Rabu, 30 Juni 2010

DIN Flaring Tools

The DIN is one of two types of flares found on international vehicle brake systems. The more commonly seen of the two is the SAE flare that is in use on all Asian and American automotive brake systems, but the European DIN, or bubble flare, is now appearing in all other countries.

Ultra-Light

    This universal brake pipe flaring tool produces not only DIN flares, but those required by both Rolls-Royce and Citroen as well. This model flaring tool is vice-mounted and does not require any adjusting. The Ultra-light pipe flaring tool is available in sizes that range from 0.18-inch to 0.5-inch. Pipe positioning is automatic with this model, which weighs 12 pounds and is offered in various colors. The slightly larger, but very similar model, the Universal-Light, weights 15.5 pounds.

Universal-Heavy

    This flaring tool is similar to both the Ultra-light and the Universal-Light models, but has been designed for extra durability. The Universal-Heavy produces not only DIN flares, but the special flares for Rolls Royce and Citroen. This flaring tool has been designed for the slightly larger flares, of 0.5-inch diameter, but can be used on the smaller 0.18-inch flares as well. The weight of the Universal-Heavy, which is vice mounted, is just under 10 pounds. There is automatic pipe positioning in this model.

Semi-Automatic

    This flanging tool boasts similar features to the Universal-Heavy, Ultra-Light and Universal-Light models, but has the added advantage of being lever-operated, which adds to its speed. The Semi-Automatic flange tool can be vice-mounted, but should preferably be bench-mounted. The weight of this model is 20 pounds.

Automatic

    This large flanging tool weighs in at 22 pounds and should ideally be bolted onto a sturdy workbench. The Automatic flanging tool incorporates a feature that allows for the automatic line up, clamping and release of the pipe. This flanging tool is capable of producing pipes within fifteen seconds.

General

    A large flaring tool at 22 pounds, this model has been designed to produce flares for fuel lines, power steering pipes and vehicle brake pipes. The General flanging tool has been purpose-designed to handle heavy duty work.

Senin, 28 Juni 2010

Why Do Brake Lines Break?

Why Do Brake Lines Break?

A car's brake lines are needed to carry brake fluid to the brake pads at the car's wheels. Brake lines can break when they become weakened due to corrosion or rust, or from impact, such as in a car crash.

Brake Lines

    When you press down on your car's brake pedal, you force brake fluid through the brake lines to a braking unit on each wheel. The fluid causes brake pads to press against the brake rotor, causing it to slow. The front and back wheels have rubber brake lines, because flexibility is required; otherwise, they are made from steel.

Causes of Damage to Rubber Brake Lines

    Rubber brake lines deteriorate naturally over time, due to moisture and heat. They can also be corroded by the salt that is spread on icy roads in the winter . If the roads where you live are covered in salt in the winter, it is a good idea to wash your car's underbody regularly, to rinse off the salt and prevent damage to your brake lines.

Causes of Damage to Steel Brake Lines

    The steel brake lines in a vehicle will eventually rust and break. Road salt can accelerate this process. As well, the force of impact from a car crash can cause steel brake lines to bend or collapse, which weakens them and renders them susceptible to breakage. If a steel brake line breaks, it is best to replace the complete line rather than trying to patch it.

How to Remove the Brake Rotors on an F-150

Brake rotors on a Ford F-150 pick-up are either 11.7 inches or 12.1 inches in diameter depending on the year and drive configuration. Whatever the configuration, the brake rotors are an important component of a truck's braking system. The rotor houses the wheel bearings and supports the weight of the truck as well as the radial and lateral loads created when driving and maneuvering the vehicle. The rotor serves as the connecting member between the wheel/tire assembly and the truck's axle as well as supporting the lugs that locate and clamp the wheel hub. Occasionally, the rotors on your F-150 need to be replaced. To do this you must first remove the old ones.

Instructions

Removing the Rotor

    1

    Set the truck's parking brake fully. Break the torque on the lug nuts with the truck on the ground, but do not loosen them beyond what is necessary to spin the lug nuts off once the wheel is off the ground. Jack up the front of the truck on the side to be removed and place a jackstand under the axle on that side. Release the jack and allow the jackstand to support the load. Repeat this process on the other side if both sides are to be removed. Finish spinning off the lug nuts, then remove the wheel from the rotor.

    2

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts with the Allen wrench. Cock or twist the caliper against the rotor to force the brake fluid to bleed back into the master cylinder reservoir and release the residual brake pressure. Lift the caliper from the rotor, then suspend the caliper with a bungee from some convenient spot inside the wheel well. Never allow the brake line to support the weight of the unmounted caliper or brake line damage may occur.

    3

    Remove the bearing cup from the rotor. Straighten the cotter pin with the needlenose pliers, then remove it from the spindle. Discard the cotter pin. Remove the castle nut (locknut) from the spindle with the breaker bar. Slide the rotor partially off the spindle and then slide it back on. This will expose the outer wheel bearing. Slide the outer wheel bearing off of the spindle and carefully slide the rotor completely off the spindle, taking care to not damage the inner wheel bearing seal. Inspect the rotor pads, wheel bearings and inner wheel bearing seal for damage and replace if necessary.

Minggu, 27 Juni 2010

How to Install Brakes on a 98 Jetta VW

Good brakes are a crucial aspect of vehicle safety. Brakes slow your Jetta using the friction generated by squeezing the rotor between the brake pads. Over time, the pads, and eventually the rotor, will wear out. If you feel comfortable changing the tires, you can replace the pads on your vehicle, as long as the necessary tools are available. Although there are ways to replace the brake pads without one, using a special tool to compress the hydraulic piston during the replacement process makes the job easier. You should always replace the brakes in sets to ensure even braking.

Instructions

    1

    Block the tires to prevent the vehicle from moving. The parking brake needs to be disengaged when replacing the rear brakes.

    2

    Remove the center wheel cap, using the screwdriver. Loosen the lug bolts, but do not remove them yet.

    3

    Jack up the vehicle until the tire leaves the ground. Place a jack stand where it will support the vehicle if the jack fails.

    4

    Remove the lug bolts and take the wheel off the vehicle.

    5

    Place the drip pan under the wheel hub and clean the area with the brake system cleaner.

    6

    Remove the retaining bolts from the air deflector shield to improve access when working on front tires. Disconnect the wear sensor wire, if equipped.

    7

    Remove the two mounting bolts from the caliper and lift the caliper away from the rotor. Use the string or wire to tie up the caliper so that it does not hang by the brake line. This will help prevent damage to the brake line, minimizing the risk of this job becoming a much more difficult one.

    8

    Extract the old pads and remove the anti-rattle springs. Keep track of which pad each spring came from, as the springs are not interchangeable.

    9

    Examine the rotor for damage. If signs of damage are present, replace the rotor or remove it and take it to a shop for turning.

    10

    Push the hydraulic piston all the way into the caliper housing, using the compression tool. Make sure not to damage the rubber seal around the piston. If a compression tool is not available, push back the piston using a C-clamp and a pair of channel locks. Use the C-clamp to compress the piston until it becomes difficult to compress any further, then use the channel locks to turn the piston. Repeat until the piston is fully retracted. This is the most difficult step.

    11

    Install the anti-rattle springs on the new brake pads; insert them into place in the caliper housing.

    12

    Remove the string or wire supporting the caliper; slide the caliper back into place, with the rotor between the brake pads. Install and tighten the bolts.

    13

    Connect the wear sensor wire and install the air deflector housing, if equipped.

    14

    Replace the wheel and install the lug bolts. Tighten all the lug bolts. Remove the jack stand and lower the vehicle to the ground. Finish tightening the lug bolts and replace the center cap.

    15

    Repeat this process on the other wheel.

How to Fix a Brake Power Booster

How to Fix a Brake Power Booster

Power brakes utilize vacuum generated by the engine to lessen the force needed to apply the brakes in a vehicle as well as shorten the distance the brake pedal needs to travel. The power brake booster acts as a diaphragm that controls the level of vacuum or boost applied to the master cylinder.

Instructions

Removal

    1

    Disconnect the ground cable from the negative battery terminal by loosening the retaining bolt and pulling the clamp off the terminal.

    2

    Locate the power brake booster. It will be mounter on the driver's side of the firewall behind the master cylinder.

    3

    Loosen but do not remove the bolts that connect the master cylinder to the power brake booster.

    4

    Gain access to the nuts and bolts that secure the power brake booster to the firewall. Depending on the design of your vehicle, you may have to remove the trim panel located just below the steering column.

    5

    Disconnect the brake booster pushrod from the brake pedal, depending on the vehicle it may be bolted or held with a clip.

    6

    Disconnect the electrical connector for the stoplight switch.

    7

    Disconnect the vacuum hose from the power brake booster.

    8

    Remove the nuts and bolts that connect the brake booster to the firewall.

    9

    Remove the bolts that connect the master cylinder to the brake booster.

    10

    Separate the brake booster from the master cylinder. Be careful not to damage the brake lines attached to the master cylinder.

    11

    Remove the brake booster from the vehicle.

Installation

    12

    Set the new power brake booster into position on the firewall.

    13

    Reinstall the bolts and nuts that secure it to the firewall.

    14

    Reconnect the booster pushrod to the brake pedal.

    15

    Reconnect the electrical connector to the brake light switch.

    16

    Reconnect the vacuum line to the brake booster.

    17

    Reconnect the master cylinder to the power brake booster and reinstall the bolts that connect them.

    18

    Check the fluid level in the master cylinder and fill if needed.

    19

    Reconnect the ground cable to the negative battery terminal.

Kamis, 24 Juni 2010

How to Remove Brake Rotors From a 1995 Chevy S-10 Pickup

How to Remove Brake Rotors From a 1995 Chevy S-10 Pickup

The front brake rotors on a 1995 Chevrolet S-10 do the majority of the braking on the small truck, and the parts wear out anywhere from every 10,000-30,000 miles, depending on your driving habits. When it comes time to change those brake pads, it's also time to change or turn the rotors on the brakes as well. Without doing that, your new pads won't have as much surface area to use when braking, because of the grooves in the old model.

Instructions

    1

    Break loose the lugs on the front tires using the tire iron, but do not remove them. Raise the front of the truck onto a set of jack stands with the jack, then take the tires off all the way using the tire iron.

    2

    Remove the brake calipers from the front spindle with the 1/2-inch ratchet and socket. Once the caliper is slid off of the rotor, hang it from the front springs using the metal hook. Make sure there is zero tension on the brake lines so they don't get damaged.

    3

    Use the flathead screwdriver to remove the grease cap in the middle of the brake rotor. Then undo the cotter pin that was underneath the cap using the cotter pin puller and a pair of needle-nosed pliers.

    4

    Unscrew the castle nut on the end of the spindle with an open-end wrench, then pull off the nut and the washer behind it. Slide the rotor off of the spindle using your hands, and as you do so, tilt the top half back towards the center of the truck so that you don't drop the bearings out of the center.

How to Replace a Brake Assembly

How to Replace a Brake Assembly

When the brakes are nearly gone and the rotors are equally worn, it is time to replace the entire brake assembly. This project can be accomplished successfully with a socket set and a rubber mallet. Of course, it is imperative to have sockets that match the bolt sizes, whether metric or standard. The front brakes usually differ from the rear brakes; but because the rear brakes are more difficult to replace, those who can do the rear brakes find they have little problem with the front ones.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the car with a jack and set it on jack stands. Remove the lug nuts with a lug nut wrench then pull off the wheel and the lug studs.

    2

    Locate the bolts holding the brake caliper in place. These are usually located on the backside of the caliper. Remove them with a socket and ratchet. Lift the caliper from its mount.

    3

    Check the space into which the caliper slides to be certain it is free of debris. Remove the brake pads along with the brake pad hardware.

    4

    Back out the bolts holding the brake caliper mount in place. Lift the caliper mount free from the car. Remove the retaining screw from the front of the rotor. Tap the rotor with a rubber mallet to free it from the hub. Remove the rotor.

    5

    Clean the surface against which the rotor sits with a putty knife. Slip the new rotor over the hub and insert the retaining screw.

    6

    Reset the caliper with a caliper reset tool so the new brake pads can be installed properly. Put the caliper mount back into place and secure it with the bolts that you removed.

    7

    Match the new brake pads with the old ones for proper installation. Once the new pads are in place, install the caliper onto the caliper mount. Reinstall the lug studs, wheel and lug nuts. Repeat this step for the other wheels.

Rabu, 23 Juni 2010

The Best Way to Bleed Brake Systems

The Best Way to Bleed Brake Systems

Automotive brake systems operate using hydraulic pressure. The lines circulate brake fluid, which operates pistons in the brake assemblies. If air enters this closed system, the brakes will not function correctly. If you perform repairs on brake components that require you to disconnect the brake lines, or if you allow the fluid in the brake master cylinder to fall too low, you will need to bleed the brakes to remove air. Though the location of components will vary depending on the make and model of the vehicle, the basic procedure remains the same.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood and clean the master cylinder and master cylinder cap. Most master cylinders are marked "Brake Fluid Only" and are a metal or plastic container. They are usually located on the driver's side of the engine compartment, near the firewall. Open the cap (you'll probably want to do this with a rag in your hand) and check the fluid level in the master cylinder. If it is below the "Full" mark, add brake fluid as specified by your vehicle's owner's manual. Close the cap.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on all the wheels using your vehicle's lug nut wrench. Raise the car and support all four wheels with a jack stand. Place the jack stands below the lower control arms on the front wheels, and the axle on the rear wheels. Raise the stands until they contact the vehicle, and slowly lower the jack until the weight rests on the jack stands. Finish removing the lug nuts, and take off all the wheels. If you have only a single jack stand, you can bleed one brake assembly at a time, although it will take considerable longer.

    3

    Locate the bleeder valve on the brake caliper, revealed when you remove the wheel. It is a small valve with a nut, usually covered by a rubber dust cap. Once you locate the bleeder valve, attach the tubing by sliding it over the valve and place the other end in a container to catch draining fluid. The tubing makes it easier to direct the flow of the leaking brake fluid.

    4

    Direct an assistant to enter the vehicle and pump the brake pedal until the pedal is hard, and to then keep the pedal depressed. Open the bleeder valve using a wrench and allow the air to escape. Close the valve and direct the assistant to repeat the pumping procedure. Open the valve again, and close it when the air has escaped. Repeat this step until only brake fluid escapes from the valve when you open it. Remove the tubing and replace the dust cap.

    5

    Recheck the master cylinder and add brake fluid if necessary.

    6

    Repeat the procedure on the three other brake assemblies, checking the fluid level in the master cylinder each time.

    7

    Replace the wheels and lug nuts. Raise the car with the jack until you can remove the jack stands, and lower the car. Fully tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

How to Fix Car Brakes That Are Stuck

How to Fix Car Brakes That Are Stuck

Automotive brakes are crucial for the proper functioning of your car. Brakes can become stuck for a number of different reasons, and mechanic bills for brake maintenance can be expensive. A few quick checks of your braking system can help prevent a trip to the mechanic.

Instructions

    1

    Check the cable that attaches the brake pedal to the braking system; it can be accessed on the underside of the car just beneath the brake pedal. Look for anything jamming or blocking the cable line.

    2

    Grip the brake cable by the housing and pull it firmly to the side. This action is sometimes enough to free the cable.

    3

    Check the emergency-brake cable. This cable runs from a handbrake between the front seats or from a foot pedal to the brake underneath the car.

    4

    Grip the emergency brake cable by the housing and pull it firmly to the side. This is sometimes enough to free the emergency brake cable.

    5

    Check the front driver's-side brake drum. Lift the front driver's-side tire off the ground using an automotive jack; remove a the tire with a tire iron to access the brake drum.

    6

    Check the brake drum for movement. If it will not move, strike the brake with a hammer. This will sometimes unstick the brakes.

    7

    Replace the tire and lower the car to the ground.

    8

    Check the front passenger-side brake drum. Lift the front passenger-side tire off the ground using an automotive jack; remove the tire with a tire iron to access the brake drum.

    9

    Check the brake drum for movement. If it will not move, strike the brake with a hammer. This will sometimes unstick the brakes.

    10

    Replace the tire and lower the car to the ground.

    11

    Check both front brake drums for ice. If there is ice, hit the brake drum with a hammer to knock it loose. Run the car's engine to help melt the ice.

Selasa, 22 Juni 2010

How to Do Brakes on a 2002 Nissan Altima

How to Do Brakes on a 2002 Nissan Altima

The 2002 Nissan Altima comes equipped with all wheel disc brakes. Nissan recommends that you inspect the components of the braking system frequently to recognize and service brakes that are in disrepair before they pose a safety risk. When doing routine brake pad replacement, inspect the rotors for scoring and replace them if they are significantly scored or warped. Brake calipers should also be monitored regularly; cracks or other damage to the caliper should be fixed immediately.

Instructions

    1

    Place tire blocks behind the rear wheels of the Altima. Apply the parking brake.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Lift the Altima with a lifting jack and place jack stands under the frame. Lower the vehicle onto the jack stands.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels from the wheel bolts. Remove the caliper slide bolts with 13-mm wrench.

    4

    Pull the caliper from the rotor and caliper bridge, and place it on top of the steering arm. Remove the brake pads from the caliper bridge.

    5

    Remove the caliper bridge bolts with a 15-mm socket and ratchet. Slide the caliper bridge from the rotor.

    6

    Pull the rotor from the wheel bolts. Spray the rotor and steering knuckle with chain lubricant if the rotor is stuck to the wheel bolts.

    7

    Clean the new rotor with brake cleaner and wipe it clean and dry before installing it. Place the new rotor onto the wheel bolts with the top hat section facing outward. (The top hat section is the side of the rotor that has the raised inner ring.)

    8

    Replace the caliper bridge onto the new rotor and screw in the caliper bridge bolts with the socket and ratchet. Place the new brake pads into the caliper bridge, on either side of the rotor.

    9

    Place the caliper over the brake pads and screw in the caliper slide bolts with the 13-mm wrench.

    10

    Place the wheels onto the wheel bolts and screw on the lug nuts.

    11

    Lift the Altima to remove the jack stands, then lower the vehicle to the ground.

    12

    Tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench.

    13

    Lift the hood of the Nissan and remove the cap to the master cylinder. The master cylinder is located on the left side of the vehicle, near the windshield. Apply brake fluid as necessary.

How to Replace Rear Disk Pads on a Ford Focus

How to Replace Rear Disk Pads on a Ford Focus

Rear disk pads on your Ford Focus wear at a much different rate than those on the front. In fact, they wear out much more rapidly than those on the front. If you don't change them in a timely fashion, worn disk pads will ultimately cause damage to your rotor, and are considerably dangerous to drive with. Changing rear disk pads is not as difficult as it may first seem, and in fact, if you know how to change a tire then you're halfway there.

Instructions

    1

    Park the car on a level surface and place the wheel chocks in front of the front wheels.

    2

    Break loose the lugs nuts on the side that you will be working on first using the lug wrench, but do not take them off.

    3

    Jack up the car using the automobile jack and remove the wheel. Place a jack stand under the frame of the car near the jacking point and raise it as close to the frame as you can.

    4

    Detach the parking brake cable from the caliper by releasing the clip.

    5

    Pull the caliper away from the rotor by removing the bolts using the proper size socket and ratchet. The bolts are actually on the back side of the caliper.

    6

    Remove the old disk pads by sliding them out of their notches.

    7

    Push the caliper piston back into the caliper using the caliper piston tool. The fluid in the lines will go back into the master cylinder.

    8

    Place the new disk pads into the notches in the same manner that the old ones were in place.

    9

    Place the caliper assembly back onto the rotor and move so that the bolt holes line up. If the caliper is difficult to put back on, then you must push the piston in more. Never hammer it back into place.

    10

    Install the bottom caliper bolt loosely and then install the top bolt. Tighten both bolts down snugly using the proper size socket and the ratchet.

    11

    Re-attach the parking brake cable to the caliper by clipping it into place.

    12

    Remove the jack stand and re-attach the wheel to the car.

    13

    Lower the car back to the ground and tighten the lug nuts in a star pattern using the lug wrench to ensure that they are all tight.

    14

    Repeat the entire process for the other rear wheel.

How a Parking Brake Works

How a Parking Brake Works

Drum Brakes

    The average drum brakes that are used in the normal operation of the vehicle often double as a parking brake system. Drum brakes are composed of two metal semicircles that sit within the interior hub of a car's wheels. Holding them together is a series of hydraulic pistons. In addition to a regular linkage connecting the drum brakes to the brake pedals, an override linkage is in place. This override linkage is connected to a foot-operated emergency brake pedal or a hand-operated lever parking brake. In either case, by engaging these brakes, the hydraulic pressure is sent through the override linkage in the drums, and the pistons force the edges against the inside of the wheel hubs, immobilizing them.

Disc Brakes

    Disc brakes are another design that is used both for normal operation and as a parking brake. There are three essential parts to this system: the rotor, caliper and brake pads. The rotor is a large metal disc that sits on the axle just behind each of a car's wheels and turns when the wheel turns. Likewise, the wheel stops when the rotor stops. Surrounding each of the rotors is a caliper, a metal armature that sits just far enough away from either side of each rotor to keep from touching. And on each of the calipers' prongs are brake pads. One is stationary, while the other sits on the head of a floating piston. This piston is connected to the hydraulic brakes of the vehicle and pushes forward to grab and hold the rotor in order to stop the vehicle when the brake pedal is depressed. As with drum brakes, there exists an override linkage that, when engaged by means of a pedal or lever, forces the disc brakes to deploy and immobilize the wheels of the vehicle.

Exclusive Parking Brakes

    Exclusive parking brake systems use disc and drum brake technology. For normal braking, discs are used. But for parking brakes, a drum brake is used. Rather than the halves of the drum sitting inside of the wheel hub, they sit against the inside of the rotor. This allows for stronger grip and a failsafe should one type of brake or the other stop functioning suddenly when on the road. Like with a drum brake, the halves of the drum are pushed outward to grab against the inside of the rotor and prevent it from moving when the parking brake is engaged via hydraulic linkage.

How To Replace the Back Brakes on a 1999 Chevy Truck

How To Replace the Back Brakes on a 1999 Chevy Truck

The importance of proper brake maintenance is obvious. If you allow your brakes to wear down far enough, it will damage your 1999 Chevy truck's rotors, leading to costly repairs and possibly leaving you unable to stop the vehicle. The front brakes of a Chevy truck tend to wear out more often than the back brakes, but over time it will become necessary to replace the back brakes, also.

Instructions

    1

    Park your Chevy truck on level, solid pavement.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the wheel you intend to work on using a four-way or tire iron.

    3

    Lift the back end of the truck by placing a floor jack under the rear differential and jacking it up.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts.

    5

    Pull the tire straight forward, remove it and set it aside.

    6

    Remove the bolts on the back of the drum brake assembly using a wrench and a socket. There are four of them.

    7

    Loosen the caliper pins, which are the outer set of bolts on the brake assembly, using a wrench and a ratchet.

    8

    Remove the inner set of bolts from the back of the brake assembly.

    9

    Pull the brake assembly out of the truck.

    10

    Remove the caliper pins from the brake assembly and remove the caliper from the assembly frame.

    11

    Putting a wooden block over the caliper piston, place a C-clamp with one end on the block and the other on the back of the caliper.

    12

    Tighten the clamp until about 1/8 inch of the piston is sticking out of the housing.

    13

    Place the arms of a drum puller around the edge of the rotor and screw the center bolt until it's resting against the axle hub.

    14

    Use a wrench to turn the center bolt about a quarter turn.

    15

    Attempt to pull the drum off of the axle. It may not come off due to rust buildup. If it refuses to slide off, tap around the outer edges of the drum with a hammer and turn the center bolt another quarter turn. Attempt to remove it once again. Repeat this process until the drum slides off.

    16

    Disengage the springs holding the brake shoes in. Needle-nose pliers are ideal for this.

    17

    Disengage the brake shoes from the caliper and pull them out entirely. This can be done by hand.

    18

    Place the new brake shoes where the old ones came from, making sure to connect them to the caliper first. Engage the springs that hold them in.

    19

    Put the new brake drum over the brake assembly and slide it onto the axle.

    20

    Put the brake housing over the rotor and reinsert the bolts. If you did it correctly, there will be a brake pad on both sides of the rotor, with the pad portion of the brake shoes touching the rotor.

    21

    Remove the C-clamp and the block of wood.

    22

    Put the caliper over the brake housing and insert the caliper pins. Make sure to tighten them all the way.

    23

    Slide the tire back on, replace the lug nuts and lower the truck back to the ground. Once you take the truck off the jack, double check to make sure all of the lug nuts are tightened fully.

    24

    Repeat this process on the other wheel.

Senin, 21 Juni 2010

Instructions for Installing Brakes Pads for a 1997 K1500

Brake pads on a 1997 Chevrolet K1500 pickup grab the rotors and bring the truck to a halt whenever you hit the brakes. However, each time this event takes place, the pads wear down ever so slightly. Eventually, the pads will fall below the 3-mm thickness cut off and you'll have to replace them. Installing new brake pads on a 1997 Chevrolet K1500 is an entry level repair job. If you have entry level auto-repair skill, then you can successfully complete this task in a few hours.

Instructions

    1

    Chock one of the K1500s rear wheels, by hand. Turn each of the Chevy front lug nuts, counterclockwise, until you can remove them by hand, but do not remove them.

    2

    Lift the front end, using a jack. Lower the front end onto the two jack stands to support it. Take the K1500 front lug nuts and wheels off the truck by hand.

    3

    Push the drain pan under the K1500 right-front brake rotor. Use the pan to catch the drippings from the brake cleaner you spray onto the rotor and caliper to remove the brake dust.

    4

    Remove the K1500 right-front brake caliper mounting bolts, using a socket set. Pull the caliper up and out of the bracket by hand. Remove the worn brake pads from the caliper, manually.

    5

    Hold the K1500 caliper over the drain pan while you wash the inside with brake cleaner. Put white lithium grease on both caliper slide pins.

    6

    Set the K1500 new brake pads into the caliper by hand. Reposition the caliper in the caliper bracket manually. Reinstall the K1500 caliper mounting bolts with a socket set.

    7

    Scoot over to the K1500 left-fron,t and perform steps three through six on that side. Set both front wheels back on the truck. Tighten down all the front lug nuts by hand.

    8

    Lift the K1500 front off the jack stands with the jack. Move the jack stands away from the truck before lowering it to the ground. Tighten all the K1500 front lug nuts to 140 ft-lbs with the torque wrench.

How to Replace a Caliper in a Hyundai Sonata

Even in a luxury car like the Hyundai Sonata, the quality of the brakes is priceless. Replacing a part like the brake caliper is not an easy task. If you do not have the knowledge and skill to perform this operation correctly, leave it to an expert mechanic.

Instructions

Replacing the Caliper

    1

    Remove the tire and wheel once the vehicle is securely raised on the jack. If you're replacing a rear caliper, release the parking brake and block the opposite tires beforehand.

    2

    Disconnect the brake hose from the caliper and remove the brake pads. Plug the hose with a piece of rubber so dirt won't get into the brake fluid.

    3

    Unscrew and remove the caliper mounting bolts. The caliper should now lift off the rotor or bracket and slide off the pin.

    4

    Install the new caliper onto the mounting. Attach the mounting bolts and torque them between 59 foot pounds and 74 foot pounds.

    5

    Connect the brake pads and the hose to the caliper. Use two new metal gaskets with the hose and torque the union bolt to between 18 foot pounds and 22 foot pounds.

    6

    Bleed the brake system. Because all Sonatas come with anti-lock brakes, this process is more complicated than with other vehicles.

Bleeding the Brake System

    7

    Connect a clear plastic tube to the bleeder plug on the wheel cylinder and insert the tube's other end into a clear plastic bottle half-filled with brake fluid.

    8

    Connect a Hi-Scan Pro device to the data link connector underneath the dash panel. Follow the instructions on the Hi-Scan screen.

    9

    Select the "Hyundai vehicle diagnosis," the vehicle name and the anti-lock brake system. Choose the air bleeding mode, then press "yes" to operate the motor pump and solenoid valve.

    10

    Wait one minute before you begin the air bleeding to avoid damaging the motor. Pump the brake pedal several times, loosen the bleeder screw until fluid starts running out without bubbles and then close the screw.

Tips on Removing Stuck Rotors

Tips on Removing Stuck Rotors

Sometimes removing rotors can be a challenge. Rust and corrosion can cause the rotors to stick to the hub. Rust and corrosion are especially common on older vehicles. Depending on how stuck the rotor is, several techniques might help, some that are simple and others that require professional tools and a lot of time. It's best to start with simpler, cheaper methods.

Rubber Mallet

    A large rubber mallet may already be in your toolkit arsenal, or they can be purchased or borrowed with ease. To remove a stuck motor with a rubber mallet, spray lubricant on the hub and on the backside of the rotor and hit the rotor from the front and backside repeatedly until the rotor comes off. Afterward, scrape away any rust with sandpaper. If the rotor still won't budge after several attempts, move on to another method.

Rotor Puller

    A rotor puller is a specialized piece of equipment many people probably don't have in their tool collection, but it can be rented from most auto parts stores. A generous amount of lubricant should be used on both the hub and rotor along with the rotor puller. This tool has a center bolt that attaches to the hub and three arms to hook onto the back of the rotor. By tightening the center bolt, pressure makes the arms pull the rotor away. Once the rotor has been pulled away, remove any rust with sandpaper.

Considerations

    Park the vehicle on level ground before attempting to pry off the stuck-on rotors. Also, the rotors can be stuck in two different places on the hub and the parking brake shoes. If the rotor moves at all, most likely it is stuck to the parking brake shoes, and a small tool, such as a screwdriver, can help release the rotor from the parking brake shoes. Heat sometimes helps loosen the stuck rotors, so using a blowtorch may do the trick.

Minggu, 20 Juni 2010

How to Adjust 2000 Saturn Rear Drum Brakes

How to Adjust 2000 Saturn Rear Drum Brakes

Year 2000 Saturn vehicles are equipped with self-adjusting rear drum brakes. But if you want to make sure your Saturn's brakes operate to their maximum efficiency, you need to manually adjust the brake shoes from time to time. The self-adjusting mechanism only works when the parking brake is applied after putting the vehicle in park. As you use your brakes, they will wear down a bit, causing a little space between the drum and the brake shoes. If you routinely adjust your rear drum brakes, you will keep the brakes in top condition longer.

Instructions

    1

    Release the parking brake. Put one wooden wedge behind each of the vehicle's front wheels to keep the car from rolling while you work on it.

    2

    Jack up the rear of the car using the floor jack until the wheels are off the ground.

    3

    Slide jack stands under the control arm next to each wheel, then lower the jack a little until the car is sitting firmly on the jack stands.

    4

    Take off the lug nuts using the lug wrench. Remove the wheel, and set it aside out of the way along with the lug nuts.

    5

    Remove the brake drums by twisting them off in a clockwise direction. If they are rusted on, strike with a hammer, twist a quarter-turn, then strike again.

    6

    Find the self-adjuster underneath the wheel cylinder. It is shaped like a star. Spread open the shoes a little by turning the self-adjuster, then slide the drums back onto the shoes. If the drum slides on easily, then you know the brakes are adjusted correctly.

    7

    Return the wheels to the car, and tighten the lug nuts hand-tight. Using the floor jack, lift up the car, and slide the jack stands out of the way. Lower the car to the ground. Engage the parking brake. The parking brake handle should only move a maximum of six clicks.

    8

    Retighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench, and remove the wooden wedges from behind the tires.

What If Air Is in a Brake Line?

The brake system of a modern motor vehicle is composed of many components including the brake lines. The brake lines are made up of a series of tubes, pipes and hoses that contain the brake fluid. Air in the brake lines can have an adverse affect on the brake systems ability to stop the car. Under normal conditions air cannot gain access to the brake lines. Air in the brake lines is usually the result of a leak in the brake line or during repairs on the brake system.

Signs of Air in the Brake Line

    The driver often senses that the brake pedal is spongy when pressed if there is air in the brake lines. When the brake pedal is press a piston moves in a cylinder forcing brake fluid from the master cylinder through the brake lines to the brake calipers. While brake fluid will not compress, air does. If there is air in the brake line the air compresses delaying the brake fluid's movement to the calipers.

Bleeding the Brake Line

    Each wheel cylinder and the master cylinder include a bleeder screw. Loosen the bleeder screw and have someone press on the brake pedal until brake fluid is forced from the bleeder screw.

When to Bleed the Brake Line

    Brake lines are routinely bled after any maintenance work on the brake system. Brake lines are also bled anytime air in the brake lines is suspected.

Flushing Brake Lines

    Brakes systems are flushed if the brake fluid is suspected of being dirty or having broken down due to heat. During the flushing process the existing brake fluid is drained from the system and replaced with fresh. The air is bled from the brake system after the new brake fluid is in place.

Brake Lines

    Brake lines are made of steel tubes and reinforced hoses. The reinforced rubber hoses are used where movement of the line is possible such near the wheels where the suspension of the vehicle can cause the body to ride up and down in relation to the wheels. All repairs to the brake line should be made with non-corrosive components designed for brake lines.

How to Repair My 1999 Toyota Corolla's Leaking Brake Line

Inspecting the brake lines and hoses on the Toyota Corolla should be part of your regular maintenance routine. Leaking lines and hoses will result in loss of brake fluid and the brakes will not work properly. You need to check that the fittings are tight periodically, that that there are no holes or kinks in the hoses and lines that will restrict the flow of brake fluid to the wheel cylinders. If you find any damage at all, you need to replace the line right away.

Instructions

    1

    Place a set of wheel chocks behind the rear wheels if the leak is in the front or in front of the front wheels if the leak is in the rear. Lift the Corolla on the side that you need to work with using the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the vehicle and raise it to the frame. Loosen the lug nuts using the lug wrench and take the wheel from the Corolla.

    2

    Check the brake line in question. If it is leaking around the fitting, try tightening the fitting with a wrench. If it is leaking in the line itself, you need to replace it. Place the drain pan under the brake line and loosen the fitting with the wrench. Allow the fluid to drain. When it is done, move the drain pan to the other end of the line and loosen the fitting with the wrench.

    3

    Pull the brake line from the mounting clips and remove it from under the Corolla. Put the new brake line into the mounting clips and then tighten both fittings using the wrench. Add fresh brake fluid to the master cylinder. Install the wheel on the Corolla and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the Toyota.

    4

    Lower the Corolla to the ground. Bleed the brakes by having a helper to pump and hold the brakes while you open the bleeder valve with a wrench to expel the air from the lines. Continue this process until all of the air is gone from the brake lines. Add more brake fluid to the master cylinder if necessary.

Sabtu, 19 Juni 2010

How to Adjust the Rear Disc Brakes

How to Adjust the Rear Disc Brakes

Rear disc brakes have replaced drum braking systems because they provide faster braking response and they outlast drum brakes. Also, disc brakes are self-adjusting unlike the old drum brakes that had to be manually adjusted. But even though cars with rear disc brakes are self-adjusting, the brakes still benefit from an adjustment periodically, especially right after you've had the brake pads replaced. This will help the brake pads stick to the rotors correctly. You can also adjust your brakes if they feel mushy and you want them firmer.

Instructions

    1

    Start the car and put it in reverse.

    2

    Accelerate the car slowly then press down on the brakes gently.

    3

    Repeat Step 2 four times or until the brake pedal is higher and feels firm to your foot.

    4

    Drive the car forward and bring it up to a speed of 40 miles per hour. Slow down the car by pressing on the brakes until the car is going about 10 MPH.

    5

    Repeat Step 4 three more times. Do not bring the car to a complete stop during this process.

    6

    Stop the vehicle and put it in park.

How to Adjust Rear Parking Brakes

How to Adjust Rear Parking Brakes

Parking brakes are designed to stop a vehicle from moving when in a stationary position. Continual use of the brake can cause it to become worn or in need of an adjustment. The parking brake is an important component to ensure safe travel when in your vehicle and should be regularly monitored. If an adjustment or replacement is required then this must be carried out immediately before any future travel in the vehicle is undertaken.

Instructions

    1

    Place your vehicle on a sloping road and employ the parking brake. Determine how long it takes for your brake to engage. Once two thirds of the way engaged, the vehicle should come to a complete stop. If the brake was not completely engaged before it was fully pressed, it will require an adjustment.

    2

    Raise your vehicle on a car lift and locate the parking brake underneath the car.

    3

    Use a wrench to adjust the parking break. This can be done by tightening the lug nut which holds the brake cable in place.

    4

    Test the vehicle's parking brake again on a sloping road. Take note of the point which the brake engages once it has been pressed.

    5

    If the parking brake is still incorrect, repeat the process until the desired result is obtained. Be sure not to make the brake too tight as this will result in it always being engaged.

Jumat, 18 Juni 2010

How to Remove Mazda MPV Drum Brakes

How to Remove Mazda MPV Drum Brakes

Introduced in 1989 as a rear-wheel drive minivan, the Mazda MPV featured front disc brakes and rear drum brakes. By 1999, the minivan was available in four-wheel and front-wheel drive and featured rear disc or rear drum brakes. While removing the rear drum brakes is much easier than replacing them, the front disc brakes will require more frequent servicing. This is because the front disc brakes provide 75 percent braking capacity for the Mazda MPV.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the wheel nuts of the rear tires with the lug wrench by turning them counterclockwise 1/4 turn.

    2

    Raise the rear of the Mazda MPV and safely support it on jack stands.

    3

    Remove the wheel nuts and then remove the wheels.

    4

    Use the impact screwdriver and a hammer to remove the drum retaining screw. Remove the drum. If the drum is stuck to the hub, give it a sharp strike on the flat base of the drum to shock it free.

    5

    Pull back on the adjusting cable to disengage the adjusting lever from the adjusting screw. Move the outboard side of the adjusting screw up and then back off the pivot nut.

    6

    Pull the adjusting lever, cable and adjuster spring down toward the rear to unhook the pivot hook from the hole in the secondary shoe plate.

    7

    Remove the adjuster spring and lever. Use a pair of needle nose pliers to help if necessary.

    8

    Remove the secondary shoe retaining spring using the needle nose pliers. Remove the primary shoe retaining spring in the same fashion and then unhook the cable anchor. Remove the anchor pin plate if applicable.

    9

    Remove the guide of the parking brake cable from the secondary shoe.

    10

    Use the brake hold-down spring tool while pressing on the hold-down pin with a finger. Turn the tool to align the notch in the spring cup to the slotted end of the pin. Remove the spring assembly, the brake shoe and then pull the hold-down pin out from the back of the backing plate. Repeat this step for the other shoe.

    11

    Remove the adjusting screw, pivot nut and socket.

    12

    Remove the parking brake link and spring using the pliers. Disconnect the parking brake cable from the parking brake lever.

    13

    Remove the retaining clip and spring washer from the secondary shoe. Use the slotted screwdriver to spread the clip apart and then remove the parking brake lever from the shoe plate.

Selasa, 15 Juni 2010

Replacing a 1997 Civic Caliper

Since its release in 1973, the Honda Civic has become one of the most economical and long-lasting vehicles on the road. The 1997 Civic came in five trim levels and three body styles ranging from its stripped-down and affordable CX hatchback model to its decked-out EX coupe and sedan. All versions of the 1997 Civic came standard with a front disc, rear drum brake configuration, but you could get optional rear discs in place of the drum on higher trim levels. When replacing a caliper on the 1997 Civic, you must bleed the system after installing the new caliper.

Instructions

Front Calipers

    1

    Wedge wheel chocks under the rear of the rear tires. Loosen the front lug nuts with a ratchet and socket. Raise the front of the Civic with a floor jack and slide jack stands under the vehicles subframe. Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels from the front of the vehicle.

    2

    Slide a drain pan under the caliper.

    3

    Wrap a clean, lint-free cloth around the brake hose, near the bottom. Pinch the line shut by clamping a pair of locking pliers onto the area wrapped by the clean, lint-free cloth.

    4

    Remove the banjo bolt securing the brake hose to the caliper, using a ratchet and socket. Remove one brass washer from the banjo bolt, pull the banjo bolt from the end of the brake hose and remove the second brass washer. Discard both brass washers.

    5

    Unfasten the caliper bolts with a ratchet and socket while holding the slide pins steady with a combination wrench, and pull the caliper from its bracket.

    6

    Set a new caliper on the caliper bracket and hand-thread its bolts. Tighten the caliper bolts to 36 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket while holding the slide pins steady with a combination wrench.

    7

    Slide a new copper washer two washers come with the new caliper onto the banjo bolt, then insert the banjo bolt through the hole in the middle of the brake hose-to-caliper fitting. Slide the second brass washer onto the banjo bolt. Hand-thread the banjo bolt into the caliper, then tighten it to 25 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    8

    Unlock and remove the locking pliers from the brake hose, and pull the clean, lint-free cloth from the hose.

    9

    Repeat steps 2 through 8 to replace the caliper on the other side of the Honda, if needed. After installing the calipers, move to "Bleeding the Brakes."

Rear Calipers

    10

    Loosen the rear lug nuts with a ratchet and socket. Raise the rear of the Civic with a floor jack, then slide jack stands under the cars rear cross-member. Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels from the rear hubs.

    11

    Look on the rear of the brake caliper and find where the parking brake cable attaches to the arm on the caliper. Grip the arm with a set of locking pliers and pivot it away from the caliper to relieve the tension in the parking brake cable, then pull the parking brake cable from the arm it just rests in a groove on the arm.

    12

    Guide the parking brake arm back to its resting position carefully and release the locking pliers.

    13

    Remove the bolt securing the parking brake cable bracket to the caliper, using a ratchet and socket, and pull the bracket from the caliper.

    14

    Follow steps 2 through 8 in the section titled Front Caliper, tightening the rear caliper bolts to 17 foot-pounds.

    15

    Position the parking brake bracket in place on the new caliper and hand-thread its retaining bolt. Tighten the bracket bolt with a ratchet and socket.

    16

    Pivot the parking brake arm away from the new caliper with locking pliers until you can guide the fitting on the end of the parking brake cable onto the arm and seat it in the groove in the arm. Allow the arm to pivot back into its resting position slowly, then release the locking pliers.

    17

    Repeat steps 2 through 7 to replace the caliper on the other side of the Civic, if needed.

    18

    Proceed to the section titled Bleeding the Brakes.

Bleeding the Brakes

    19

    Raise the side of the vehicle currently still on the ground with a floor jack. Slide a set of jack stands under the subframe if lifting the front, or the rear cross-member if lifting the rear. Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels off the vehicle.

    20

    Unscrew the cap from the brake master cylinder and add DOT 3 brake fluid until the level reaches the Max line on the master cylinder reservoir.

    21

    Crawl under the vehicle, so you are just behind the left-front wheel. Find the bleeder valve the 1/4-inch metal valve on the rear of the caliper. Press a 1/4-inch diameter rubber hose onto the bleeder valve and set the free end of the hose in a clean, clear container.

    22

    Fill the clean, clear container with fresh DOT 3 brake fluid until the fluid submerges the end of the hose.

    23

    Instruct your assistant to press and release the brake pedal until it feels firm, or 10 to 15 strokes, whichever comes first. Tell your assistant to hold the brake pedal to the floor. Turn the bleeder valve a half-turn with a combination wrench and check for bubbles to come from the end of the hose in the clean, clear container. Tighten the bleeder valve, then instruct your assistant to release the brake pedal. Repeat this step until no air bubbles come from the rubber hose.

    24

    Refill the master cylinder to the Max line with fresh DOT 3 brake fluid.

    25

    Repeat steps 3 through 6 to bleed the remaining three wheels in the following order: right-front, right-rear, then left-rear. If you only replace front or rear calipers, keep in mind that those replaced calipers will take longer to bleed.

    26

    Reinstall the wheels on the vehicles hubs and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the front of the Civic off the jack stands with floor jack, then lower the front of the vehicle to the ground. Raise the rear of the Civic of the jack stands and remove the stands. Lower the Honda to the ground.

    27

    Tighten the lug nuts, in a crisscross pattern, to 80 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    28

    Take any old brake fluid to a nearby used automotive fluid recycling center. Some auto parts stores take old brake fluid without charging you.

How to Replace the Disc Brake Pads on a 2003 Honda CR-V

How to Replace the Disc Brake Pads on a 2003 Honda CR-V

You can replace the disc brake pads on your 2003 Honda CR-V right from your home garage, saving time and money. The CR-V is equipped with disc brake pads on the front of the vehicle. It accounts for nearly 75 percent of the vehicle's braking power. The pads wear down over time and must be replaced to ensure proper braking. Set aside at least an hour or more to complete the job. Purchase all the parts and tools you need from your local auto parts retailer.

Instructions

    1

    Pop the hood and locate the master cylinder. You can find out where it is located by consulting the vehicle's owner's manual. Remove the lid and remove half of the brake fluid by using a suction baster. Discard the fluid.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts a half turn on the front left wheel using a lug nut wrench. Raise the front left side of the vehicle with a jack and lower it onto a jack stand.

    3

    Put wheel chocks in front of each rear wheel. Lift the front of the vehicle using the jack and position the jack stands underneath the frame, next to each front wheel. Lower the vehicle onto the stands.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts on the left wheel. Remove the wheel and set it aside.

    5

    Take off the bolt on the lower caliper using a ratchet and socket. Rotate the front caliper down and away from the brake pads.

    6

    Put the caliper piston compression tool in the housing of the caliper. Put the caliper piston in an inward direction by tightening the drive screw. Do this until the caliper piston is situated snugly inside the caliper bore.

    7

    Pull off the two brake pads from the caliper support plates using your hands and discard.

    8

    Smear brake pad grease on the outside pad plates and on the tabs on the outside of the new brake pads. Put the new brake pads into the caliper support plates.

    9

    Reassemble everything in reverse. Tighten the lower caliper bolts to 25-foot pounds by using the torque wrench.

    10

    Put the wheel back on and tighten the lug nuts.

    11

    Repeat steps 4 through 9 for the other side.

    12

    Raise the vehicle with the jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the vehicle to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts to 80-foot pounds of torque by using the ratchet and socket.

    13

    Pop up the hood and replace the brake fluid. Pump the brake pedal to seat the pads until it goes halfway down to the floor. Top off the brake fluid one more time and put the cap back into place. Lower the hood. Remove the wheel chocks and take the car for a test drive.

How to Repair the Brakes on a 94 Toyota Celica

How to Repair the Brakes on a 94 Toyota Celica

The 1994 Toyota Celica is available in four trim levels: ST coupe, ST liftback, GT coupe and GT liftback. All four trim levels come fitted with front disc brakes and semi-metallic brake pads. Over time, typically every 25,000 to 35,000 miles, the front brake pads need to be replaced. Towing and heavy cargo can lead to accelerated pad wear. Replacing the front brake pads on the 1994 Celica is a relatively easy task that requires only basic hand tools.

Instructions

    1

    Open the Celica's hood and remove the lid from the master cylinder reservoir, the plastic container on the drivers side of the firewall. Remove about half of the fluid in the reservoir, using a turkey baster, and put it in a clean container.

    2

    Loosen the front lug nuts slightly, with a ratchet and socket, do not remove them at this time. Place the floor jack under the Celica and raise it front wheels from the ground. Place the jack stands under the Celica's sub-frame and slowly lower the floor jack until the stands are holing the vehicle up. Resume loosening the lug nuts and pull the wheels from the vehicle.

    3

    Look on the rear of the brake caliper and locate the caliper bolts. Notice these bolts go through the caliper and into a sleeve. Place a combination wrench on the lower sleeve to hold it and remove the lower caliper bolt with a ratchet and socket. Place a combination wrench on the upper sleeve and loosen, but do not remove, the upper bolt with a ratchet and socket.

    4

    Pivot the caliper up, using the upper bolt as the pivot point. Attach the caliper to a nearby suspension component to hold it out of the way.

    5

    Remove the brake pad anti-squeal clips, the pair of thin-wire clips on top of the brake pads, by lightly squeezing the clips and pulling them upward.

    6

    Grab both brake pads and pull them from the brake assembly.

    7

    Place the old inner brake pad over the caliper piston, the hollow cylinder inside the brake caliper, an place an 8-inch C-clamp over the caliper so the screw portion is touching the brake pad and the fixed side touches the rear of the caliper. Tighten the C-clamp until the brake pad stops moving, then loosen and remove the C-clamp.

    8

    Place the new brake pads on to the brake assembly just as the old ones sat prior to removal. Make certain the wear indicator -- the curved metal clip -- is positioned at the top of the pad. Place the anti-squeal clips back on the top of the pads by inserting one side of each clip into the hole on the top of one pad, then squeeze the clips and insert the other ends into the hole on the opposite pad.

    9

    Remove the caliper from the bungee strap and pivot it down and over the brake pads. Tighten the upper and lower caliper bolts to 25 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench, socket and a combination wrench.

    10

    Repeat steps 2 through 8 for the brakes on the other side of the Celica.

    11

    Place the front wheels on the Celica and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the vehicle from the jack stands, with the floor jack, remove the jack stands and slowly lower the car the the ground.

    12

    Tighten the lug nuts, in a crossing-pattern, to 80 foot-pounds, using the torque wrench and a socket.

    13

    Press and release the brake pedal repeatedly until it feels firm.

    14

    Check the fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir, it must be between the "Min" and "Max" lines on the reservoir. Add fluid from the container until the level is between the two marks. If any fluid remains in the container, dispose of it properly.

    15

    Close the Celica's hood.

How to Rebuild a Wheel Cylinder

How to Rebuild a Wheel Cylinder

Rebuilding the wheel cylinders in your vehicle's drum brake system will repair leaks, and restore the system to near-factory performance. The key to successfully performing this repair project is to identify the type of wheel cylinder you have on your vehicle. Aluminum wheel cylinders can not be honed like a cast iron or steel wheel cylinder without damage to the protective anodizing in the cylinder bore. This does not mean aluminum cylinders can't be rebuilt, only that special precautions must be taken. Any wheel cylinder with excessive corrosion should be replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Lift and support the vehicle with the floor jack and jack stands. Remove the wheels from the axles that are to have the wheel cylinders rebuilt, and place them out of the work area to avoid tripping hazards.

    2

    Remove the brake drums from the rest of the brake system. Sometimes the drum will be stuck due to rust buildup around the axle. A few sharp blows, with a hammer, around the edge of the drum will break it free of the rust.

    3

    Remove the two return springs that hold the brake shoes tight against the wheel cylinder with a brake spring tool. Slide the brake shoes out of the way. The return springs are the long springs connecting the brake shoe to the pivot pin located above the wheel cylinder on the backing plate.

    4

    Remove the dust boots, pistons, cup seals and spring from the inside of the wheel cylinder. New dust boots and cup seals are supplied with all wheel cylinder kits, and some kits supply a new inner spring as well.

    5

    Hone the inside of the wheel cylinder with a wheel cylinder hone, attached to an electric drill, if the cylinder is made of cast iron or steel. Aluminum wheel cylinders should never be honed. Aluminum wheel cylinders have a hard, protective, anodized surface inside to prevent corrosion. Honing will remove this surface and cause excessive corrosion and wear. Instead, clean the inside of the aluminum cylinder with soapy water and a green scotch-brite pad to remove debris that collects in the cylinder bore.

    6

    Clean and dry the wheel cylinder with soapy water to remove residue from honing. Coat the inside of the wheel cylinder bore and the rubber cup seals with a liberal amount of clean brake fluid. Insert the spring into the bore of the wheel cylinder. Install one cup seal, and one piston, in each end of the cylinder bore. Install the wheel cylinder dust boots onto the wheel cylinder.

    7

    Reposition the brake shoes, and reinstall the return springs with a brake spring tool. Avoid using pliers, side cutters or a screwdriver to reinstall the return springs. Damage to the spring and painful injury could result.

    8

    Reinstall the brake drum. Bleed the brakes according to the manufacturer's bleeding sequence located in the service manual. Reinstall the wheel, and lower the vehicle back onto the ground. Pump the brake pedal a few times, and test drive to verify the repair.

Senin, 14 Juni 2010

How to Replace the Rear Brakes on a 2001 Ford Ranger

The 2001 Ford Ranger has four-wheel disc brakes, in contrast to previous years when the Ranger was equipped with rear drum brakes. The rear disc brakes steady the Ranger as it comes to a stop, keeping the back wheels in line with the front wheels. Because the front brakes perform more of the vehicle's braking, the back brakes wear out in half the time as the front. A 2001 Ford Ranger owner with basic auto repair experience can replace the rear brakes in about two hours.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Ranger on a level surface and turn off its ignition. Place the wheel chocks against one of the front tires to keep the Ranger from rolling. Loosen Ranger's back lug nuts using the lug wrench, counterclockwise, but do not take them off.

    2

    Raise the Ranger's rear end with the floor jack. Set the jack stands under the rear axle and lower the Ranger onto the jack stands. Remove the rear lug nuts and wheels to expose the Ranger's back brakes.

    3

    Position a drain pan under the Ranger's left, rear brake assembly. Spray the Ranger's rotor, caliper and hub thoroughly with brake cleaner to rinse off the brake dust.

    4

    Remove the Ranger's left, rear caliper bolts with the socket set. Pull the caliper out of the Ranger's left, rear caliper bracket. Remove the Ranger's old brake pads by hand and throw them away.

    5

    Clean the inside of the Ranger's caliper with brake cleaner. Apply a substantial layer of white lithium grease on the Ranger's caliper slide pins.

    6

    Install the new rear brake pads by hand. Place the Ranger's left, rear caliper back into the caliper bracket. Bolt the caliper in with the socket set.

    7

    Move to the 2001 Ford Ranger's right, rear end and repeat Steps 3 through 6. Reinstall the Ranger's rear wheels and lug nuts by hand.

    8

    Lower the Ranger's rear end off the jack stands with the floor jack. Tighten the rear lug nuts to 100 foot-pounds with the torque wrench. Move the wheel chocks away from the Ranger's front wheel before driving.

How to Replace Rear Disc Brakes in a Ford Focus

To replace the rear disc brakes on a Ford Focus you need to purchase special tools from the dealership to retract the piston. Unlike many vehicles, you can't use a C-clamp or needle nose pliers, as it will damage the piston. The tools you need are Rear Caliper Piston Adjuster 206-010 and Adapter 206-026. After you get the tools, read further to learn how to replace your rear disc brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the Focus off the ground with a car jack and secure it on all sides to prevent it from falling over. Loosen the lug nuts with a torque wrench and remove the wheels.

    2

    Separate the brake caliper from the parking brake cable. Make the brake hose connection loose and separate the brake caliper from the brake anchor plate. Take off the brake caliper and slip out the brake pads.

    3

    Retract the brake piston using the special tools purchased from the Ford dealership. You will need the Rear Caliper Piston Adjuster 206-010 and Adapter 206-026.

    4

    Replace the brake pads with the new ones. Lay the caliper over the top of the brake pads and secure the bolts using a torque wrench. Tighten the bolts to 26 ft. lb.

    5

    Fasten the brake cable to the brake caliper. Replace the wheels and lower the Focus to the ground. Bleed the brakes if necessary.

Minggu, 13 Juni 2010

How to Change the Brake Pads on a Renault Clio 2

The Renault Clio 2 is a French automobile. The brake system uses a caliper and piston design for maximum clamping force. Over time, the friction material in the brake linings wears down. This is normal because the lining rubs against the brake rotors and causes friction. This friction is what slows the car down. When the pad material gets to be 1/8 inches thick, you need to replace the brake pads. The pad depth should be checked every six months.

Instructions

    1

    Break the lug nuts loose on the axle/wheel you will be working on. Turn the lugs 40 degrees counterclockwise with a tire wrench.

    2

    Raise the vehicle onto jack stands. Lift up on the front or rear jack points (depending on the side of the vehicle you are working on) that are located behind the radiator or behind the trunk, respectively.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheel off the wheel hub.

    4

    Place the C-clamp over the caliper assembly. Place the screw end of the clamp over the back of the outboard brake pad and the other end of the clamp over the back of the caliper.

    5

    Tighten the clamp to force the caliper piston into the caliper.

    6

    Remove the clamp from the caliper assembly when the piston bottoms out inside the caliper (when you can no longer tighten the clamp).

    7

    Remove the upper and lower caliper mounting bolts that secure the caliper to the wheel hub assembly.

    8

    Slide the caliper off the rotor and remove the brake pads. They should come right out.

    9

    Insert new brake pads and put the brake caliper back together on the rotor and wheel hub assembly. Place a dab of thread locker onto the threads of the caliper mounting bolts.

    10

    Spray the brake assembly down with brake parts cleaner.

    11

    Put the wheel back on and lower the Renault to the ground.

Sabtu, 12 Juni 2010

How to Change Super Duty Brakes

How to Change Super Duty Brakes

The brakes on any automobile are very important, but few brakes are subjected to as much as the brakes in many Ford trucks. The Ford Super Duty is known as an industry work horse; a truck that can haul, carry or tow heavy loads in order to aid its owner in any of the task he may need to accomplish. On top of this, the truck itself boasts an incredibly powerful engine and is quite heavy, making the need for powerful, well-maintained brakes even greater.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the front end of the Super Duty using a truck jack and two jack stands.

    2

    Remove all of the lug nuts on one of the front wheels with a tire iron.

    3

    Pull the wheel off of the Super Duty and set it aside for the time being.

    4

    Remove the two 14 mm bolts behind the brake caliper using a socket and wrench.

    5

    Lift up the brake caliper and remove the two brake pads inside. If it is hard to remove the pads with your hand, you can pry them out with a flat head screwdriver.

    6

    Use a c-clamp to push the piston back until it is flush with the rest of the caliper.

    7

    Place the new brake pads into the caliper and place the caliper back over the brake rotor.

    8

    Tighten the two 14mm screws behind the caliper to secure it back onto the rotor.

    9

    Place the wheel back onto the Super Duty and secure it in place with the tire iron and lug nuts.

    10

    Repeat this process for the other front wheel.

    11

    Lower the front end of the truck and remove the jack stands, then raise the back end of the truck with the truck jack and secure it in place with two jack stands.

    12

    Repeat Steps 2 through 9 for both of the back wheels.

    13

    Lower the back end of the truck and remove both jack stands.

    14

    Check the brake fluid level in the brake fluid reservoir and top it off if necessary.

Jumat, 11 Juni 2010

How to Change Brake Pads in a Honda Accord 1996

How to Change Brake Pads in a Honda Accord 1996

Replacing the brake pads on the 1996 Honda Accord is a necessary repair after normal wear and tear conditions (generally between 20,000 and 35,000 miles, on average). The 1996 Accord features front wheel disc brakes and may offer either rear disc or rear drum brakes. While replacing the pads on either axle is quite similar, the front pads work up to 75 percent of the braking capacity and will require more frequent replacement.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Accord on a level and hard surface and then apply the parking brake (only if replacing front brake pads; the parking brake applied will prevent the rear calipers from being removed to replace the rear brake pads).

    2

    Open the hood and use a clean brake fluid siphon device to remove half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder. Dispose of the fluid according to EPA regulations in your town or state. Replace the cap to the master cylinder.

    3

    Break the wheel nuts loose on the axle you're intending to change the brake pads by turning them 1/4 turn counter-clockwise with a lug nut wrench.

    4

    Hoist the vehicle with a jack and place jack stands under the front or rear frame rails, respectively. Finish removing the wheel nuts and then remove the wheels.

    5

    Remove the lower caliper bolt with a metric box wrench and then pry the caliper up and away from the pads, bracket and rotor assembly, using the small pry bar. Support the caliper on the suspension chassis, using a length of rope or bungee cord to retain it.

    6

    Squeeze the caliper piston inward using a 12-inch pair of channel locks, or a 4-inch C-clamp.

    7

    Remove the pads from the caliper bracket. If necessary, use the small pry bar to unseat them from the bracket.

    8

    Gently pry the pad retainers from the bracket. (In the event the replacement pads kit does not come equipped with replacement retainers, you'll need to reuse them.) Clean the top surface of the retainers with a wire brush to remove the rust, brake dust and any other visible corrosives.

    9

    Replace the retainers (or install the new ones, if applicable) and then apply a light coat of anti-seize compound to the contact points of the retainers, where the tabs of the pads sit.

    10

    Install the new pads into the caliper bracket. Be sure to apply the stick-on shims first, if so equipped (some replacement pads come with staked on shims). Insert the pads into the brackets, so that the wear sensors (if equipped) are located at the top of the pad(s).

    11

    Release the caliper from the length of rope or bungee cord, and then align it over the pads and rotor assembly. Replace the lower caliper bolt and tighten it with the box wrench. Repeat the pad replacement procedure for the other side of the same axle.

    12

    Replace the wheels and the wheel nuts. Tighten the wheel nuts so that they are firm against the wheel hub, and then use the jack to lift the Accord high enough to extract the jack stands (one side at a time); then lower the vehicle slowly to the ground.

    13

    Use the torque wrench and socket to tighten the lug nuts in an alternate, crisscross pattern, to 80-foot pounds.

    14

    Pump the foot brake pedal inside the car until it feels firm. Recheck the fluid in the master cylinder and add only new and clean brake fluid to the reservoir to top it off to the full level.

Kamis, 10 Juni 2010

How to Replace Auto Rear Drum Brakes

In most cases, replacing brake shoes and drums will correct problems with rear drum brake systems. Since your safety and the safety of passengers in your vehicle depend on a reliable brake system, you should not attempt to replace brakes until you are certain of your ability to do so. Familiarize yourself with brake parts and repair tools before attempting to remove the brakes from your car. Drum brake systems can vary by manufacturer and vehicle type. Consult the owner's manual for your vehicle regarding its brake system.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle on a flat surface. Use a car jack to lift the vehicle's rear tires from the ground. Ensure your personal safety by using jack stands to secure the vehicle on both sides.

    2

    Remove the rear tire. Use a tire iron to remove the lug nuts. Pull the tire off the vehicle to expose the brake system.

    3

    Prepare your work area. Lay out a light-colored sheet or drop cloth or clear an area of workspace on a bench or other surface. Place all parts on this work surface as they are removed from the vehicle. You will also need to place an old sheet or drop cloth under the rear of the vehicle. If you plan to detach the brake line, be aware that brake fluid will leak out onto the surrounding area. Keep several rags handy for cleaning parts, wiping hands and cleaning up leaks or spills.

    4

    Remove the brake drum by pulling it towards you. In most cases, the drum should come off with minimal difficulty. If you have trouble getting it off, you may need to use a brake drum puller. This tool is available from most automotive stores. Inspect the brake drum for damage or signs of wear.

    5

    Use needle-nose pliers or a brake spring removal tool to remove the brake springs located on either side of the brake shoes. Visually inspect both brake springs for damage. Place undamaged springs side by side on your work surface if you plan to reuse them.

    6

    Remove the retainer clips with a socket wrench or brake shoe removal tool. Press down on the retainer clip and turn it in a counterclockwise motion until it comes off. Remove the retainer clip springs. Visually inspect the retainer clips and retainer clip springs before placing them on your prepared work surface.

    7

    Remove and inspect the brake shoes. Brake shoes that show visible signs of wear should be replaced. Remove any remaining hardware at this time. Depending on the make and model of your vehicle, there may be additional small parts to remove. Take note of where these are located in order to ensure they are replaced correctly during reassembly.

    8

    Use a line wrench to remove the brake line from behind the wheel cylinder. Locate the nut that attaches the brake line to the cylinder. Use an adjustable wrench to turn the nut until it comes loose, freeing the brake line.

    9

    Locate the mounting bolts on the wheel cylinder. Use the adjustable wrench to loosen the bolts. Remove the wheel cylinder and inspect it for leaks or damage.

    10

    Use rags to clean the brake shoe backing plate before reassembling the brake system. Reassemble the brake system by replacing the wheel cylinder and reattaching the brake line. Tighten the nut holding the brake line firmly to prevent potential brake failure. Replace other parts of the brake system in the reverse order of removal.. Ensure that each part is in proper working condition prior to reinstalling it. Bleed the brake system before driving the vehicle.

Rabu, 09 Juni 2010

How to Replace Volvo XC90 Front Brake Pads

Replacing the front brake pads on your Volvo XC90 is done much as on any other car. There are some subtle differences, but if you have some mechanical skills, you can save some money on expensive labor charges and replace the pads yourself. A quality aftermarket set of pads bought from a reputable auto parts store should also carry the same lifetime warranty as any installation center.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Volvo XC90 on a level paved surface. Apply the parking brake, release the hood latch, and place a wheel chock behind one of the rear tires. Open the hood and suck out half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir using the turkey baster and discard. Replace the master cylinder cover securely.

    2

    Break the lug studs loose on the front tires with the breaking bar and a socket.

    3

    Lift the front of the XC90 with the floor jack and place the jack stands under the front frame rails. Remove the lug studs and wheels.

    4

    Remove the retaining spring on the left front caliper by prying it off with the screwdriver. Be careful not to bend it or damage it because you will need to replace it.

    5

    Remove the caliper bolt protective caps. Use the 3/8-inch drive ratchet and the 7-mm hex head socket to remove the caliper bolts.

    6

    Pry the caliper off of the pads and rotor with the screwdriver and secure the caliper to the frame or coil spring with the bungee cord so it is not hanging from the brake hose. Compress the piston of the caliper inward using the C-clamp. Compress it slowly until it bottoms out.

    7

    Remove the old pads. Pry them out with the screwdriver if you need to. Use the stiff bristled wire brush to clean the surface of the caliper anchor where the backing plate of the pads contact it. Apply a liberal coat of silicone brake lubricant to the cleaned area using an acid brush to prevent getting the lubricant on the surface of the rotor.

    8

    Place the shims on the pads if not already affixed. The shims will be in the box with the new pads. Install the new pads into the caliper anchor.

    9

    Replace the caliper over the pads and rotor. Apply a liberal coat of brake lubricant to the caliper bolts and insert and tighten them. Replace the protective caps and the retaining spring. Replace the wheel and lug studs. Tighten the lug studs snug.

    10

    Repeat Steps 4 through 9 on the right side.

    11

    Lower the Volvo XC90 and torque the lug studs with the adjustable torque wrench (set at 90 to 95 foot pounds) and a socket.

    12

    Pump the foot brake pedal several times to restore the hydraulic pressure back to the caliper pistons. Check and adjust the level of the brake fluid in the master cylinder only adding new DOT approved brake fluid specified for your Volvo XC90. Secure the master cylinder lid, close the hood. Remove the wheel chock, release the parking brake and test drive.

What Is Brake Servo?

A brake servo, also known as a brake booster, is a device that intensifies the force applied to the brake pedal in a motor vehicle. Brake servo units were developed in the 1960s when the switch from drum brakes -- which naturally reinforce themselves -- to disc brakes made them necessary.

Negative Pressure

    In vehicles with an Otto engine -- that is, a four-stroke internal combustion engine -- negative pressure in the intake pipe is often sufficient to operate the brake servo. In all other engine types, a vacuum pump is required to create negative pressure.

Construction

    Essentially, a pneumatic brake servo consists of two chambers separated by a movable diaphragm. While the engine of a vehicle is running, negative pressure is directed through a one-way valve into both chambers and, provided the brake is not applied, the chambers are connected by channels.

Braking

    When the brake is applied, a connecting rod closes the connection between the two chambers. According to the force with which the brake pedal is pressed, the pressure in one chamber relative to the other intensifies the braking force.

Selasa, 08 Juni 2010

How to Replace a Caliper in a Cadillac Escalade

Given that the Cadillac Escalade is popular among the high-class soccer mom crowd, very few owners likely know how to fix and replace parts like the brake calipers. A trained mechanic should do this if possible. If you do choose to replace your Escalade's calipers, study everything you can about the brake parts first and make sure you know what you're doing.

Instructions

Remove the Old Caliper

    1

    Cut off the vehicle's power for safety. Disconnect the cable from the negative battery terminal.

    2

    Drain two thirds of the brake fluid from the master cylinder. Discard the old fluid and have fresh fluid ready for later.

    3

    Remove the tire and wheel assembly once the car is raised and stable. Mark where the wheel and wheel stud should reconnect. Secure the rotor to the hub with two wheel nuts.

    4

    Compress the caliper piston with a C-clamp or the equivalent. Make sure the piston bottoms in the bore.

    5

    Disconnect the brake hose from the caliper by removing the inlet fitting bolt. Plug the hose and holes in the caliper.

    6

    Take out the caliper, first by removing the mounting bolts. You should then pivot the caliper assembly up so it clears the rotor and slide it inboard off the pin sleeve.

Install the New Caliper

    7

    Install the new caliper body assembly. Holding it in the position of the old one, work the pin boot's large end into the caliper body groove, push the assembly onto the pin and move it into position.

    8

    Attach the mounting bolts back onto the caliper. On the 15 series Escalade, tighten the guide pin bolts to 31 foot pounds. Tighten them to 80 foot pounds on the 25 series model.

    9

    Connect the brake hose at the caliper by installing the inlet fitting bolt. Tighten the bolt to 33 foot pounds.

    10

    Bleed the brake system to remove air from within. Open the bleeder valve and press down on the brake pedal.

    11

    Reattach the tire and wheel assembly. Refill the brake master cylinder with fresh fluid. Reconnect the battery cable to the negative terminal.

How to Fix Spongy Brakes

Spongy brakes are when the pedal has a mushy feel to it that seems to go away after pressing it multiple times at once but comes back after laying off the pedal. This is a big problem when getting the vehicle to stop. Spongy brakes are a result of air getting into the brake system, which can happen from leaks in the lines, too little fluid in the system or the replacement of a part like a caliper that opened up a brake line. More than anything, you need to purge the air from the brake system with what is known as "bleeding the brakes."

Instructions

    1

    Raise at least one end of the vehicle on jack stands and remove the wheels so that you can access the brakes.

    2

    Attach a clear rubber tube to the bleeder valve located on the brake caliper. Place the other end of the hose into a container partially filled with brake fluid.

    3

    Turn the bleeder screw on the caliper to open the bleeder valve, and have another person press down on the brake pedal from inside the vehicle. This is called "bleeding" the brakes, which purges air from the system. Continue applying the pedal repeatedly until only fluid cleanly comes out the tube.

    4

    Repeat the process with the other brakes. Replace the wheels after the brakes on one end have been bled, then lower that end and switch to the other end of the vehicle.

    5

    Top off the master cylinder with fresh brake fluid after all the brakes have been bled.

Senin, 07 Juni 2010

How to Change the Brake Pads on a 2003 Honda Civic

When your Civic starts to make a screeching, metal-on-metal sound when you brake, it is time to change your brake pads. Letting your pads go without changing them when they start to make noise can be very dangerous, both to you, your passengers, and other drivers and pedestrians. Changing brake pads can be a straightforward job, and if you do it yourself, you can save a lot of money on mechanic costs.

Instructions

    1

    Turn the Civic off, and engage the emergency brake. Jack the front of the vehicle up with the floor jack, and place the jack stands under the chassis on both sides. Lower the car onto the jack stands. Place wheel blocks around the rear wheels.

    2

    Take off the lug nuts that hold the tire in place with the lug wrench. Remove the tire, and put it to the side. Use the 12-mm socket and the ratchet to remove the two bolts on the back of the caliper that hold it place. Pull the caliper off the rotor, and let it rest on top of the rotor. Do not let it hang from the brake line. Spray the rotors with the brake cleaner.

    3

    Remove the old brake pads from the caliper bracket that is still on the rotor with a slotted screwdriver. Place the screwdriver between the brake pad and the caliper, and pry it out; it should come out with only a little effort.

    4

    Place one of the old brake pads against the piston that is in the caliper. Position the C-clamp so that one side is on the brake pad and the other side is on the back of the caliper. Apply pressure to the piston with the C-clamp, and push it back into the caliper. Push the piston all the way into the caliper. Remove the C-clamp and the old brake pad.

    5

    Place the new brake pads in the caliper bracket where the old brake pads used to be. Place the caliper back over the caliper bracket, and secure it into place with the two 12-mm bolts on the back of the caliper. Replace the tire, and tighten the lug nuts.

    6

    Move to the other side of the vehicle, and perform the steps to replace the brake pads on that side. Raise the Civic up off of the jack stands and remove them. Lower the vehicle back down to the ground. Remove the wheel blocks.

How to Replace the Rear Drum Brakes on a 2001 Ford Taurus

How to Replace the Rear Drum Brakes on a 2001 Ford Taurus

Drum brakes work by pushing a pair of pads or "shoes" outwards, against the inside of a drum attached to the wheel hub. This creates friction to slow the wheel. The drum brakes on your 2001 Ford Taurus are more complicated than the front disc brakes, but also wear out more slowly. You should inspect the rear brakes in your Taurus every 30,000 miles and replace the shoes if necessary. Replacement pads can be purchased at most auto-parts stores.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the rear lug nuts and lift the vehicle with a jack. Lower it securely onto a jack stand and remove the wheel and brake drum. The lift point is on the part of the frame rail that curves outwards ahead of the rear tire. Your Taurus owner's manual has a diagram.

    2

    Pry the cover from the center of the hub with a flat-head screwdriver. Remove the nut underneath and slide the hub assembly off the spindle.

    3

    Twist the two pins that retain the hold-down springs 90 degrees to release the springs. Remove the springs and pins. There is a hold down spring in the center of each shoe.

    4

    Pry the shoes apart at the top and pull them outwards, disconnecting them from the cylinder. The parking brake lever attaches to the top of the rear shoe with a pin and C-clip. Pry the clip out and remove the lever. Pull the shoes, adjuster and spring out as a single unit.

    5

    Twist the star-edged nut in the center of the adjuster until the adjuster is as short as possible. Remove the two springs, noting how they attach. Slide the shoes out of the adjuster, leaving it in place on the floor. It is important not to attach either end of it upside down. A lever is attached to the front shoe. Tilt and remove it.

    6

    Install the lever on the front shoe and slide both shoes into the adjuster. Attach the lower spring, then use needle-nose pliers to attach the upper spring. Place the assembly in the brake housing and reattach the parking brake lever. Seat the tops of the shoes on the brake cylinder and install the hold-down clips, ensuring that their pins sit in the grooves. Twist the adjuster star until the shoes are almost to where the drum will sit.

    7

    Install the hub and hub nut, torquing to 188 to 254 ft-lbs. Push the cover into place. Spray down the entire brake assembly with brake cleaner, following the instructions on the can. Install the brake drum and wheel. Hand-tighten the lug nuts and lower the car. Tighten the lug nuts fully. Repeat on the other side.

    8

    Make several low-speed stops in forward and reverse to allow the brakes to self-adjust. Once the brakes feel normal, it is safe to drive on the road.

Jumat, 04 Juni 2010

My Brakes Squeal After Changing the Brake Pads in a Ford Ranger

The Ford Ranger has been around since 1983; and since that time, its solid reliability record and affordable price have made it a popular small pickup. As with all vehicles, when work is done on the brake system, the components may take some time to adjust to each other. One obvious symptom that is sometimes apparent is break squeal after a pad change. While irritating, this problem is usually not critical. Knowing the possible causes of brake squeal can help in addressing this issue and quieting the brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Allow the new pads time to wear in. Hard ceramic pads will take more time than soft organic fiber pads, but normally 300 to 400 miles of city driving should give the pads and discs time to break in. This distance could be double if only the pads were changed and not the discs. Once this process is complete, the squeal should be reduced or eliminated.

    2

    Add soft shims on the backs of the pads. These will dampen pad vibrations and reduce noise. If the newly installed pads were inexpensive, then they probably did not come with shims, and even if shims were included, they are likely not the best quality. Purchase proper noise dampening shims from your local auto parts store and install them. Sometimes applying anti-seize compound to the back of the brake pad where it contacts the piston will also help to reduce squeal.

    3

    Disassemble the brakes and double-check all components. Be sure the slider pins are well lubricated and that the caliper moves freely. A partially seized caliper can cause squealing. Check the piston surface and be sure it is evenly contacting the back of the brake pad. Check the surface of the brake pads for any dust or other contamination, and check the surface of the discs for scoring or other damage. Clean and replace parts as necessary.

    4

    Remove the brake pads and have the lining edges chamfered at a reputable brake shop. Chamfering the edges has been shown to reduce brake noise, especially with harder pad materials.

Rabu, 02 Juni 2010

What Are Brake Pads?

Brake pads are the part of the automotive brake system that provide friction, and are designed to wear out instead of more expensive parts like rotors. Located in the disc brake system between the caliper and rotor, the brake pad has to be of a composition that has a good coefficient of friction characteristic. The brake pad has to provide friction, but be hard enough to have an acceptable service life.

Coefficient of friction

    Friction is defined as a resistance to relative motion. Co-efficient of friction is defined as a particular surface's resistance to relative motion when in contact with another surface. For example, a block of rubber on a sheet of glass resists motion better than the same weight of ice on the same glass surface. This means that the block of rubber has a higher coefficient of friction than the block of ice. The type of friction we use in the brake system is called kinetic friction. This type of friction changes kinetic energy from the moving vehicle into heat energy. The brake pad has to have a high enough coefficient of friction to convert the energy of the moving vehicle into heat, and be tough enough not to be destroyed under the high heat generated by the brake system.

Organic Pad Composition

    The first type of brake pads used on passenger cars and trucks was of organic composition. Organic pads are made up of particles of organic material like carbon black, graphite and asbestos. These pads featured quiet operation and tended to be larger than today's semi-metallic pads. The larger size allowed the pads to operate at a lower temperature than today's pads due to brake fade that can occur at a relatively low temperature in this composition.

Semi-Metallic Pad Composition

    Beginning in the early '80s, brake systems began to be downsized by the engineers in an effort to lower un-sprung weight. Un-sprung weight is the weight in the vehicle that isn't supported by the suspension. It includes some suspension parts, the wheel and tire assembly, and the brake system.

    As the brake system became smaller, it also began to operate at elevated temperatures. The organic pad could not operate at these temperatures, and a suitable replacement compound had to be found. The answer was semi-metallic pads. The pad is made up of carbon black, and bronze, as well as other man-made fibers, held together in a resin. It last longer and resists fade due to its higher operating temperature.

Synthetic Pad Composition

    Late model synthetic pads are made up of man made particles like fiberglass, Kevlar and ceramic. These pads feature smooth quiet operation, reduced brake fade, reduced dusting and extreme heat tolerance. The downside to these pad compounds is that they do not perform well at low temperatures, and are inefficient until heated up after the first few stops.

    A common misconception is that they do not create brake dust. They do create dust, but less of it. The dust they do create is a light gray color instead of the familiar black dust from semi-metallic pads.

Summary

    The brake pad is the functional part of the brake system that gives us the stopping power we need, while having a good service life and fade resistance.