranger

The 1996 Ford Ranger comes equipped with a front disc and rear drum anti-lock brake system. With this system the front brakes provide up to 80 percent of the stopping power of the entire brake system. As a result, the front brakes will require replacement more often. However, as the rear brakes wear, a low brake pedal and inoperative parking brake can result. Replacement of the rear brakes on this truck can be accomplished by the average home mechanic in a couple of hours.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels about one half turn. Do not remove them at this time. Place wheel chocks behind the front wheels and lift the rear wheels off the ground with the floor jack. Place a jack stand under each rear axle tube and lower the truck onto the stands to prevent accidents. Remove the rear wheels and place them out of the way.

    2

    Slide the rear brake drums off the brake system. If they are stuck, a few sharp blows with a hammer around the outside edge of the drum will loosen them enough to slide off. Occasionally soaking the drum, around the hub, with penetrating oil will be required. Wash the brake system with soapy water and a small scrub brush to prevent excessive dust that can be harmful if inhaled.

    3

    Remove the two long return springs, that attach the brake shoes to the pivot pin at the top of the system, using a brake return spring tool. Pull out the brake equalizer bar from between the top of the brake shoes. Remove the hold down springs, that attach the brake shoes to the backing plate, using a hold down spring tool. Fold the shoes together to allow the star wheel and adjuster lever to drop from the bottom of the shoes and remove the lower spring. Separate the secondary shoe (closest to the rear of the truck) from the parking brake lever by removing the horseshoe shaped retaining clip.

    4

    Clean the springs, equalizer bar, self adjuster and backing plate with brake parts cleaner. Apply a small amount of silicon brake grease to the contact points on the backing plate. Attach the primary shoe (closest to the front of the truck) to the backing plate with a hold down spring. The primary shoe can be identified by the shorter brake lining. Attach the secondary shoe to the parking brake lever using a horseshoe shaped clip. Attach the secondary shoe to the backing plate with a hold down spring.

    5

    Position the equalizer bar between the two shoes. Hold the adjuster cable out of the way, and attach the shoes to the pivot pin with the return springs. Insert the adjuster lever into the primary shoe and attach the lower spring to it and the secondary shoe. Attach the adjuster cable to the adjuster lever. Pull the lower edge of the shoes apart and slip the star wheel adjuster into place. Slide the drum over the shoes. Turn the star wheel through the back of the backing plate, using a brake adjusting tool, until the shoes contact the drum.

    6

    Repeat the process for the remaining brake. Reinstall the wheels and lower the truck to the ground. Test drive to verify the repair.

Jumat, 20 Agustus 2010

How to Replace Brake Fluid in a 1993 Chevy Suburban

How to Replace Brake Fluid in a 1993 Chevy Suburban

1993 Chevrolet Suburbans use a power brake system that incorporates a brake booster, master cylinder and the four sets of brakes to provide stopping power. All fluids get dirty and contaminated in time and require flushing. You never simply drain out brake fluid and refill as you do with oil. Instead, you flush the system and then bleed the air out of the system to maintain the proper levels of pressure. The Suburban's brake system operates identically to almost all other vehicles in this respect.

Instructions

Flush the Brake Lines

    1

    Remove the brake fluid reservoir cap. Drain any brake fluid from the master cylinder and brake reservoir using a turkey baster. Fill the reservoir to the full-line once empty with DOT-3 brake fluid.

    2

    Raise the entire vehicle off the ground one wheel at a time using a jack. Place jack stands under the axle of each wheel after you have raised the wheel and remove the jack. Remove the lug nuts using a lug wrench and set the lug nuts and tires to the side.

    3

    Loosen all four bleed screws. Disc brake bleed screws are located on the caliper facing the engine. Drum brake bleed screws are located on the back of the drum above the axle.

    4

    Have an assistant press down on the brake pedal and hold the pedal down. Tighten all four bleed screws and have the assistant release the pedal. Repeat this process until clean brake fluid is coming out of the bleed screws. Keep the reservoir full at all times during the process.

Bleed the Brakes

    5

    Bleed the passenger rear brake. Starting at the front just moves the air bubbles around without removing them, so start with the passenger rear and then move to the driver rear, then the passenger front and finally the driver front to ensure all air bubbles are forced out.

    6

    Place one end of the rubber tubing onto the bleed screw and the other end in the clear plastic bottle partially filled with DOT-3 brake fluid. Make sure the end in the bottle is submerged.

    7

    Have the assistant press the brake pedal and hold. Loosen the bleed screw and monitor the flow into the bottle. When the fluid or bubbles stop flowing, tighten the bleed screw and release the pedal. Repeat the process until you witness no air bubbles escaping the rubber tube for three turns. Monitor the reservoir to make sure it does not drop below half-full at any point during the process.

    8

    Repeat Steps 2 and 3 for the other three tires as outlined in Step 1.

    9

    Replace the wheels and lug nuts and tighten. Raise each wheel one at a time using the jack and remove the jack stands before fully lowering the vehicle to the ground. Tighten all the lug nuts with the lug wrench once the vehicle is completely on the ground. Top off the brake fluid reservoir and replace the cap.

How to Adjust the Timing on a Nissan Frontier

A vehicle's engine timing belt operates the valves' timing. The cam shaft pulley powers the timing belt. The pulley keeps the engine's internal components smoothly working by controlling the valves to open and close at the proper time. The Nissan Frontier's timing belt rarely needs adjusting as the engine position sensor controls monitor it. A timing light device, however, is a great tool for determining belt tensions if it needs to be adjusted.

Instructions

    1

    Look at the engine's lower front to locate the crankshaft pulley. Remove any debris on the pulley and the timing belt to expose the imprinted arrows.

    2

    Start the engine with the transmission in "neutral" and keep the throttle at 2,000 rpm. Do not release the hand brake.

    3

    Wait until the engine get to its normal operating temperature which should take about two minutes in fair weather. Meanwhile, turn off all the accessories such as the air conditioner and radio.

    4

    Idle the engine at its normal rpm for one minute, then press the accelerator three times for one second each.

    5

    Keep the engine running while attaching the timing light device to the battery and the first ignition cable found at engine's passenger side.

    6

    Determine the adjustment tension needed by aiming the timing light at the crankshaft pulley.

    7

    Use a wrench to loosen the distributor mounting bolts, adjusting them slowly until the timing arrows lines up with the center line on the timing light.

    8

    Tighten the distributor mounting bolts. Inspect the timing on the pulley and the belt to make sure the distributor is stationary during tightening of the bolts.

    9

    Turn off the engine and detach the timing light. Press the ignition cable back into place.

How to Make Parking Brake Adjustments in an Oldsmobile Alero

Make these easy parking brake adjustments to your Oldsmobile Alero and make your car safer. Save time and money when you make the adjustments at home instead of taking your car to the mechanic. Adjust your Oldsmobile Alero parking brake when the car does not stay in park or rolls when on a hill. Use this adjustment technique on car years 1999 through 2005.

Instructions

    1

    Raise your Oldsmobile Alero off the ground using jacks. Support the vehicle with jack stands.

    2

    Pull up on the parking brake lever. Then release the parking brake lever to the floor. Repeat these steps six times.

    3

    Confirm that the parking brake releases completely by pushing down on it until it reaches the lowest position.

    4

    Turn your Oldsmobile Alero ignition to "ON" and verify if the parking brake light is off. Locate the parking brake light on your dashboard which says "BRAKE."

    5

    Take the parking brake lever and pull up on it until it clicks four times or you can count four notches.

    6

    Raise the rear of the Oldsmobile Alero using your jack and support the both rear wheels using the jack stands.

    7

    Verify that the wheels do not turn when you pull the parking brake up to four notches or clicks. Release the parking brake and verify the wheels are able to spin freely now.

    8

    Lower your Oldsmobile Alero using the jack and remove the jack stands from underneath the car.

How to Replace Dodge Dakota Brake Rotors

Removing and replacing the brake rotors on your Dodge Dakota isn't as difficult as your local dealership or auto repair station may have you think. It may take you a little longer to do yourself than a seasoned mechanic but think about the hourly labor rate you'd be paying them to do so. If you have some tools, some technical ability, and some time on your hands, why not tackle the project on a nice sunny weekend day in the comfort of your own driveway? The Dodge Dakota introduced rear disk brakes on 2001 and newer models; however, the procedure is fairly similar as the front. The following article will show you how and what minor differences there are.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Dodge Dakota on a flat, level paved or concrete surface. Apply the parking brake (unless you're replacing the rear rotors). Release the hood latch.

    2

    Place a wheel chock behind one rear tire if you're replacing front rotors or in front of one front tire if you're replacing rear rotors.

    3

    Open the hood and suck out 1/2 the amount of brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir using the turkey baster. Discard the fluid properly and replace the master cylinder cap.

    4

    Break the lug nuts loose on the left tire you are removing first. Do not loosen them too much and do not remove them.

    5

    Lift the vehicle on the left quarter in a safe and secure manner using the floor jack. Lift it high enough to place the jack stand under the front frame rail if you're removing the front rotors or to the left side of the rear axle if you're replacing the rear rotors. Lower the floor jack to allow the weight of the Dakota to come to rest on the jack stand.

    6

    Remove the lug nuts and the wheel.

    7

    Remove the caliper bolts. On the rear, remove only the bottom caliper bolt and pry the caliper off the rotor with the screwdriver. Lift it upwards and slide it off the top adapter. Support the caliper with a bungee cord to the frame and do not allow it to hang from the brake hose. For the front caliper, remove both upper and lower caliper bolts, pry the caliper off with the screwdriver and support with the bungee cord to the frame or coil spring.

    8

    Gently pry off the inboard and outboard pads with a the screwdriver and take note which is which to replace them in the exact same manner your removed them.

    9

    Remove the rotor retainer rings. These are located on two of the lug studs, if they're present at all. Cut them off with the dikes and do not worry about damaging them. They hold the rotor flush to the hub so you can replace the caliper, and you do not really need to replace these.

    10

    Remove the rotor. If it is stubbornly rusted to the hub, strike the rotor with the hammer on the edge of the fins or the back side of the fin forward.

    11

    Spray the new rotor with brake cleaner generously on both sides of the rotor to clean off the coating. Wipe clean with a rag.

    12

    Place the new rotor onto the hub and screw on one lug nut to hold the rotor flush to the hub. This will replace the rotor retainer ring until you've replaced the caliper.

    13

    Apply a light coat of silicone brake lubricant to the pad mounts where the backing plate of the pads contact it. Replace the inboard and outboard pad.

    14

    Compress the piston of the caliper in with the C-clamp.

    15

    Replace the caliper over the pads and rotors and replace the caliper bolt(s).

    16

    Replace the wheel and lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts as much as you can with the ratchet and socket until you lower the Dakota to the ground.

    17

    Lower the Dakota and torque the lug nuts in an alternate fashion to 100 to 120 foot lbs. using the adjustable torque wrench and a socket. Refer to the owners manual for the correct torque specifications. It will depend on the year of the Dakota.

    18

    Repeat the procedure for the right side.

    19

    Pump the foot brake pedal until it feels normal. This motion restores the hydraulic pressure back to the compressed caliper pistons. Failing to perform this task will be hazardous.

    20

    Check and adjust the brake fluid in the master cylinder reservoir, only adding new DOT-approved brake fluid specified for you Dakota. Replace the master cylinder cap securely and close the hood.

    21

    Remove the wheel chock.

    22

    Release the parking brake (if it's applied) and test drive the Dakota.

Rabu, 18 Agustus 2010

How to Replace Old Disk Brake Pads

The brake pads on your vehicle wear down with use, and eventually need to be replaced. Allowing the pads to wear down completely can lead to severe damage to other parts on the car (along with reducing the car's braking ability). Brake pads are used on disc brakes, which are common on the front wheels of most modern cars. The pads are seated within the brake caliper and apply pressure to the rotors when you step on the brake pedal.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the front end of the vehicle with the jack and secure the vehicle with jack stands.

    2

    Remove the wheels on each side by first loosening and removing the lug nuts.

    3

    Disconnect the brake caliper from the rotor according to the service manual for your vehicle. that will reveal the pads seated within the mounting bracket. On most models, you only need to remove the caliper's lower bolt and pivot it upward. If you remove the caliper completely, hang it from the undercarriage with a strong wire -- don't disconnect or hang it from the brake hose.

    4

    Pull the worn brake pads out of the caliper mounting bracket and safely discard them. Remove the shims and retaining clips from the bracket, clean them, apply an anti-seizing compound to backing tabs and bracket slots and re-install them.

    5

    Insert the new brake pads onto the bracket within the shims and retainers.

    6

    Compress the caliper's piston into its bore with the aid of a C-clamp. Place the caliper back in position on the mounting bracket and tighten the bolt(s).

    7

    Repeat for the brake pads on the other side of the car. If the rear wheels also have disc brakes, lift the rear end of the car after lowering the front end and repeat the process for the rear brakes.

    8

    Re-attach the wheels and tighten the lug nuts. Remove the jack stands and lower the car to the ground.

    9

    Seat the brakes onto the rotors by pressing the brake pedal multiple times until it has firm resistance.

Nissan Quest Drum Removal

Nissan Quest Drum Removal

The Nissan Quest was introduced by Nissan in 1993. It commonly features front disc brakes and rear drum brakes. Newer versions of the Quest may also feature rear disc brakes. Rear drum brakes employ brake shoes that extend outward to contact the inner diameter of the drum. In order to service the rear brake shoes, the drum must first be removed. Although the Quest uses a drum that is not integrated into the rear bearing, getting it off may sometimes be a little tricky.

Removing the Tire

    The Quest should be parked on a hard and flat surface before attempting to lift the rear axle. Do not apply the parking brake because this will extend the shoes and contact the inside of the drum preventing the removal of the drum. Place a wheel chock or block of wood in front of the front tires before lifting. Lastly, loosen the lug nuts of the rear tire or tires you intend to remove the drum from before lifting.

    Now, it's time to lift the Quest. Use an appropriate car jack or floor jack and safely support the Quest onto jack stands. Never use the car jack or floor jack as a support.

    Once the Quest is secured on stands, continue removing the loosened lug nuts and then remove the tires.

De-adjusting the Brake Shoes

    First, try to remove the drum by simply pulling it off. Chances are it will either by rusted to the hub and or stuck on the shoes inside. The rear drum brakes on the Quest use an incremental brake adjuster screw. This is designed to actuate and extend the shoes out farther whenever sufficient wear occurs. This mechanism is integrated into the brake shoe assembly, but can be accessed from a portal located on the rear of the backing plate. A protective rubber plug is usually in place to prevent moisture and debris from the road getting in. Remove the rubber plug by prying it out of the port.

    Next, because it's hard to see what you're doing from the positioning of the port, locate the adjusting lever by feel with a small screwdriver. The lever locks the adjuster screw in position after it adjusts to wear. You will feel a small metal tab that simply needs to be pushed slightly away from the adjuster screw. Once the lever is away from the adjuster screw, use a brake adjusting spoon or a stubbed slotted screwdriver to turn the ridges of the adjuster screw. Turning it one way will tighten the shoes to the drum and prevent the drum from rotating. Turning it the other way will draw the shoes away from the drum and the drum will become looser and looser eventually allowing removal.

Removing the Drum

    The last thing to consider is perhaps the drum is stuck onto the rear hub and lug studs by rust. Since they're exposed to the elements, it's not uncommon for this to occur.

    Spray some lubricating spray around the diameter of the lug studs and the center hub where the drum an hub meet. Wait a couple of minutes for the lubricant to soak in. Strike the flat facing of the drum near the edge with a dead-blow hammer to shock it free from the corroded adhesion. A smack or two is all it should take once the brake shoes are de-adjusted. Once it breaks free, simply pull the drum the remaining way off of the shoe assembly.

Selasa, 17 Agustus 2010

VW Brake Rotor Replacement Tutorial

VW Brake Rotor Replacement Tutorial

You will typically replace the rotors on your Volkswagen when you change the brake pads. You should never put new rotors on the VW with old brake pads. Brake pads wear to match the surface of the brake rotors. If you change the rotors and keep the old pads, you might find that they do not work as well. Regardless, the process of replacing the rotors is not difficult, and each wheel will take about 30 minutes for someone who's never done this before.

Instructions

    1

    Place wheel chocks behind the rear wheels. Raise the VW with an automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the car near the jacking point and raise it to the frame.

    2

    Unscrew the lug nuts on the wheel with a lug wrench then remove the wheel. Remove the brake caliper with a ratchet and socket. Secure the caliper to the strut. Do not let the caliper hang loose or you will damage the brake line.

    3

    Remove the retaining screws from the rotor with a screwdriver. Pull the rotor off the wheel assembly. If it does not come off easily, hit it several times with a rubber mallet until it breaks free.

    4

    Install the new rotor onto the wheel assembly and secure it with the retaining screws, tightening them with the screwdriver. Put the caliper onto the mounting bracket and tighten the retaining bolts with the socket and ratchet.

    5

    Remount the wheel onto the car and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the Volkswagen and lower the vehicle to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel.

How to Repair an Auto Wheel Cylinder

The wheel cylinder is the component in your vehicle's drum brake system that forces the brake shoes against the friction surface of the drum. This creates the friction required to convert the kinetic energy of the moving car or light truck into heat energy and slow or stop the vehicle. Repairing this component, when it is sticking or leaking, will restore the brake system to factory performance and prevent brake system failure as well as premature brake shoe wear.

Instructions

    1

    Place wheel chocks behind the wheels that will not be off the ground to prevent the vehicle from moving during the repair process. Lift the wheels off the ground and support the weight of the vehicle with the jack stands. Lifting the wheels in this manner will prevent serious injury from occurring if the floor jack should fail. Remove the wheels with the lug wrench, and place the wheels and lug nuts out of the work area to prevent loss of the lug nuts.

    2

    Remove the drum from the brake system. Sometimes the drum will be stuck to the axle by a build-up of rust. A few sharp blows with a hammer around the face of the drum will break the drum free of the rust to allow removal. Remove the return springs, attaching the shoes to the pivot pin at the top of the backing plate, using the brake return spring tool. Slide the shoes outward, away from the wheel cylinder.

    3

    Disassemble the wheel cylinder by removing the dust boots on the ends of the cylinder, and pushing the pistons, cup seals and spring out of the cylinder. Clear away as much of the debris and sediment build-up inside the wheel cylinder as you can. Lubricate the inside of the cylinder with clean brake fluid and hone the wheel cylinder, with the brake cylinder hone, until a smooth, clean surface is restored. Wheel cylinders with excessive corrosion and pitting should be replaced.

    4

    Reassemble the wheel cylinder using the new cup seals and dust boots supplied in the wheel cylinder kit. Lubricate all of the rubber parts with a liberal coating of clean brake fluid, before assembly, to prevent damage to the new seals. Reinstall the return springs and drum.

    5

    Bleed the brakes according to the bleeding sequence for your specific vehicle. This sequence varies so refer to the service manual for the proper sequence.

    6

    Reinstall the wheel and lower the vehicle off the jack stands and back onto the ground. Retighten the lug nuts one final time and test-drive to verify proper brake function.

Minggu, 15 Agustus 2010

Who Invented Anti Lock Brakes?

Anti-lock brakes were first developed for aircraft several years before finally being developed for land vehicles like cars and motorcycles. These brakes have undergone multiple changes through many people and manufacturers over the years.

History

    Gabriel Voisin developed the first anti-lock braking system used in aircraft in 1929. The anti-lock brakes were needed due to the near impossibility of threshold braking an airplane.

Significance

    The first automobile ABS was developed in the 1960s on the British-made Ford Zodiac and Jensen FF, along with the Ferguson P99 race car. This first system proved expensive and unreliable.

Prevention/Solution

    The first reliable anti-lock brakes for cars were made for the 1971 Chrysler Imperial with help from the Bendix Corporation. General Motors also developed anti-lock brakes for its rear-wheel drive Cadillacs.

Time Frame

    Robert Bosch developed the modern four-wheel anti-lock brakes that were made for the 1978 Mercedes-Benz S-Class, nearly 50 years after the very first system was invented.

Features

    The 1988 BMW K100 was the first motorcycle to feature electronic/hydraulic anti-lock brakes.

How to Replace the Brakes on a 2002 Mustang

The 2002 Mustang brake pads have a squeal tab that will make a rather loud noise when the brake pads need to be replaced. Replacement brake pads can be purchased from most auto parts stores.

Instructions

    1

    Jack up the front of your Mustang using a floor jack under the front jack point behind the radiator.

    2

    Place jack stands under each of the front pinch welds and lower the car onto the stands. Repeat this process for the rear wheels, but use the rear jack point, behind the trunk, or the rear differential when jacking and the rear pinch welds.

    3

    Unbolt the wheel lug nuts using an impact wrench and pull the wheels off of the wheel hub.

    4

    Place the c-clamp over the brake caliper so that the screw end of the clamp is flat against the back of the outboard brake pad. Then, tighten the clamp until you cannot tighten it anymore. A gap will develop between the outboard brake pad and the caliper bracket. This is normal.

    5

    Remove the clamp from the caliper and unbolt the bottom-most bolt on the back of the caliper. This is the caliper's pin bolt that holds the caliper to the caliper bracket.

    6

    Loosen, but do not remove, the top caliper bolt on the back of the caliper with a socket wrench.

    7

    Swing the caliper up from the bottom and pop out the old brake pads. Then, insert the new pads with the same orientation as the old pads.

    8

    Close the caliper and secure the caliper in place by tightening the upper caliper bolt and pin bolt. The rest of the installation is the reverse of removal.

Jumat, 13 Agustus 2010

How to Remove Buell Rotor Bolts

Buell rotors are special brake components made for motorcycles. The rotor is a disc that sits in the center of the wheel on the motorcycle and turns with the wheel. A brake caliper clamps down on the rotor when the driver applies the brakes. When the rotor becomes scored from normal use, you'll need to replace it. First, you need to know how to remove the rotor bolts. Because they are aluminum, and thus soft, they can be rather tricky to remove without stripping the head off the bolt.

Instructions

    1

    Apply heat to the area around the Buell rotor bolt. Do not heat the rotor bolt head directly. Heating the area around the bolt will cause the surrounding metal to expand, allowing you to remove the bolt more easily.

    2

    Place the appropriate sized socket over the bolt head. Make sure you are using a six-point socket. The size of the socket you will need varies according to the bike you have.

    3

    Turn the bolt counterclockwise to remove. If the bolt does not want to come off, repeat Step 1 and reheat the area around the bolt. Once you remove the bolt, do not reuse it.

Why Are Rear Brakes Important?

Why Are Rear Brakes Important?

Understanding a list of features on a car can be daunting. The average car buyer wants the car to work properly and be aesthetically pleasing. One feature that is often overlooked as being significant is the rear brake. It's not very exciting to tell friends that your new car has state of the art rear brakes, but it's a feature that may save your life.

Control

    The rear brake system helps control the car when it stops so that it doesn't tilt or swerve in the back and veer off the road. The car is less likely to spin out or fishtail by having the balance of the rear brakes. Rear brakes help to reduce the stopping distance.

Brake Preservation

    Rear brakes help to preserve the life of the front brakes by sharing the workload. They tend to last longer than the front brakes because they don't endure the pressure that the front brakes do.

Emergency Power

    The power for the emergency brake system comes from the rear brake pads. The emergency brake forces the car to stop immediately.

Rabu, 11 Agustus 2010

Brake Pads & Break-in Procedures

Brake Pads & Break-in Procedures

Brake pads wear out as part of their normal operation. Newer vehicles are typically equipped with sensors that notice when pads are becoming thin; the sensors switch on an indicator light in the dash so the driver knows the assembly needs attention. Vehicles without sensors often provide clues in the form of a burning smell on harsh braking; created by the dust brake pads leave on the rotor. As the pads get closer to being worn out, they generate more heat, burning the dust in the process. All four braking assemblies should be checked regularly.

Why Bed In

    Brake performance is adversely affected by a poor pad/rotor match. New pads are not matched to the rotors they grip and a break-in procedure, called bedding-in, allows the new combination to function together. If this procedure is not followed strictly to manufacturers instructions, braking performance will likely be severely diminished. Failure to properly bed-in new pads can also lead to a juddering sensation -- often called shimmy -- when braking. Shimmy is very uncomfortable; it transmits through the steering column to the drivers hands and through the suspension to the entire car.

The Importance of Bedding-in

    Bedding-in must be done gradually and cautiously. Dave Zeckhausen of Zeckhausen Racing observes, The first few applications of the brakes will result in very little braking power. Gently use the brakes a few times at low speed in order to build up some grip. New pads deposit a microscopic layer of a material called transfer film, which aids in the matching process. Done too aggressively, the process of building up heat to transfer the film can actually cause perfectly good rotors to warp and can also lead to an uneven deposit of the transfer film and the shimmy that is symptomatic. Good bedding-in procedures can also reduce squeal.

Rotors

    Rotors wear out comparatively rarely, but they can be scarred by heavily worn pads, and they should be refinished -- or turned -- to make their surfaces as smooth as new when fitting fresh pads. The turning process also removes any trace of transfer film left by the previous pads. The experts at Tire Rack write, Residue from the previous pad compound on the surface or an irregular surface on a used rotor will cause the pads to grip-slip-grip-slip as they pass over the rotor surface under pressure. It is industry practice that pad guarantees are invalidated if rotors are not replaced or resurfaced; the rotors must also be professionally checked to ensure they are free from even microscopic warping.

Bedding-in Procedures

    Different manufacturers recommend different procedures specific to their products; observe the instructions provided with your new pads. Do not tow a trailer or have any excess weight aboard while bedding-in. Be aware some degassing occurs from the new pads while bedding-in, so an unusual smell and even some visible smoke is not cause for concern. Typically, the process involves moderate driving for between 300 and 500 miles -- moderate means the avoidance of heavy braking -- and then, in a safe location, deceleration from around 60 mph to around 30 between five and 10 times. Firmly apply then release the brakes during this process, rather than dragging, and wait at least 30 seconds between each application to allow some cooling. The heat generated by braking is exponential; far more is generated when braking from 80 to 60 mph than from 60 down to 40, so observe the directions accurately. Avoid coming to a complete stop; this can leave an imprint of the pad on the rotor that will negatively impact future performance. Some manufacturers recommend making two or three emergency stops from around 45 mph. The vehicle should then be parked, without deploying the parking brake, for as long as it takes for all the brake assemblies to cool completely. Full matching up and optimal performance can be expected within 500 to 1,000 miles of regular driving.

Selasa, 10 Agustus 2010

How to Change the Front Brakes on a 1996 Grand Prix

How to Change the Front Brakes on a 1996 Grand Prix

The first Pontiac Grand Prix was introduced in 1962 as a hardtop, based upon a Catalina frame. The 1996 Pontiac Grand Prix was produced in four different sub-models; the SE Coupe, SE Sedan, GT Sedan, and GTP Coupe. The 1996 Grand Prix came with four-wheel disc brakes on all sub-models. Changing the front brakes on a 1996 Pontiac Grand Prix is an identical process, regardless of the sub-model, or the engine size.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the front of the Grand Prix, using a two-ton or greater capacity jack. Set jack stands beneath both front lower control arms. Remove the two front tire and wheel assemblies, using a tire iron.

    2

    Remove the two caliper mounting bolts from the rear of the caliper, using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Remove the caliper approximately halfway off of the rotor, using a small pry bar or flat head screwdriver. Insert a small pry bar or flat head screwdriver into the rear of the caliper, between the caliper piston and the rotor. Push the handle of the pry bar or screwdriver out away from the car, to compress the piston. Compression of the caliper piston is essential for ease of caliper removal. Remove the caliper completely from the rotor.

    3

    Place a pair of needle-nosed vice grips or a caliper hose clamp onto the rubber line leading from the rear of the caliper to the frame of the car. Clamping the hose will ensure minimal air absorption into the brake lines throughout the duration of this project.

    4

    Remove the two mounting bolts on the rear of the caliper bracket, using a 3/8-inch ratchet and socket. Remove the caliper bracket from the vehicle. Remove the brake rotor from the vehicle.

    5

    Remove the brake line from the rear of the old caliper, using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Install the brake line onto the rear of the new caliper, and tighten the mounting bolt between 40 and 50 foot-pounds of torque. Do not over tighten the mounting bolt, or you risk crushing the pressure control valve on the end of the brake line. Set the new caliper assembly onto the lower control arm, behind the brake assembly. Do not let the caliper hang freely, or you could tear the rubber brake line.

    6

    Knock the old brake pads loose from the caliper bracket. Sand the front edges of the caliper bracket with a new piece of 80-grit sandpaper, or an 80-grit sanding block. The object of sanding the bracket is to remove all of the debris and rust which may inhibit the new brake pads or the new caliper. Sand all contact points where the pads meet the caliper bracket.

    7

    Apply a light coating of approved caliper grease using an applicator brush, to the surfaces of the caliper bracket, where the pads touch the bracket. Install the new brake pads into the caliper bracket. Lubricate the backing plate or rear side of each brake pad, using approved caliper grease and an applicator brush.

    8

    Install the new brake rotor onto the wheel hub. Run one lug nut by hand, onto a lug stud. This will hold the brake rotor in place and alignment, while you install the remaining brake parts.

    9

    Install the caliper bracket onto the brake assembly, and tighten the mounting bolts between 90 and 100 foot-pounds of torque. Use a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket to tighten the bolts back into place.

    10

    Install the new caliper over the new pads and rotor assembly. The new calipers come compressed, so as not to introduce air into the caliper, prior to installation. Slide the caliper on by hand, and tighten the caliper mounting bolts between 60 and 70 foot-pounds of torque.

    11

    Spray the entire new brake assembly thoroughly with aerosol brake cleaner. The object of the cleaner is to remove excess caliper grease, runoff brake fluid, and greasy fingerprints from the rotor surfaces. Spray both front and back of the entire assembly, until you feel you have removed all of the excess grease and possible brake fluid. Remove the vice grips or caliper clamp at this time.

    12

    Repeat Steps 2 through 11 to complete the replacement of the brakes on the second side of the Grand Prix. Leave the vehicle elevated when the second side brake installation is completed.

    13

    Bleed both front brake calipers thoroughly to remove any air pockets that may have entered the brake lines. Bleeding the brakes will require a second person to pump the brake pedal, while you open and close the brake bleeder valve on the rear of both front calipers. Open the brake fluid reservoir under the hood, and add brake fluid to the car as the level drops, during the bleeding process.

    14

    Install the wheels and lower the vehicle only after you have bled the brakes free of any air pockets in the system. Tighten the wheel lug nuts between 95 to 110 foot-pounds of torque.

How to Replace Rear Disc Brakes in a Mercury Villager

The Mercury Villager has one of two types of rear braking systems; disc or drum brakes. The rear disc brake system requires tool number W0133-1707931 to replace the brakes. This tool is available at any Mercury dealership. Use this tool and these instructions to replace the rear disc brakes of your Mercury Villager.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the vehicle from the ground using a car jack. Evenly support the vehicle on all sides to prevent it from falling. Watch for children and animals that may crawl under the car.

    2

    Remove the wheels from the Villager. Use a torque wrench to loosen the lug nuts. Take off the wheels and set them aside, face up to avoid damage.

    3

    Disassemble the parking brake and take out the cable bracket bolt. Remove the pin bolts and take off the caliper. Take out the pad springs followed by the brake pads and shims.

    4

    Wipe the piston and pin holes free of grease, being careful not to spread it to the rotor. Use tool W0133-1707931 to rotate the piston clockwise into the caliper.

    5

    Grease the area of the mounting support that touches the brake pad using silicone based grease. Replace the pads and shims with the new ones. Reuse the brake springs unless they show signs of damage.

    6

    Reposition the caliper body in the mounting support. Use a torque wrench to secure the bolts between 28 to 38 ft. lb.

    7

    Replace the wheels on the Villager and lower it to the ground carefully. Check the brakes for proper functioning.

How to Remove the Rear Brake Drum on a 69 Ford Camper Special

The 1969 Ford F-series Camper Special was manufactured with a hydraulic rear drum braking system that requires routine maintenance. The drum material can thin over time and must be replaced to safely stop the truck. The average backyard mechanic can replace the drum on a Ford pickup in about 30 minutes.

Instructions

Removal of the Rear Brake Drum

    1

    Raise the rear end of the pickup with the floor jack and place the frame rails on the jack stands, supporting the weight of the truck off the rear wheels. Do not position the stands on the suspension components. Release the jack, and the stands should hold the truck bed up at the frame.

    2

    Remove the rear wheels by turning the lug nuts in a counterclockwise direction, then place the wheels away from the truck. The jack stands will support the truck bed in the air, and removing the wheels at once will simplify the process.

    3

    Remove the keeper bolt on the drum by turning it in a counterclockwise direction. The keeper bolt holds the drum to the hub; it is a small hex-head bolt a bit off-center on the outside of the drum. Place the bolt aside.

    4

    Pull the drum free of the brake assembly, sliding it off the shoes. Some dust or debris may fall out as the drum comes off.

    5

    Repeat steps 3 and 4 on the opposite wheel's brake assembly.

Minggu, 08 Agustus 2010

How to Replace the Wheel Cylinder on a 1984 S-10 Pickup

The 1984 Chevrolet S-10 was available with a 1.9-liter in-line four cylinder engine, a 2.0-liter in-line four cylinder engine, a 2.2-liter in-line four cylinder engine and a 2.8-liter V-6. The 1984 S-10 was equipped with the option of a two-wheel or four-wheel drive drivetrain. The rear brakes on the 1984 S-10 were drum style brakes, that include shoes, hardware, drums and wheel cylinders. When replacing wheel cylinders that have ruptured or leaked within the brake drum, you should replace all of the drum brake components as they become saturated with brake fluid.

Instructions

Wheel Cylinder Removal

    1

    Place wheel chocks in front of both front tires on the S-10. Loosen the rear lug nuts on the truck, using a tire iron. Raise the rear of the truck using a jack. Place jack stands beneath the rear axle housing of the truck, about six inches inward from the rear wheels. Remove the rear lug nuts completely, then remove the rear wheels from the truck.

    2

    Remove the rear drum from one side of the truck by hand. If the drum does not come off easily by hand, remove the oval shaped rubber stopper from the rear backing plate, using a flat-head screwdriver. Insert the screwdriver and adjust the rear brakes to back the shoes off of the drum. Hit the drum toward the front of the car then toward the rear of the car to push the shoes off of the drum, using a rubber mallet. Remove the drum from the truck.

    3

    Unhook the primary and secondary return springs from the brake shoes, using a brake hook tool. Remove the hold down springs from the brake shoes, using a circular brake tool or nut driver. Turn the hold down spring cap, while pressing the hold down pin from behind the backing plate, so that the pin does not rotate. Turn the cap until it aligns with the end of the pin, then slowly let pressure off of the cap to release the hold down cap and spring.

    4

    Remove the actuator link by raising the actuator lever and twisting the link rod free. Remove the self adjuster spring, using your brake hook tool. Remove the brake strut bar and self adjuster screw, by pushing the brake shoes apart. Pull the bar and self adjuster screw out by hand. Twist the brake shoe downward, that has the parking brake lever attached. Remove the parking brake lever clip from the shoe, using your screwdriver to pry the clip loose. Remove the shoes from the back of the truck.

    5

    Place a drain pan beneath the brake assembly you are working on. Remove the brake line from the wheel cylinder, using a line wrench. If the brake line is corroded or rusted, spray the line thoroughly with penetrating spray, and let the penetrating spray set for about ten minutes. Do not force the brake line fitting off of the wheel cylinder, or you will twist or snap the brake line. Turn the brake line fitting counterclockwise to remove it from the wheel cylinder, once the penetrating spray has has sufficient time to work.

    6

    Insert two awls or pins, 1/8-inch in diameter or less, into the access slots on the wheel cylinder retainer clip. Pry both locking tabs on the clip outward simultaneously and remove the retainer clip from the wheel cylinder. Remove the wheel cylinder from the brake backing plate, using a flat-head screwdriver to pry the wheel cylinder loose of needed.

    7

    Spray the entire backing plate and parking brake lever thoroughly with aerosol brake cleaner. Remove any brake fluid and sludge from both brake parts. Use a wire brush to clean out the wheel cylinder mounting hole, if there is an excess amount of corrosion near or around the hole. Apply a light coat of high temperature grease onto the contact point of the brake backing plate, where you see exposed metal or worn paint on the outboard side of the plate.

Wheel Cylinder Installation

    8

    Install the new wheel cylinder on the outboard side of the brake backing plate, with the brake line mounting hole and bleeder screw facing inward. Install the new retainer over the wheel cylinder from the inboard side of the backing plate, using a 1 1/8-inch 12-point socket and extension. Push the socket and extension toward the backing plate to lock the new retainer clip onto the wheel cylinder.

    9

    Install the brake line onto the new wheel cylinder, and tighten it snug using a line wrench. Install the wheel cylinder bleeder screw onto the new wheel cylinder, if it was not installed at the factory. Turn the bleeder screw in by hand a few threads to start it, then use a deep well 1/4-inch-drive socket and ratchet to tighten the bleeder screw snug. Using a deep well socket and ratchet will help make sure you do on cock the bleeder screw and strip the threads.

    10

    Install the parking brake lever onto the secondary shoe. Install a new clip from your all-in-one kit to fasten the two parts together. Use the tip of a flat-head screwdriver to push the new clip into place, until it locks the brake shoe and parking brake lever together. Connect the primary brake shoe to the secondary brake shoe, using a new self adjuster screw spring from your all-in-one kit. Insert the adjuster screw between the two shoes, in the exact position that it was removed from. Spread the two shoes apart and over the axle flange.

    11

    Install the parking brake cable onto the parking brake lever at the bottom, using a pliers if needed. Inspect the self adjuster screw and spring. Make sure that the two parts are not touching one another. If they are touching, adjust the self adjuster screw slightly to move it away from the spring, or remove the spring and reinstall it in the opposite direction. Spread the shoes and insert the parking brake strut bar and spring between the two brake shoes. The spring end of the strut rests against the secondary shoe, and the other end against the primary shoe.

    12

    Install the actuator lever on the secondary shoe by hand, followed by the actuator pivot. Connect the return spring between the actuator lever and the primary shoe, using a brake hook tool if needed. Lift the primary shoe slightly away from the backing plate and install the parking brake link onto the shoe. Twist the link with pliers and install it onto the parking brake actuator lever. Insert the small return spring between the secondary shoe and the actuator pivot. Collapse the spring with pliers if needed, then insert it between the shoe and pivot.

    13

    Install the hold down pin through the secondary inboard side of the backing plate, through the secondary shoe, actuator lever and actuator pivot. Install a new hold down cap onto one of the new hold down springs. Grab both parts with a set of flat nose locking pliers. Hold the pin from behind the backing plate with your finger. Push the hold down spring and cap onto the actuator pivot, so that head of the pin protrudes through the cap. Rotate the cap and spring with your pliers until the pin and cap form a "+" symbol.

    14

    Push the primary shoe against the backing plate and install the hold down ping, spring and cap the same way you did on the secondary shoe. The cap and spring will rest directly against the primary shoe. Install new primary and secondary return springs between the upper and lower portions of the brake shoes. Set one end of each spring into the secondary brake shoe. Stretch the springs across and set them into the primary shoe, using an awl. Use a flat-head screwdriver tip to push the spring into the primary shoe hole if needed.

    15

    Install a new brake drum onto the brake shoe assembly. If the brake drum will not easily go over the brake shoes, check the alignment of the shoes on the backing plate and the new wheel cylinder. The brake shoes should be vertically held on the pistons of the new wheel cylinder, at the top of the assembly. If the alignment is correct, adjust the self adjuster screw to bring the shoes more inward. Install the rear drum.

    16

    Adjust the brake shoes outward slightly if the brake drum can be installed on and off of the axle flange, with no resistance from the shoes. A slight bit of resistance should be felt when installing the the new drum on the shoes. Install two are three washers over one of the wheel studs, then install a single lug nut to hold the drum in place.

    17

    Repeat Sections 1 and 2 if you are replacing the wheel cylinder on the second side of the truck. Make sure you place your drain pan beneath the second assembly, prior to removing the brake line. Proceed to section 3 of this project.

Bleeding the Drum Brakes

    18

    Open the hood on the truck and check the brake fluid reservoir. Fill the fluid reservoir with brake fluid if needed. Ask your assistant to sit in the driver's seat of the S-10. Place your drain pan beneath the brake assembly, on the side of the truck that you are going to start the bleeding process.

    19

    Open the bleeder screw using an open-end wrench or line wrench. Ask your assistant to push the brake pedal slowly to the floor of the truck and hold it. Use verbal commands like "down", "holding" and "pump" with your assistant, to make this process go smoother. Tighten the bleeder snug when your assistant is holding the pedal to the floor of the truck. Repeat this process three times on both sides of the truck, or until you notice no air bubbles being expelled from the bleeder screw. Move the drain pan back and forth with you to each side.

    20

    Check and fill your brake fluid reservoir after each side of the truck has been bled. Ask your assistant to pump the brake pedal about 10 to 15 times, or until the pedal is stiff and hard to depress. Ask him or her to hold the pedal firmly. Open the bleeder screw and tell your assistant to push the pedal to the floor with the weight of his or her foot and hold it. Close the bleeder screw when the pedal is being held to the floor of the truck. Repeat this step three times per side.

    21

    Check the fluid level in the brake fluid reservoir, and top it off. Install the fluid reservoir cap. Bleeding is completed when your assistant has a firm brake pedal and both bleeder screws are closed. Tighten the bleeder screws snug with your wrench. Spray the inboard sides of both backing plates with brake cleaner, with the drain pan beneath the side you are spraying. Remove excess brake fluid drips from the backing plates.

    22

    Remove the single lug nut and washers from the lug stud, on both sides if you replaced both wheel cylinders. Install the rear wheels on the truck and tighten the lug nuts snug, using a tire iron. Raise the truck off of the jack stands, and remove both stands from beneath the truck. Lower the S-10 to the ground and tighten the lug nuts to 81 foot-pounds if you have standard wheels, or 100 foot-pounds if you have the optional wheels. Use a 1/2-inch-drive torque wrench and socket to tighten the lug nuts.