Senin, 31 Mei 2010

How to Adjust the Parking Brake Cable on a Ford F350

How to Adjust the Parking Brake Cable on a Ford F350

You can adjust the parking brake cable on your Ford F350 truck in your home garage using a few tools purchased from your local auto parts store. Adjusting the parking brake cable involves removing the slack in the cable.

Instructions

    1

    Push the emergency brake pedal as far as you can to the floor.

    2

    Put wheel chocks behind the front wheels of the truck. Position the floor jack at the rear of the vehicle and raise it high enough to slide the jack stands underneath the truck next to the rear wheels. Lower the vehicle onto the jack stands.

    3

    Locate the cable rod underneath the truck in the middle. Look for the parking brake cables emanating from each of the rear wheels and running toward the cable rod.

    4

    Locate the equalizer nut on the cable rod. Tighten it with your pliers by rotating it six revolutions.

    5

    Set the cable tension gauge to 350 pounds, and attach it to the rear tension cable.

    6

    Press on the parking brake to release it. Ensure the rear wheels spin forward and backward easily.

    7

    Adjust the equalizer nut, using the pliers, to 0.38 mm clearance if there is drag when you spin the rear wheels.

    8

    Raise the truck with the jack, remove the jack stands, and lower the vehicle to the ground. Remove the wheel chocks.

What Is a Slave Cylinder?

What Is a Slave Cylinder?

Slave cylinders are vitally important parts of hydraulic and pneumatic actuation and control systems. They are used in every industry and field of human endeavor including industrial, domestic, transportation, aerospace, medicine and recreation. As the name implies, slave cylinders act to lengthen or shorten themselves in response to an actuation pressure command coming from another device, called the master device of the system. There can be any number of slave cylinders in a system, although it is customary that there is usually only one master. There can be more either acting in parallel or in series.

Automotive Brakes

    By far, the most common use of the slave cylinder concept is in automotive braking systems. Ironically, in this application, they are not customarily called slave cylinders, as they are usually referred to as wheel cylinders for drum brake integrations and caliper cylinders in disc brake employments.

Automotive Background

    The first hydraulic braking systems in automobiles had one master hydraulic cylinder connected to a brake pedal. This was connected in parallel to four individual slave wheel cylinders, one at each wheel. Each wheel slave cylinder was configured with two pistons facing each other, with the pressure tap entering in the space between them. When the brake pedal was depressed, the master cylinder would be displaced negatively, and fluid forced into the brake lines that were connected to all four wheel cylinders. This pressure was applied to both pistons in each cylinder, forcing them out and away from each other, spreading the brake shoes to contact the brake drums to stop the car.

Modern Automotive

    Vast improvements have been made to automotive brake systems such as dual master cylinders, diagonal braking, and anti-lock braking incorporating speed sensors at each wheel.

Other Uses

    Many slave cylinder applications are in conjunction with a master cylinder located some distance away from them, on large machines, for example. In these applications, hydraulics can substantially reduce mechanical complexity and cost. If it is desired that whenever one part of the machine moves, that another should move with it, a master cylinder can be actuated by the first action, and the slave directly connected to exactly reproduce the action of the first.

Mechanical Gain

    An automotive bottle jack is a great example of multiplying force to a system by using a slave cylinder. There is a very small master cylinder attached to the jack handle, and another much larger one actually lifting the heavy load. Each time the handle is jacked, the large cylinder moves a much smaller distance, but with a proportionately much greater force. Thus, a relatively small person can eventually lift a heavy vehicle.

Troubleshooting ABS Brakes

Abs break pads and rotors

    First things first, you may have been told to replace your break pads every year but you didn't listen. Now your hearing a "metal scrapping metal" sound every time you hit the breaks. That's your rotor scarping against the metal break disc because your break pad wore through. Go change you break pads and have your mechanic double check that your rotor is isn't damaged.

Check your break fluid

    Are you hearing a squeaking when you hit the breaks? does your stop on a dime ABS breaks now stop in about a foot or so? You probably need break fluid. You should check your break fluid every time you check your oil, it's that important for your safety.

Check for damage underneath the vehicle

    One of the benefits of anti lock breaks is the speed sensor that predicts when the wheels will lock up and prevents it. However the gap between the tone wheel and the speed sensor is an area where foreign objects can get stuck and damage communication between the speed sensor and the breaks.

Clean the ABS computer

    If your experiencing the ABS light coming on for no particular reason this could be a malfunction of the computer. Pop up the hood and pull out your vehicle's manual to locate the ABS computer. Look over the wires around the computer for any dirt, disconnections, kinks or exposed wires. You local auto parts store should sell cleaner specifically for ABS computers.

Minggu, 30 Mei 2010

How to Replace the Brake Pads on a 1965 F350

How to Replace the Brake Pads on a 1965 F350

The ability to stop a vehicle that is moving at a high speed is not something that should be compromised. For this reason, it's important to change the brake pads in your 1965 F350 if they begin to show serious signs of wear and tear. When the brakes become less responsive or if you begin to hear squeaking noises every time your vehicle brakes, there's a good chance that it's time to change the pads.

Instructions

    1

    Slide the floor jack underneath the vehicle to jack one side up. Engage it and lift the vehicle off the ground, so that you can work on the brakes.

    2

    Set jack stands in place on each side of the car so that the vehicle is sturdy in case the jack malfunctions or is accidentally kicked away. It's very dangerous to rely on the jack alone. Use the jack stands for your own safety and for the safety of the vehicle.

    3

    Loosen and remove the lug nuts on the tire, using the tire wrench. Set the nuts aside, as you'll need them later. Pull the wheel off the vehicle -- this allows you to operate on the brakes.

    4

    Take note of the assembly of the brake: You'll notice two brake pads attached to the brake itself by a rectangular mechanism. This mechanism is the caliper. It's connected with some bolts. Use your other wrench to loosen and remove these bolts. Set the bolts aside and gently slide the caliper away from the brake, so that you can look inside of it to inspect the brake pads.

    5

    Check the degree of wear on the pads. A surefire way to find out if the pads are worn down is to check if the screws are exposed. The pads are held in place by a bolt. You'll need to remove this bolt to take the brake pads off and replace them with new ones.

    6

    Unscrew the bolt and set it aside with the other components. Be sure to separate the bolts you place aside, or that you can clearly tell the difference between them. Remove the brake pads.

    7

    Install the new brake pads by bolting them to the caliper in the reverse order in which you disassembled the old pads.

    8

    Slide the caliper back onto the brake and re-assemble the bolts. Place the wheel back into the wheel well and tighten it in back into place by re-assembling the lug nuts.

    9

    Remove the jack stands and carefully lower your car back to the ground. Clean your work area.

How to Install a Rear Brake on a 1998 Mercury Tracer

The 1998 Mercury Tracer has four-wheel disc brakes that include brake caliper, rotors and pads. When you hit the brakes, the caliper contracts on the rotor, forcing the pads to grab the rotor and stop it from turning. The rotor, mounted on the axle hub, spins with the wheel and axle, so when you stop it from spinning you also stop the wheel, the axle and the Tracer. If you possess rudimentary automotive-repair skills, you can install rear brakes on a 1998 Mercury Tracer in about two hours.

Instructions

    1

    Turn the rear lug nuts counterclockwise with the lug wrench to loosen them. Set the wheel chocks at the front and rear of the left-front tire to hold the Tracer in place.

    2

    Lift the Tracer's rear end with the floor jack and support it on two jack stands, placed under the rear jack points, just in front of the rear wheel wells.

    3

    Remove the rear lug nuts and wheels manually to expose the brakes. Set the wheels and lug nuts aside.

    4

    Place the drop pan under the left-rear brake assembly. Wash off the brake dust with your brake cleaner spray. Make sure to remove it all, as brake dust is a hazardous carcinogen that can cause long-term health issues if you breathe it in.

    5

    Unbolt the left-rear caliper with your socket set. Pick the caliper up and out of the caliper bracket. Pull the old brake pads out of the caliper manually.

    6

    Wash the inside of the caliper with brake cleaner, paying special attention to the pistons and slides. Lubricate the slides with white lithium grease.

    7

    Force the pistons to retract with the caliper tool. Insert the new brake pads manually. Slide the caliper back into the caliper bracket and bolt it in place with your socket set.

    8

    Repeat steps 4 through 7 on the other side. Put the wheels and lug nuts back on by hand.

    9

    Lower the Tracer off the jack stands with the floor jack. Turn the rear lug nuts clockwise with a torque wrench set at 85 foot-pounds. Remove the wheel chocks by the front tire before driving.

How to Remove the Rear Drums on a 1988 GMC 2500 Truck

The rear brakes on a 1988 GMC 2500 pickup are drum brakes, which consist of brake pads, brake cylinders and the drums themselves. Over time, the lining of the drum can wear down, causing vibrations when braking and eventually brake failure. To fix the problem, you will need to remove the rear drums from the axle and replace them, or take them to a professional to be relined.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the rear of the truck using the jack and place jack stands underneath the axle. Lower the truck onto the stands so that the rear wheels are off the ground. Remove the lug nuts with the tire iron and take the rear wheels off the axle.

    2

    Spray the wheel studs and the perimeter of the brake drum with the spray penetrating oil.

    3

    Locate the adjusting bolt on the backside of the brake drum. Loosen the nut using an open-end wrench. Slide the brake drum off the axle shaft using both hands.

How to Bleed the ABS Hydraulic Unit on a 1995 Honda Accord

Honda complemented its existing compact Civic with the mid-size Accord in the 1976 model year. In 1994, Honda redesigned the Accord for the fifth time in its lifespan. This time, however, the redesign was drastic, as it gave the Accord a smoother ride, improved handling and better aerodynamics. The 1995 Accord had optional antilock brakes in its LX trim line and standard ABS in the EX trim level. The Accords ABS system used a hydraulic unit, which Honda dubbed the ABS modulator unit, to control the fluid pressure to each wheel. Air in this modulator can create havoc in the Accords ABS, but bleeding the system at the first sign of problems can prevent any potentially disastrous failures.

Instructions

    1

    Find the antilock brake system modulator unit on the drivers side of the firewall. Pull the rubber cap from the bleeder valve, the 1/4-inch metal valve, on the top of the unit. Slide a six-point box-end wrench on the bleeder valve and press a 1/4-inch inside diameter clear vinyl hose onto the valve.

    2

    Guide the free end of the vinyl hose into a clear container.

    3

    Hold the container and hose with one hand and turn the box-end wrench one-eighth to one-quarter of a turn clockwise to start the flow of brake fluid into the container.

    4

    Tighten the bleeder valve once the flow of brake fluid stops.

    5

    Instruct an assistant to start the engine, and allow the engine to idle for about one minute. Tell the assistant to turn off the engine.

    6

    Repeat steps 3 through 5 until no more fluid comes from the vinyl hose. You may need to repeat the steps three or four times to drain all of the fluid.

    7

    Unscrew the cap from the brake fluid reservoir and fill the reservoir to the Max line with fresh DOT 3 brake fluid. Slowly pour the fluid to avoid bubbles forming in the reservoir.

    8

    Repeat steps 3 through 5 two additional times, then top off the brake fluid reservoir with fresh DOT 3 brake fluid.

    9

    Turn the box-end wrench one-eighth to one-quarter of a turn, and tell your assistant to start the engine. Listen as the ABS modulators pump starts once the engine is running.

    10

    Close the bleeder valve once a smooth stream of fluid flows from the vinyl hose. Leave the engine idling until you hear the modulators pump shut off, then turn off the engine. If the ABS light turns on during this process, shut off the engine and repeat steps 9 and 10.

    11

    Check the fluid level in the brake fluid reservoir and top it off as needed. Press the rubber cap back onto the bleeder valve.

Sabtu, 29 Mei 2010

How to Bleed the Brakes on a 1999 Dodge Dakota

How to Bleed the Brakes on a 1999 Dodge Dakota

Bleeding the brakes on a 1999 Dodge Dakota removes the air from the brake lines. Air in the brake lines can cause the brakes to fail completely. Performing this task should take no more than 1 to 1.5 hours, even if you have never done this before. You can purchase the tools necessary to complete this job at an auto parts store and at some retail stores.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the front of the vehicle and set it on two jack stands. Remove the front wheels from the vehicle.

    2

    Locate the bleeder screw on the back of the front caliper. Instruct your assistant to pump the brakes up. If you cannot get a solid pedal, just let the brake pedal come back up.

    3

    Open the bleeder screw one-half to one turn counterclockwise. Instruct your assistant to push the brake pedal down slowly and to inform you when the brake pedal is to the floor.

    4

    Close the bleeder screw immediately when the brake pedal hits the floor. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 until you have no more air exiting the brake lines in the front of your truck.

    5

    Repeat this entire process for the rear of the vehicle. The bleeder screws will be located on the back of the drum brake assemblies on either side of the truck. Open the bleeders. Tell your assistant to push the pedal to the floor. Close the bleeder. Repeat until no more air comes out of the lines.

    6

    Top off the brake fluid reservoir after bleeding the rear brakes. Make sure you do not leave the brake fluid reservoir low or your will introduce air pockets back into the brake lines.

Jumat, 28 Mei 2010

How to Install Brake Pads on 95 Dodge Spirit

How to Install Brake Pads on 95 Dodge Spirit

The Dodge Spirit was introduced in 1989. The 1995 Dodge Spirit was only offered in one trim base level, but had two different engine options. A 2.5-liter, in-line four-cylinder engine was standard in the 1995 Spirit; an optional 3.0-liter V-6 was available, and offered 41 more horsepower than the four-cylinder variant. The brake pads on the 1995 Spirit are held in place by the brake caliper. When you press the brake pedal, the pads are compressed against the rotor, which causes the friction to allow you to stop the car.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the front wheel lug nuts with a tire iron. Raise the front of the Spirit with the floor jack. Place jack stands beneath the front frame rails, on either side of the engine. Remove the lug nuts from the front of the car, then remove the wheels.

    2

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts from the inboard side of one caliper, using a ratchet and socket. Remove the anti-rattle spring from the outboard side of the caliper. Remove the caliper, using a small pry bar. The outboard brake pad will remain on the caliper-mounting bracket, while the inboard pad stays in the caliper. Leave the inboard brake pad in the caliper for the next step.

    3

    Wrap a 4-inch or larger C-clamp around the inboard brake pad and the caliper. Turn the C-clamp slowly to retract the caliper piston completely into the caliper. Remove the inboard brake pad, using the small pry bar, if necessary. Hang the caliper from the front coil spring with a metal clothes hanger or thin metal rod.

    4

    Remove the caliper guide pins from the rear of the caliper, by hand. Dip each guide pin directly into a tub of caliper grease, then reinsert the pins into the caliper. Use your finger to apply a thin layer of grease to the edges of the caliper bracket, in order to help the new brake pads slide easier.

    5

    Inspect the brake rotor for corrosion and pitting. If the rotor has pits or grooves in it, the rotor will need to be machined or replaced. Measure the thickness of the entire rotor with a tape measure. If the rotor is less than 7/8-inches in thickness, the rotor needs to be replaced.

    6

    Install the new outboard brake pad onto the brake caliper bracket, against the rotor. Place a light coating of caliper grease on the metal backing plate of the outboard brake pad. Lightly coat the inboard brake pad with caliper grease. Insert the inboard pad into the brake caliper, with the clips facing the caliper piston. Push the pad into the caliper until the clips snap into place.

    7

    Install the caliper onto the brake assembly, and tighten the bolts to between 27 and 34 foot-pounds. Use a 1/2-inch drive torque wrench and socket to tighten the caliper-mounting bolts. Install the metal anti-rattle spring into the holes provided on the outboard face of the caliper.

    8

    Repeat Steps 2 through 7 to complete the pad replacement on the second side of the Spirit. Double-check the torque on all of the caliper-mounting bolts on both sides when you are finished.

    9

    Install the front wheels back onto the Spirit, and snug the lug nuts with a tire iron. Raise the car off the jack stands, then remove the jack stands from beneath the car. Lower the car to the ground, and immediately tighten the lug nuts to 95 foot-pounds of torque, using the torque wrench and a socket. Proceed to the driver's seat of the car, and pump the brake pedal slowly 10 to 15 times. If the pedal does not stiffen up or become harder to push after you pump it five times, stop pumping and bleed the front brakes.

How to Replace Front Brake Pads on a Saturn L200

Change the brakes on your Saturn vehicle about every 60,000 miles. The Saturn L200 uses brake calipers on all wheels, but only the front brakes use standard brake pads. Still, there are a few differences in changing a Saturn's brake pads than there are with other vehicles, particularly with how the inner side brakes are attached.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the cap from the master cylinder and check the fluid level; siphon out some fluid with an unused turkey baster if the fluid is at the maximum level. Raise the vehicle's front end on jack stands and remove both front wheels. The following steps apply for each brake assembly, which you should work on one at a time.

    2

    Compress the caliper piston into its bore with a C-clamp. Watch out for fluid overflowing from the master cylinder. Wash off the brake assembly with brake cleaner.

    3

    Pry off the anti-rattle clip from the caliper with a flat-head screwdriver. Remove the covers to the guide pin bolts and remove the bolts; this should take a hex wrench. Remove the caliper and hang it from the coil spring with strong wire; don't hang it by the brake hose.

    4

    Remove the inner brake pad from within the caliper piston and the outer pad from the caliper's mounting bracket. Insert the new inner brake pad into the piston by squeezing the clip on the backing plate, and install the new outer pad into the bracket.

    5

    Position the caliper back onto the mounting bracket. Clean off the guide pin bolts with the brake cleaner, and lightly apply a high-temperature brake grease to them before installing them and replacing their covers. Put the anti-rattle clip in place.

    6

    Connect the wheels and lower the vehicle once you've changed the brakes on both sides. Press the brake pedal multiple times to seat the pads and check the brake fluid level in the master cylinder.

How to Troubleshoot the Brakes on a Corvette

How to Troubleshoot the Brakes on a Corvette

If your Corvette's brakes are not working properly, then you could put yourself and other drivers in serious danger. The brakes on your Corvette use a combination of vacuum pressure and hydraulic fluid to stop the vehicle. A brake booster is needed to help provide additional stopping power to the basic hydraulic system. While all of the components on the Corvette's braking system are designed to work (theoretically indefinitely), nothing is actually capable of working forever without maintenance or replacement. But, before you replace any brake parts, troubleshoot the problem with your Corvette brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Start your engine. Press and hold the brake pedal. If the brake pedal slowly loses back pressure and sinks to the floor, then you have a leak in the system.

    2

    Check all areas underneath your Corvette for any fluid that has an "olive oil" color to it. This is brake fluid, unless you dumped olive oil on the ground under your Corvette. Trace the leak back to either a failed brake line or slave cylinder at the wheels. If there is no leak, the problem may be an internal leak in your master cylinder. The reason you are not seeing any fluid is because the fluid is blowing by the internal seals, causing a slow loss in brake pressure.

    3

    Check the pedal effort. The Corvette uses a power brake booster instead of a hydro booster to apply additional braking power. When the booster has failed, brake pedal effort will be increased dramatically. You will have incredible difficulty slowing your Corvette down and will need to apply a lot of effort to the brakes. When this happens, you need to replace the brake booster.

    4

    Check for any feedback or vibration in the steering wheel while braking. This indicates that your brake rotors and pads need to be changed. Confirm this by looking at the rotor surface. If the rotor surface (which are easy to see on the Corvette because of the large wheels) is scored, corroded, or pitted, or if the brake pad material is less than 1/8-inch thick, replace the brake pads and rotors.

    5

    Check your dash for the ABS light. If the ABS light comes on, there may be a problem with the ABS system. Confirm this by pulling down on the fuse panel cover with your fingers, pulling the fuse for the ABS system using the fuse pullers in the fuse panel, and checking to make sure that the ABS fuse isn't blown. If it is blown, replace the fuse. If it isn't, then you need to have your ABS system serviced by a mechanic.

Clogged Brake Lines

Clogged Brake Lines

Clogs in break lines can eventually let pressure build up in your vehicle's caliper, so they're hazards to your and your vehicle. If you have a clog, you need a procedure called a brake line repair. You can do a brake line repair yourself if you're accustomed to working with vehicles, but if you're a novice, it might be a good idea to have a professional do the job.

Find the Clog

    You need to find the clog first to determine which brake line to work on. You will need to hoist the car, so you can easily see all the brake lines. It may be necessary also to remove the tires from your vehicle, so you have access to all the brake lines.

    If it's obvious immediately to you where the clog is, you just can remove the line that is clogged from the master cylinder. If it's not obvious, you can take each brake line off, one by one, and put some compressed air through the line. If the airflow is constricted, you have a clog.

Brake Line Repair

    Once you've removed the clogged brake line from the master cylinder, attach a new line in its place. Once it's securely attached, pump your car's brake pedal to get air back into the system.

Bleed the Brakes

    You need to "bleed" the brakes before you begin driving again, according to Cars Direct. To bleed the brakes, locate your car's bleeder valves (this information should be in your owner's manual). Loosen those valves with a box wrench.

    Remove the master cylinder reservoir and suck out as much liquid as possible with an object like a turkey baster. Once you've removed as much liquid as possible, you can use a clean rag to wipe out any residue.

    Get a length of clear plastic tubing and push one end of the tube over the brake bleeder bolt at the right rear of the car. Put the other end of the tubing into a waste bucket or bottle with 1 or 2 inches of clean brake fluid in it. Top off the master cylinder reservoir with fresh fluid and put the cover back on.

    With someone applying pressure to the brake pedal, turn the bleed valve a little bit, until some fluid trickles into the waste bucket. When the trickling stops, close the valve and remove the pressure from the brake pedal.

    You need to repeat this process until clear brake fluid comes out and then repeat on all sides of your car's brake system.

Kamis, 27 Mei 2010

How to Replace the Front Brakes on a Pontiac Sunfire

How to Replace the Front Brakes on a Pontiac Sunfire

Replacing front brakes on a Pontiac Sunfire will occur more often than replacing the rear brakes. The front-wheel drive version of the Sunfire integrates front disc brakes and rear drum brakes. The front disc brakes compensate for 75 percent of the braking power for the vehicle. Because the front brakes work harder, the pads wear down more quickly than the rear brake shoes.

Instructions

    1

    Move the car to a hard, flat surface, apply the parking brake then remove 2/3 of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using a brake fluid siphon.

    2

    Loosen the front wheel lug nuts with a tire iron prior to lifting the vehicle. Only loosen them 1/4 turn so you don't damage the lug studs.

    3

    Lift the Sunfire with the vehicle jack and then support the car on jack stands. Place them under the front frame rails. Do not use the vehicle jack as a support for the car. Finish removing the wheel lug nuts and then remove the wheels.

    4

    Place the C-clamp of the caliper so the top of the clamp is braced against the inboard housing of the caliper and the driving bore of the clamp is braced against the backing plate of the outboard pad. Tighten the C-clamp to compress the caliper piston until it's fully seated in the piston bore. The outboard pad uses metal wing clips that attach to the caliper and will most likely bend; but since you're replacing them, this will not be an issue.

    5

    Use the 3/8-inch hex head male socket and a ratchet to remove the two caliper mounting bolts and sleeves.

    6

    Remove the caliper and then hang it on a metal hook to the front coil spring suspension. This will help prevent damage from occurring to the rubber brake hose attached to the caliper.

    7

    Remove the outboard pad from the caliper first and then unclip the inboard pad from the caliper piston.

    8

    Remove the rotor from the hub bearing flange (if replacing). Use a hammer to break the rotor free from the hub bearing flange if it's stuck to the hub due to rust. Spray the replacement rotor with brake cleaner spray and then wipe it dry with a shop rag before placing it back onto the hub bearing.

    9

    Install the inboard replacement pad into the caliper piston bore first and then clip the outboard pad to the caliper housing.

    10

    Use anti-seize to lubricate the edges of the caliper mount on the wheel knuckle where the caliper contacts and then lubricate the caliper sleeves and sleeve bores in the caliper.

    11

    Replace the caliper over the new rotor and then align the sleeves and mounting bolts into the caliper sleeve bores and tighten using the ratchet and 3/8-inch hex head male socket.

    12

    Replace the opposite side brake pads (and rotor) applying the same procedure.

    13

    Replace the wheels and lug nuts and tighten them snugly with the wheels suspended. Lower the Sunfire and then re-tighten the lug nuts with the torque wrench set at 100 foot-pounds.

    14

    Pump the foot brake pedal several times until it feels firm. Check the master cylinder and add new DOT 3 brake fluid to top it off. Release the parking brake and test-drive the Sunfire.

How to Remove a Saturn Ion Rear Brake Drum

How to Remove a Saturn Ion Rear Brake Drum

There are a couple of scenarios that can make removing the rear brake drum on a Saturn Ion slightly confounding. The Ion's drum is not a bearing-held assembly that's bolted to the rear spindle; it's called a "knock-off" drum, and despite this nickname, it's often stuck to the rear mating joint of the axle. The shoes underneath the drum can also hang up the drum. The idea, of course, is to remove the drum successfully without damaging the drum, the shoes, the hardware or the hub of the axle.

Instructions

    1

    Do not apply the parking brake or you'll be unable to remove the rear drums on the Saturn Ion. (One of the rear shoes is attached to the parking brake cable and activates when you apply the parking brake.)

    2

    Loosen the rear wheel nuts using the wheel nut removal tool supplied with the emergency road kit in the Saturn Ion. Only turn the wheel nuts 1/4 turn.

    3

    Use the car jack to lift the Ion on a flat, hard surface. Rest the Ion onto a jack stand in a safe and secure manner. (Refer to the owner's manual for safe support points when lifting the Ion.)

    4

    Finish removing the lug nuts, then remove the wheels.

    5

    Try to pull the drum off the rear hub flange. If it does not come off, spray lubricating spray between the joint where the center hole of the drum mates to the hub flange. Allow several minutes for the lubricating spray to penetrate.

    6

    Strike the face of the drum (not the edge) with a ball peen hammer sharply. In most cases, this will separate the drum from the hub, but it might take several whacks. Turn the drum about a quarter turn between strikes and be careful not to hit the lug studs. Once the drum is separated from the hub flange, try to pull it off again. If it wiggles but still won't come off, proceed to Step 7.

    7

    Locate the rubber plug on the backing plate of the drum assembly. Remove it by prying it off with a slotted screwdriver. Do not lose this plug--you'll need to replace it when you're ready to reassemble the brakes.

    8

    Insert a slotted screwdriver into the brake adjusting port and press the self-adjusting bracket away from the starwheel adjuster. Use the brake spoon adjusting tool to turn the starwheel adjuster in one direction. Turn the wheel four or five times to see of the drum is getting tighter or looser. If it's getting tighter, reverse the direction of the starwheel and make a note of which direction that is. (You'll need to readjust the brake shoes back up when you replace the drum.)

    9

    Continue to turn the starwheel all the way down until it bottoms out inside itself, or allows you to remove the drum from the flange.

Rabu, 26 Mei 2010

Installation Instructions for a Russell Braided Brake Line on a VN750

Installation Instructions for a Russell Braided Brake Line on a VN750

Installing aftermarket Russell braided brake lines on your Kawasaki Vulcan VN750 is an excellent brake upgrade. Stainless steel braided brake lines resist corrosion and improve visual aesthetics while improving braking performance. Stock rubber brake lines bulge slightly when brake pressure is applied, reducing the amount of force transmitted to the actual brake assembly. Braided steel lines reduce this bulging, increasing braking pressure and improving brake feel and performance. Installing Russell brake lines isn't difficult and requires only a few common tools.

Instructions

Removal of Old Brake Lines

    1

    Unbolt the lower end of the stock brake lines from the front brake calipers. The lines are held on by a bolt passing through a ring fitting ("banjo fitting") at the end of each brake line. Save the bolt and discard the copper washers that seal the fitting. Place the loose lower ends of the brake lines into a bucket to drain.

    2

    Follow the front brake lines upward from the brake calipers to the splitter block located halfway up your bike's front forks. This block is located just behind the "Kawasaki" emblem, in between the forks.

    3

    Unbolt the brake line banjo fittings from the brake splitter block. Again, retain the bolts and discard the sealing washers.

    4

    Unbolt the front brake line retaining brackets located between the splitter block and the front brake calipers. This will allow you to fully remove both front brake lines.

    5

    Follow the remaining upper brake line upward from the splitter block to the master cylinder on the right handlebar. Unbolt the line from the master cylinder, keeping the bolt and discarding the sealing washers.

Installing New Brake Lines

    6

    Your Russell brake line kit should include three brake lines with installed fittings, and 12 sealing washers (two per connection). Ensure you have these parts. If not, new sealing washers can be obtained from any motorcycle parts store.

    7

    Bolt the upper brake line in place between the master cylinder and the splitting block. Be sure to route the line through the forks the same way the old one ran. Be sure to install the sealing washers; the brake system will leak without them. Tighten the fitting bolts firmly, but be careful not to apply excessive force.

    8

    Install the two lower brake lines between the splitter block and each front brake caliper. Again, ensure that all new sealing washers are in place and the connections are tight.

    9

    Reinstall the brackets that hold the lower brake lines in place along the sides of the forks.

    10

    Bleed the brakes according to the instructions found in your brake bleed kit.

How to Replace Rear Disc Brakes in a Saturn VUE

Rear disc brakes aren't a common find in a Saturn VUE. Drum brakes are usually efficient for small passenger cars. However, if your Saturn VUE is one of the few with rear disc brakes, read further to learn how to replace them.

Instructions

    1

    Drain approximately half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir. Use a syringe or suction gun to siphon the brake fluid and empty it into an approved sealed container.

    2

    Lift the rear of the Saturn VUE from the ground with a car jack. Support the vehicle on all sides with jack stands to prevent it from tipping. Keep small animals and children out of the area when you replace the rear disc brakes.

    3

    Remove the rear tires from the Saturn VUE. Loosen the lug nuts with a torque wrench and remove the wheel and tire assembly. Loosely attach the lug nuts to the hub to prevent the rotor from slipping off.

    4

    Compress the caliper 1mm with a large C-clamp. Remove the C-clamp and set is aside for later use. Secure the flat side of the caliper guide pins with a wrench and remove the caliper guide pin bolts. Take the caliper off the mounting bracket and secure it to the frame with mechanical wire.

    5

    Take out the brake pads followed by the brake pad retainers. Clean the hardware that contacts the brake pads to remove debris and corrosion with brake parts cleaner. Inspect the brake caliper guide pins and boots for damage and replace if necessary.

    6

    Retract the piston all the way into the bore with a spanner wrench. Lubricate the areas of the mounting bracket that contact the brake pads with a high-temperature silicone lubricant. Install the brake pads and brake pad retainers to the caliper bracket.

    7

    Release the piston from the mechanical wire and position it over the disc brake pads. Replace the caliper guide pin bolts and torque to 25 ft. lb. Replace the wheel and tire assembly and lower the VUE to the ground.

Selasa, 25 Mei 2010

1998 Honda Civic Brake Rotor Specifications

1998 Honda Civic Brake Rotor Specifications

Any time a the brake pads are being replaced or inspected, it is important to measure the thickness of the rotors. On a 1998 Honda Civic, the rotors have two main specifications: nominal thickness and minimal machining thickness.

Nominal Thickness

    The nominal thickness of a rotor is the thickness of that vehicle's rotor when new. The 1998 Honda Civic's front rotors have a nominal thickness of 0.827 inches.

Minimal Machining

    The minimal machining is the thinnest that the rotor's disc can be and still allow for resurfacing. When it falls below this specification, the rotor must be replaced. The 1998 Honda Civic's front rotors have a minimal machining specification of 0.748 inches.

Considerations

    The reasoning for these specifications is to prevent farther damage or unsafe braking. When a new rotor with the incorrect nominal thickness is installed, it can lead to uneven braking. This results in a severe pull to one side while braking. If a rotor falls below the minimal machining specification, the caliper;s internal piston must overextend to stop the vehicle. This can result in the caliper piston locking or complete brake failure.

Trouble With My Car Brakes: Pulls to the Left

When your car behaves oddly, it can be difficult to correctly diagnose the issue. Getting a general idea of what could be wrong saves time when you get a mechanic to professionally diagnose your car, and could even save you money on the repair. If you find that your car pulls in a certain direction when you apply the brakes, you can do a few things to try to narrow down the issue.

Instructions

    1

    Compare the bulging at the bottom of each front tire visually. If they look uneven, it could be causing your car to pull to one side.

    2

    Use a tire pressure gauge on your front tires if you can't visually tell whether they are unevenly inflated or not.

    3

    Inflate the front tires so they are even. You can do this at a gas station that has an air pump.

    4

    Drive your car to a straight, level road.

    5

    Loosen your grip on the steering wheel briefly. Do this at a low speed, with no other cars or obstacles nearby.

    6

    Pay attention to your car while your grip is loose. If it pulls to one side, your car's front end is likely not aligned or positioned correctly. (You don't need to brake to test this: an improperly aligned car will pull to one side even if you don't apply the brakes.)

    7

    Take your car in to a repair shop or mechanic and have them do a front end re-alignment.

    8

    Have your front end brakes inspected by a mechanic if you still can't determine the issue. Your car will need to be inspected and repaired professionally.

How to Change Brake Pads on a Dodge Grand Caravan

The Dodge Caravan, Grand Caravan, Plymouth Voyager, Grand Voyager and Chrysler Town and Country all employ the same braking systems. The parts may be slightly different between the regular Caravan and Grand Caravan to support the extra weight of the vehicle. While all these minivans feature front disc brakes, most commonly they use rear drum brakes. However, later models of the all-wheel drive Grand Caravans may feature rear disc brakes. The caliper and pads are much smaller and located at the top of the rotor. To replace either front or rear pads employs the same procedure.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts slightly before lifting the Grand Caravan. If applicable, remove the hubcaps first. Lift and support the Grand Caravan with a jack and jack stand. Do not place the jack stand onto the rocker panel or it may collapse. Place it under the engine mount or on the front frame rail. Remove the lug nuts with the socket wrench and then remove the tires.

    2

    Remove the upper and lower caliper bolts. Identify if the Grand Caravan uses different-sized bolts to replace them correctly. Set the bolts aside.

    3

    Wiggle the caliper and pad assembly off of the rotor. Support the caliper to the strut spring to prevent damage to the brake hose. Remove the outboard pad using a screwdriver to pry off the retaining tabs from the caliper housing. Pull the inboard pad spring clip out of the caliper piston.

    4

    Compress the caliper piston using a C-clamp and one of the old pads braced up against the caliper piston. Tighten the C-clamp slowly until it is fully compressed.

    5

    Clean the caliper mating surface of the caliper adapter where the pad tabs and caliper housing sit against. Apply a light coat of silicone lubricant to the cleaned surface area. Inspect the rotor for any visual damage such as scoring or rust pits. If necessary, replace the rotors.

    6

    Install the inboard pad and spring clip retainer into the caliper piston and then install the outboard pad to the caliper housing. Be sure the retaining clips are properly holding the pad in the correct position. Place the caliper and pad assembly over the rotor. Make sure the brake hose is not twisted. Apply a light coat of lubricant to the unthreaded section of the caliper bolts. Align the caliper correctly and then install the bolts and tighten them.

    7

    Replace the wheel and lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts to 100-foot pounds with a toque wrench and a 19mm socket. Pump the brake pedal four to five times to seat the pads to the rotor and prevent the master cylinder from overflowing before doing the other side brake pads.

    8

    Repeat steps 1 through 7 for the other side. Check the master cylinder fluid level and add brake fluid if necessary. Test-drive the Grand Caravan.

Senin, 24 Mei 2010

How to Replace Brakes on a 1999 Ford F-250

How to Replace Brakes on a 1999 Ford F-250

Ford installed front disc and rear drum brakes on the 1999 Ford F-250 pickup truck. The process for replacing the brakes on the front of the Ford F-250 differs greatly than the process for changing the brakes on the rear of the Ford F-250. In general, you will replace the front brake pads twice for every front brake rotor you change and you will change every front brake rotor twice before you change the brake shoes on the back of your Ford F-250.

Instructions

Replace the F-250's Front Brakes

    1

    Lift the front of your Ford F-250 off of the ground using a jack and jack stands. Remove the wheels from the Ford with a lug nut wrench to prepare the truck for servicing.

    2

    Open the hood on the engine compartment and take the lid off of the master cylinder that bolts to the brake assister on the driver's side firewall.

    3

    Remove the hex-head bolts on the back of the brake caliper with a socket. With the bolts removed, pull the caliper off of the Ford's brake rotor.

    4

    Pull the old brake pads out of the caliper and discard them. Squeeze the brake piston back into the backside brake caliper with pliers, and then insert the new pads into the brake caliper.

    5

    Pull the rotor cap cover off the middle of the rotor with a screwdriver and use a socket to remove the nut located behind the cover.

    6

    Pull the rotor off of the wheel spindle.

    7

    Remove the old wheel bearings from the brake rotor and insert them into the new rotor. If the old wheel bearings are worn, replace them with new bearings.

    8

    Slide the new rotor onto the wheel spindle and secure it using a bolt and socket. After you tighten the bolt, press the cover back onto the rotor.

    9

    Place the caliper on the rotor and secure it with a socket and hex-head bolts.

    10

    Duplicate the process on the passenger side of the F-250.

    11

    Close the master cylinder after putting the wheels back on the Ford and lowering it to the ground. Press on the brake pedal to seat the pads against the rotor.

Replace the F-250's Rear Brakes

    12

    Lift the rear of the Ford F-250 off the ground with a jack and jack stands. Remove the wheels from the Ford with a lug nut wrench.

    13

    Place a strip of paint on the back of the brake drum and rear brake drum cover so you can position the brake drum correctly when you put it back on. If you plan to install new brake drums on your Ford F-250, skip this step.

    14

    Place the brake drum puller on the brake drum and pull the drum from the wheel hub. The method for attaching the brake drum puller depends on the brake drum puller that you use.

    15

    Remove the springs that attach the brake shoes to the wheel hub by pulling them off with pliers.

    16

    Lift the old brake shoes off of the wheel hub and place the new brake shoes on the wheel hub. Secure the new shoes with the springs.

    17

    Pound the brake drum onto the axle hub with a rubber mallet.

    18

    Duplicate the process on the passenger side of the Ford.

    19

    Put the wheels back on the F-250, lower it to the ground and, then press on the brake pedal to seat the shoes against the brake drum.

Minggu, 23 Mei 2010

How to Remove Rotors From a 2003 Altima

How to Remove Rotors From a 2003 Altima

Although the stock brakes that come with a 2003 Altima work well for daily driving, some people prefer to upgrade their brakes to get better stopping power. To do that, you have to remove the stock rotors and replace them with new ones. Alternatively, maybe you just want to change the brake pads and get the rotors turned at the same time. Taking off the rotors takes about 15 minutes per side to do.

Instructions

    1

    Lift up the front end of the car using the jack and then hold the car up using the jack stands. Take the wheels and tires off of the car and set them to the side.

    2

    Unbolt the brake caliper bracket on the steering knuckle using the 1/2-inch ratchet and socket. Lift the bracket and caliper off of the rotor. Support the bracket and caliper assembly by the front struts using the bungee cord.

    3

    Lift the rotors off the hubs with both hands. If the rotor is frozen, hammer the backside of the rotor using the rubber mallet, pounding around the rotor until it pops off of the hubs.

How to Change the Brake Pads on a '98 Mustang

How to Change the Brake Pads on a '98 Mustang

The 1998 Ford Mustang is equipped with four-wheel disc brakes. Changing all of the pads on the vehicle should take a beginner about three hours to complete. All of the Mustang models for the 1998 production year use a single piston caliper, with the exception of the Cobra model, which uses a dual-piston caliper. The Mustangs with single piston calipers are covered in this article. All of the parts and tools for this job can be found at your local auto parts provider.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the front wheel nuts 1/2 turn while the Mustang's wheels are still on the ground. Do not remove the wheel nuts. You are simply trying to take off the torque for easier removal once the wheels are in the air.

    2

    Set the wheel chocks behind the rear tires. Raise the vehicle on either side. Set the jack stands under the lower control arms, on either side of the vehicle, for support.

    3

    Remove both tires from the front of the vehicle. Choose the side you wish to start disassembling, using the second side as a visual reference of how the brake assembly looks in its entirety. This will help you when you reassemble the brakes.

    4

    Use the 3/8-inch drive ratchet and the correct star bit to remove the caliper bolts. These bolts are found directly on the back of the caliper. The caliper is the piece that covers the brake rotor and holds the pads in place. Use the pry bar for leverage in removing the caliper completely from the brake assembly.

    5

    Place the caliper bolts in a small cup. Set the caliper on the lower control arm for the moment. Do not let the caliper hang freely, so as not to tear or break the attached line. Remove the old brake pads.

    6

    Set one old brake pad against the caliper piston (the circular piston protruding from inside the caliper). Place the C-clamp around the caliper. The C part of the clamp should rest on the back of the caliper, while the screw spline part rests against the old brake pad. Tighten the C-clamp gently, to push the caliper piston flush with the piston chamber shaft. Do not apply great force for this task, or you will risk rupturing the piston seals.

    7

    Set the caliper back onto the lower control arm. Set the new pads into their place on the caliper bracket. Lube the backing plates on each pad lightly, using a dab of caliper grease. This will reduce the initial squeak, as the pads wear themselves into the rotor. Do not get grease on the rotor directly.

    8

    Reinstall the compressed brake caliper over the new pads. Lubricate the caliper bolts thoroughly with grease prior to reinstalling them. Tighten the caliper bolts using 55 to 60 foot-pounds of torque. Spray the entire assembly, using the brake parts cleaner. Make sure that there isn't any debris on the brake rotors.

    9

    Repeat steps 3 through 7 to complete the brake pad replacement on the second side of the vehicle.

    10

    Tighten the wheels on the vehicle back to 80 to 100 foot-pounds of torque. Lower the vehicle. Get inside the vehicle and pump the brake pedal, with the vehicle shut off, until you get a solid pedal.

    11

    Repeat steps 1 through 10 on the rear wheels. Replace Step 6 with Step 12 for completing the rear brakes.

    12

    Use your "Caliper Tool Set" to twist the caliper piston clockwise, until it is flush with the piston shaft. The pistons in the rear calipers are rotating pistons. Do not attempt to compress them with a vice or C-clamp. Failure to follow this step will render the rear caliper, and/or the entire brake system, completely useless.

Sabtu, 22 Mei 2010

Chevrolet Cavalier Brake Problems

The Chevrolet Cavalier is one of the most successful vehicles in American history. It featured many variations to suit a wide range of tastes, and was a generally reliable automobile. But no car is without problems, and the Cavalier suffered various issues during its production run that resulted in multiple recalls. The problems affected different components, but the brake system was a particularly prominent player in the malfunctions.

Models

    The Chevrolet Cavalier enjoyed more than 20 years of manufacturing, from 1982 to 2005. Models from all stages in its development suffered notable brake problems. The final years of the Cavalier enjoyed less trouble with the brakes than those experienced for much of its production. While some years stand out more than others, no variant of the Chevrolet Cavalier was exempt from possible issues with the braking system.

1987

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration issued more than one recall in 1987 for the Chevrolet Cavalier, including attention for a serious problem with the parking brake. The problem was discovered early in the production of the 1987 model, with the first service fixes offered as early as September of 1986. A flaw with the parking brake lever was noted to prevent the car from actually braking. This allowed affected vehicles to roll away and potentially crash into other cars or objects.

1993

    In July 1993, General Motors announced manufacturing defects in several of its designs. The problems affected the brake hoses and required replacement. The extent and nature of the replacement necessary varied between different models, with some only requiring a single wheel brake hose. But the Cavaliers required both rear brake hoses to be replaced. The malfunction was serious, as brakes could stop working and result in a collision.

1998

    The brakes were one component on the 1998 Chevrolet Cavaliers that frequently appeared in service records. Affected vehicles suffered from problems with the anti-lock brake system. No formal recall was issued, but replacement of the motor pack assembly for these brakes was not uncommon. The track record of the 1998 Cavalier anti-lock brake system led to reduced reliability ratings. The average cost of repair to owners for this problem was around five hundred dollars.

2003

    Later years of the Chevrolet Cavalier production enjoyed fewer major problems with the brake system, but related components often failed. Complaints on consumer websites frequently note problems with the brake lights on Cavaliers from 2003. Dealers often attempt to resolve the problem by replacing the light bulbs directly. However the problem usually returns, and multiple efforts to resolve the issue are often unsuccessful.

How to Replace 2001 Nissan Frontier Brakes

How to Replace 2001 Nissan Frontier Brakes

The 2001 Nissan Frontier is equipped with front disc brakes and rear brake drums. In order to preserve the Frontier's stopping performance, the brakes must be inspected and replaced on a regular basis. The front brake pads and rear brake shoes can be replaced in under an hour with a few tools. Remember to inspect the brake components for wear and damage. This can help identify problem components that are in need of eventual replacement.

Instructions

Preparations for Brake Replacement

    1

    Open the Frontier's hood and disconnect the negative battery cable. Locate the brake master cylinder reservoir near the driver's side firewall. Open the top and remove one-third of the brake fluid from the reservoir with a turkey baster. Dispose of the fluid in a safe manner and close the top.

    2

    Use a lug wrench to loosen the lug nuts on the front wheels without removing them and raise the front of the Frontier with a floor jack so that the front tires clear the ground. Secure the vehicle with jack stands.

    3

    Finish removing the lug nuts and remove the front wheels from the vehicle. Set the lug nuts aside in a safe area.

Removing the Front Brakes

    4

    Start on the front driver's side and remove the two caliper mounting bolts with a ratchet and socket. Lift the caliper off of the brake disc and suspend it in mid-air from a coil spring with mechanic's wire.

    5

    Remove the old brake pads from the caliper mount. Use one of the brake pads to hold against the brake caliper piston and use a C-clamp to compress the piston inside of the caliper.

    6

    Attach the new brake pads to the caliper mount and slide the caliper over the pads and brake disc. Reattach the mounting bolts to the caliper with a ratchet and socket.

    7

    Mount the wheel onto the axle and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Repeat the procedure on the opposite wheel. When finished, remove the jack stands and lower the vehicle to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts with a lug wrench.

Removing the Rear Brakes

    8

    Raise the rear of the Frontier and remove the lug nuts and wheels to expose the rear drums. Locate the retaining bolt holding the drum in place and remove it with a ratchet and socket. Pull the drum away from the brake assembly to reveal the brake shoes.

    9

    Unhook the springs attached to the shoes with a flat-head screwdriver. Remove the spring bolt from the center of both brake shoes and pull the old shoes out.

    10

    Insert the new brake shoes into the assembly and attach the spring bolt to both shoes. Hook the springs back onto the brake shoes with the flat-head screwdriver. Place the brake drum onto the assembly and line the retaining bolt hole to the threaded receptacle. Insert the retaining bolt and tighten it with a ratchet and socket. Repeat the procedure for the opposite wheel.

    11

    Mount the wheel onto the axle and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Remove the jack stands from the vehicle and lower it to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts with a lug wrench.

    12

    Refill the brake master cylinder reservoir to the "Max" line with the appropriate brake fluid. Close the top and reconnect the negative battery cable. Pump the brakes four to five times in order to set the brake pads and take a test drive to check the effectiveness of the brakes.

Jumat, 21 Mei 2010

How to Replace the Parking Brake Shoes on a 2001 Chevy Blazer

How to Replace the Parking Brake Shoes on a 2001 Chevy Blazer

You use the rear brakes on your Chevrolet Blazer very sparingly during normal driving. Because they are the only ones your braking system uses when you apply the parking brake, the rear brakes are often referred to as parking brake shoes. Braking force is distributed in a 70 percent to the front and 30 percent to the rear ratio, under normal braking conditions. Because of this ratio, they tend to wear out about 30 percent as often as the front brakes. You can replace your 2001 Blazer's rear brake shoes in one to two hours.

Instructions

    1

    Chock one front wheel front and back to keep the truck from rolling. Release the parking brake. Using the lug wrench, loosen the log nuts on the rear wheels enough to turn by hand. Jack the rear of your Blazer up far enough for the rear wheels to just clear the ground. Remove the lug nuts, pull the tire off and set it aside. Do this on both sides. Pull the brake drums off and set aside.

    2

    Place the return spring tool over the top center stud and rotate it clockwise to remove the first return spring. Repeat this process to remove the second return spring. Set the springs aside, noting which side each came off of. Use a pair of wire cutters for this, but it takes more effort and care to not nick the spring and weaken it.

    3

    Place the retaining spring tool over the retaining spring and push down while turning a one-quarter turn in either direction. Do this on both retaining springs. Set these aside and note which side -- front or rear -- they came off of. Pull the pins and set them with the corresponding spring.

    4

    Remove the brake shoes from the backing plate and remove the adjuster from between the bottom of the shoes. Rotate the adjuster to close it completely. Remember which side the screw portion of the adjuster was oriented toward and set this aside with the clamp spring. Remove the parking brake spreader arm and place it with the other parts. You will now have the front brake shoe hanging by a cable with a heavy spring on it attached to a movable arm on the brake shoe.

    5

    Remove the parking brake spreader arm and place it with the other parts. You will now have the front brake shoe hanging by a cable with a heavy spring on it attached to a movable arm on the brake shoe. The spreader arm may have fallen out during the previous step as there is nothing holding it in except the return springs pulling the shoes toward the center.

    6

    Grip the parking brake cable between the spring and the arm using the wire cutters. Use only enough force to hold firmly but not enough to not allow the cable to slide. Pull the arm from a point near the cable retainer and pull the cable from the retainer. Without letting the spring snap back, slowly release the cable with the wire cutters.

    7

    Spray the brake cleaning compound liberally on the backing plate and the brake hardware to remove the dirt and grime. Apply a liberal amount of white lithium grease to the four raised contact points on the backing plate.

    8

    Grasp the knob at the end of the brake cable with the pliers. Use the wire cutters to collapse the spring until you have approximately 3/4 inch of cable exposed. Hold the cable tight with the wire cutters and insert the knob at the cable end into the parking brake arm. Carefully release the cable and let the spring return to full extension.

    9

    Insert the retaining pins through the backing plate and place the shoes over them, inserting the pin through the corresponding holes on the shoes. Place the retaining spring over the pins with the retaining pin tool, push in and make a one-quarter turn to lock the pin in place.

    10

    Place the adjuster cable upper opening over the center stud. Place the adjuster cable slider in the return spring hole on the rear brake shoe. Insert the bottoms of the large return springs into the shoes and, using the return spring tool, hook the spring over the top center stud. Do this for both return springs.

    11

    Pull back on the rear shoe and insert the parking brake spreader arm between the front and rear shoes in the corresponding notch in the shoes. Pay close attention to proper orientation. This piece keeps your brakes in proper adjustment.

    12

    Pull the bottom of the rear shoe toward the rear and, paying attention to orientation, insert the brake adjuster. Replace this part in the exact same orientation as it came out or the brake will not self-adjust.

    13

    Route the adjuster cable around the slider, making sure it is in the groove on the slider and connect it to the adjuster arm with the hook at the end of the cable. Insert the connector arm in the lowest hole in the rear shoe and replace the adjuster spring in the opposite shoe.

    14

    Replace the brake drum and turn it by hand. You should hear the shoes dragging against the drum. If not, remove the rubber plug from the back side of the backing plate and insert the adjusting tool or screwdriver through the slot. Push the back side of the adjuster wheel up by pushing down on the tool handle while turning the drum until you hear the shoe dragging.

    15

    Repeat the above steps on the other side.

Rabu, 19 Mei 2010

How to Replace the Front Brake Pads on a 2006 Prius

The Prius is a small hatchback sedan made by Toyota. The Prius is powered by a small gasoline engine and an electric motor although only one mode of power works at a time. The switching from one mode of power to the other happens automatically, depending on speed and other conditions. The Prius is marketed as a hybrid vehicle due to its dual power plants. The front brakes on your Prius, however, look similar to braking systems on other small sedans. You can replace your worn out brake pads in just a few minutes with mechanics tools.

Instructions

    1

    Apply the parking brake. Raise the front of the car with a hydraulic jack and place jack stands under the front frame rails. Lower the jack, placing the weight of your car solely on the jack stands.

    2

    Remove the front wheel lug nuts with a lug wrench turned in a counterclockwise direction. Lift the wheels off of the wheel hubs and roll them out of your working space. Set the lug nuts aside.

    3

    Remove the two bolts from the brake caliper with an adjustable wrench turned in a counterclockwise direction. Set the bolts aside. Pull the caliper off of the rotor and hang it onto the strut in the upper wheelwell with a bungee cord. Be careful with the caliper as the rubber brake line will still be attached to it.

    4

    Pull the two brake pads straight out of the caliper and discard them. Use a C-clamp to compress the piston back into the caliper to make room for the new thicker brake pads. Slide two new pads back into the caliper, making sure the lining of each pad faces the other. Spray brake cleaner onto the caliper, if it is dirty, before reinstalling it.

    5

    Unhook the bungee cord from the caliper. Slide the caliper over the rotor, lining up the mounting holes in the caliper with the holes in the caliper bracket. Thread the caliper holding bolts back into the holes and tighten them with an adjustable wrench in a clockwise direction.

    6

    Repeat the above steps to replace the pads on the other front wheel.

    7

    Replace the wheels and tighten the lug nuts in a clockwise direction with the lug wrench. Raise the car with the hydraulic jack and remove the jack stands from underneath. Lower the hydraulic jack until the car is on the ground.

Selasa, 18 Mei 2010

Grand Cherokee Brake Problems

Grand Cherokee Brake Problems

The Jeep Grand Cherokee was manufactured with four-wheel disc brakes in later model years, and the components can wear out and require replacement periodically, simply due to regular driving. You can find out exactly what the problem is with the braking system, using minimal tools and skill, in less than an hour, generally.

Listen for Noises

    Jeep Grand Cherokee front brakes

    The most common problem with worn braking components is a squealing sound emanating from the wheels. This is due to the design of the Grand Cherokee's brake pads, which incorporate a metal flange that will scrape the rotor when the pad's material wears below a usable level. This is to alert the driver of worn pads, which should be replaced immediately. Another sound that is common is the metallic grinding of a badly worn rotor, when the caliper presses the pads against it. Damaged or worn rotors can be a serious hazard; do not drive the Jeep in this condition.

Inspect the Brakes

    The best way to determine the cause of a problem is to physically inspect the braking system by removing the wheels and looking at the rotors, calipers, and pads. It should be easy to turn the rotor by hand, and the pads should not make any noises during its revolution. Pressing on the brake pedal should stop the rotation, and the rotor should be free of rust and debris. The master cylinder, located underneath the hood in front of the driver, should have a full and level fluid reservoir. The master cylinder can be filled with DOT-3 braking fluid by uncapping the plastic top and carefully pouring fluid into it.

Operate the Brakes

    The brake pedal should be firm and constant, applying pressure to the brakes in an even and controlled manner. If the brakes are "spongy", or lack proper tension, then there could be air in the brake lines. This air can be forced out and replaced with brake fluid by bleeding the lines. The individual bleeder nipples are located in the rear of the caliper, and can be turned in a counterclockwise direction to open the lines up. Press the brake pedal while refilling the master cylinder, pushing old fluid and air out of the bleeder nipple. Once the fluid coming out of the nipple is clean and constant, secure the nipple by turning it clockwise. If the pedal is excessively firm, then the master cylinder's internal seals and components could be damaged and require replacement.

Brakes at speed

    The braking system could experience "dragging", pulling to one side, or a harsh vibration when used at speed. This can be caused by a defective or damaged rotor, or a seized caliper. The rotor must maintain a perfectly round surface, and when it is heated and cooled beyond the manufacturer's specifications damage can occur in the form of "warping". This warped rotor will not rotate well, and will catch the pads and cause a vibration. A seized caliper can cause dragging, as it will not release the pads completely, and most times it must be totally replaced with a new unit as they are not typically serviceable.

Glazed Rotors

    A more common problem with the Jeep's rotors and pads is "glazing", or heat damage to the surface of the components caused by excessive braking (usually in downhill conditions). Different from warping, glazing can cause the surface of the rotor or pads to become smooth, giving decreased performance or even a total lack of braking ability. You must replace the damaged parts, as they cannot be repaired.

How Much Should it Cost to Have a Master Cylinder Replaced?

How Much Should it Cost to Have a Master Cylinder Replaced?

Overview


Certified Auto Mechanic

    Taking your vehicle to a certified auto mechanic is a good way to ensure that your car is running properly. A typical master cylinder replacement costs between $300 and $500 for parts and labor. The final price may be higher, depending on the make, model and year of your vehicle.

Do It Yourself

    Replacing the master cylinder yourself is a good way to save time and money, but it does require a fair amount of mechanical know-how. The cost of a new master cylinder from an auto parts store ranges between $50 and $100.

Bottom Line

    If you have the time and mechanical inclination to replace your own master cylinder, it can save you money. Otherwise, be prepared to spend between $300 and $600 at a mechanic's shop, and wait up to a day or two for the job to be finished.

Senin, 17 Mei 2010

Brake Booster Troubleshooting

Brake Booster Troubleshooting

The brake booster in your car is one of those parts that does its job silently and unnoticed, until the day it doesn't work. Suddenly, you find that pressing on the brake pedal to stop the car takes a lot more effort. The pedal feels hard, but the brakes work very slowly, and it takes much more distance to stop.

Operation

    Automotive brake boosters are operated from engine vacuum. A large flexible diaphragm within the booster has the air removed from one side when you step on the brake pedal. This causes atmospheric pressure to push on the opposite side of the diaphragm, and because of its connection to the brake master cylinder, the diaphragm helps to apply the brakes.

Possible problems

    The possible problems with a brake booster are loss of supplied vacuum or a cracked diaphragm.

Troubleshooting

    The first step to troubleshooting a problem with a brake booster is to verify that a problem exists. With the engine off, pump the brake several times and hold the pedal down while starting the engine. A working power brake will pull the pedal down a bit further; if the pedal does not move, the next step is to check that engine vacuum is drawing on the booster. Check the hose for cracks and breaks and also that it is connected tightly at both ends. With the engine off, remove the hose end from the brake booster and the plastic valve from the hose end. Blow into the valve; it should allow air to flow in one direction only. Replace it if you can blow into both sides.

    Start the engine and check for vacuum in the hose. The engine may run rough when the hose is unrestricted but will smooth out if you plug the hose end. If no vacuum is felt, the problem is a restricted vacuum port that must be cleaned before further testing.

    Attach the valve and hose to the brake booster. Listen for air leakage, which could indicate a cracked booster. Have a helper apply the brakes while you listen also.
    If adequate vacuum is being supplied, no air leaks are heard and the brake still has no power assist, replace the booster.

How to Replace the Parking Brake Cable on a Chevy Silverado

How to Replace the Parking Brake Cable on a Chevy Silverado

The main parking brake cable on a Chevy Silverado truck is connected to the parking brake pedal and is routed through to a bracket that connects the two rear cables. This main cable is also comprised of a front cable and an intermediate one. You must use precision and caution when replacing a parking brake cable, as it will greatly affect how the parking brake works. The process can also vary depending on the truck's exact year, so check with your mechanic.

Instructions

Removal

    1

    Disconnect the truck's negative battery cable.

    2

    Loosen the equalizer nut on the bracket that connects the parking brake cables underneath the truck using a wrench.

    3

    Disconnect the front cable from the intermediate cable and then disconnect the intermediate cable from the main bracket. Press the tangs on the cable casing with needle-nose pliers and then pass the cable and casing through the next bracket.

    4

    Follow the cable to the front of the truck and remove it from all other brackets.

    5

    Remove the parking brake pedal assembly and disconnect the cable from the pedal assembly.

    6

    Peel the carpet back in the truck, pry out the cable grommet in the floor pan and remove the cable from the truck.

Installation

    7

    Feed the cable through the floor pan, connect it to the parking brake pedal assembly and install the cable grommet.

    8

    Reconnect the parking brake pedal assembly.

    9

    Feed the cable through all of the brackets under the truck, making sure the circular retainer is in position at the last bracket it goes through.

    10

    Connect the intermediate cable to the main bracket that includes the rear cables and connect the front cable to the intermediate one. Tighten the bracket's equalizer nut securely until the cables are tight.

    11

    Reconnect the battery cable.

Minggu, 16 Mei 2010

Drum Brakes Troubleshooting

Drum Brakes Troubleshooting

Drum brakes incorporate a hydraulic wheel cylinder that presses two opposing brake shoes against a friction surface, simply called a "drum." Retraction of the shoes is spring-actuated once the hydraulic pressure has been released. This style of brake has been substantially replaced by the disk-style brake, as there are inherent problems with the drum system and the relative performance is lacking. The average backyard mechanic can troubleshoot the drum brake system in about 30 minutes.

Access

    Drum brakes are hidden behind the wheels, and removing them will allow the brakes to be diagnosed. Turning the lug nuts counterclockwise with the vehicle lifted on a floor jack, remove the wheel. It should be set aside, away from the work area. The floor jack should be joined by a jack stand, for added support.

Disassembly

    With the wheel removed, the drum can be pulled directly off on some vehicles; many models will have a small "keeper screw" on the front, to hold it in place when changing the wheel. Turning the keeper screw counterclockwise will allow the drum to slide off of the brake assembly. With the drum off, the shoes, wheel cylinder, adjustment bolt and springs can all be inspected.

Inspection

    The drum itself should be free of debris, while some dust is normal. The shoes should have adequate material on them and should not be wet or shiny. Shiny shoes could mean that they have been maladjusted or have been used heavily and become heat damaged. The wheel cylinder should have no leaks, and the rubber seals on either side should be clean and soft. Damage to these seals will cause the fluid to leak, and the pedal will be soft or not apply the brakes at all. The springs that retract the shoes should be attached and clean, without excessive rust. Work springs can cause "dragging" or the shoes not retracting fully. The brake fluid, checked at the master cylinder, should be clean and golden yellow. Black or dirty brake fluid could indicate heat damage, or contaminated fluid. The adjustment bolt is usually at the bottom of most drum brake assemblies and should have very little play when the brakes are not applied. Turning it clockwise will tighten the brake shoes.

Sabtu, 15 Mei 2010

How to Bleed the Brake Lines After a Front Brake Job

How to Bleed the Brake Lines After a Front Brake Job

Whenever any component is removed from the brake system, air is likely to get into the brake lines. The brakes on a vehicle cannot function correctly if there is any air in the brake lines. Bleeding the brake system is required to push any air out and finish the brake job. The rule of thumb for bleeding brakes is to bleed the wheel furthest from the master cylinder first and bleed the wheel closest to the master cylinder last.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood to check the fluid level in the master cylinder. The master cylinder reservoir is clear so the level is visible from the outside of it.

    2

    Place chocks in front of the front wheels and set the parking brake. Place a jack under the rear differential.

    3

    Loosen the lug nuts on both the back wheels with the tire tool. Do not remove the lug nuts until the vehicle is raised.

    4

    Raise the vehicle with the jack high enough to place jack stands under the axle. Lower the vehicle onto the jack stands.

    5

    Remove the lug nuts on the passenger's side rear wheel. Take the wheel off and set it aside.

    6

    Instruct an assistant to sit in the car and start it up. Tell the assistant to push the brake pedal down and hold it until told to release.

    7

    Place a rubber hose over the bleeder valve. Place the other end into a disposable plastic container.

    8

    Loosen the bleeder valve at the back of the brake assembly with an open-faced wrench. Only open the valve 1/2 turn. Observe the liquid that flows into the plastic container. Close the valve and instruct your assistant to release the brake pedal. Repeat this procedure until the brake fluid coming out of the bleeder valve is clean and there are no air bubbles in the fluid.

    9

    Check the master cylinder and fill it if necessary. Do not let the master cylinder run dry or the process will need to be repeated.

    10

    Repeat the process for bleeding the driver's side rear wheel. Once finished, tighten the wheels back onto the vehicle and raise it high enough to remove the jack stands. Lower the vehicle to the ground with the jack.

    11

    Loosen the front lug nuts with the tire tool. Do not remove the lug nuts until the wheels are off the ground.

    12

    Move the chocks and place them behind the back wheels. Place the jack under the front cross-member and raise the vehicle. Place the jack stands under the "pinch points" in the doors. Lower the vehicle onto the jack stands.

    13

    Remove the front wheels and set them aside. Repeat the bleeding procedure on the driver's side then the passenger's side.

    14

    Raise the vehicle with the jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the vehicle to the ground once the wheels are tightened back onto the vehicle. Once the vehicle is on the ground, ensure that all the wheels are tightened by turning the lug nuts as far as possible with the tire tool.

How Do I Remove a 1995 Firebird Brake Pad?

The 1995 Pontiac Firebird has four-wheel disc brakes that provide better stopping power when you need to bring the pony car to a halt. When you step on the brakes, the hydraulic fluid pushes on the brake caliper, which squeezes the brake pads against the rotors. This action stops the Firebird; however, it also wears on the brake pads. When the need arises for new brake pads, if you have basic automotive-repair skill, you can do the job yourself and save a little cash.

Instructions

    1

    Set the wheel chocks in front of and behind the right-rear wheel. Loosen the front lug nuts with the lug wrench by turning them counterclockwise until they're finger tight.

    2

    Lift the front end with the floor jack and support the Firebird on the jack stands, placed under the frame on both sides. Remove the lug nuts and front wheels by hand.

    3

    Position the drip tray under the left-front wheel and wash off the brake dust with the brake cleaner. Unbolt the brake caliper with the socket set and lift the caliper up and out of the caliper bracket by hand.

    4

    Remove the brake pads by hand by prying the pad-retaining clip off the caliper and then pulling the pads straight out of the caliper.

How to Replace Brakes on a 1995 Honda Accord

How to Replace Brakes on a 1995 Honda Accord

Your Accord's brake pads are the components that absorb the energy and heat created when come to a stop. The friction material in brake pads wear down over time. The brake pads on your Accord must maintain a minimum thickness of 1/16 inch. If any of the pads are nearing the minimum thickness, you should replace all of your Accord's brake pads. This repair procedure does not require special tools and is relatively simple to perform at home.

Instructions

Remove the Brake Pads

    1

    Raise your Accord and support it with jack stands. Remove the front wheels. Start on one side's brake assembly.

    2

    Remove the cap on the master-cylinder reservoir in the engine compartment.

    3

    Install your C-clamp onto the brake caliper. Use the screw end of the clamp to push the piston into the caliper bore.

    4

    Check the master-cylinder reservoir to see if the brake fluid level had risen and that it didn't overflow. Use a syringe to remove any excessive fluid.

    5

    Spray brake cleaner on the caliper and brake pads and wipe off the brake dust.

    6

    Loosen and remove the lower mounting bolt on the caliper using a box-head wrench.

    7

    Lift up the caliper. Take the outer pad shim, then the outer brake pad, out of the bracket. Repeat for the inner shim and pad. Differentiate the shims when installing the new pads.

Installing the New Brake Pads

    8

    Coat the new brake-pad baking plates with anti-squeal compound per the manufacturer's instructions on the bottle.

    9

    Insert the pad retainers in the caliper-mounting bracket. Apply a thin layer of silicone grease to the retainers. Insert the pads and shims into their respective sides of the bracket.

    10

    Remove the C-clamp from the caliper. Be sure that the piston has depressed into the bore enough to clear room for the new pads.

    11

    Position the caliper back into place and install the lower mounting bolt. Torque the bolt to 54 foot-pounds, using your torque wrench.

    12

    Repeat the procedure for the other brake assembly.

    13

    Install the wheels when finished replacing the brake pads. Lower your Accord and check the brake fluid level. Fill the reservoir with DOT 3 brake fluid, if necessary.

    14

    Pump the brake pedal several times for the piston in the caliper to move into place before test-driving your Accord.

Rabu, 12 Mei 2010

S-10 Front Brake Rotor Specifications

S-10 Front Brake Rotor Specifications

When performing a brake job on a Chevrolet S10, the brake rotors are commonly overlooked. Brake rotors do wear out over time, just like brake pads, but at a slower rate. Because of the sensitivity of the braking system, Chevrolet gave the S10 a set of specifications regarding the rotors. The two main specifications on the S10's rotors are original thickness and minimal thickness. The thickness of the rotor is measured at the flat, disc portion and is measured in thousands of an inch.

Original Thickness

    The original thickness is the thickness of the rotor when brand-new. This specification is important to assure that the rotor you are installing is the proper size to start with. The Chevy S10's front rotors have an original thickness of 1.140 inches and the rear rotors, if the truck is equipped with rear disc brakes, have an original thickness of .787 inches.

Minimum Thickness

    The minimum thickness of a rotor is the thinnest the disc portion of the rotor can be. If a rotor falls below this measurement, it must be replaced or damage may occur to the braking system. The Chevrolet S10's front rotors have a minimum thickness of 1.130 inches and the rear rotors, if equipped, have a minimum thickness specification of .735 inches.

Considerations

    While these tolerances may seem insignificant, it is important to follow them closely. Using a rotor that is below the recommended specification forces the caliper to overextend in order to press the brake pads against the rotor. This can create a leak from the caliper's internal seal, cause the caliper to lock up or, worst of all, cause complete brake failure.

Selasa, 11 Mei 2010

How to Repair Squeaky Brakes

How to Repair Squeaky Brakes

A squeaky brake can rate up there with fingernails on a chalk board for a sound that will make you shudder. Unlike the sound from the chalkboard, squeaky brakes may be more than annoying. They can be dangerous. While squeaky brakes can mean nothing but noise, they can signal impending brake failure. Finding and repairing the squeak should be a high priority for car owners.

Instructions

    1

    Drive the car slowly with someone standing nearby outside of the vehicle. Apply the brakes to cause the squeak to occur. The outside person should listen to determine which wheel has the squeaky brake. Jack the car to raise the offending wheel off the ground. Use a lug wrench to remove the lug nuts. Slide the tire and wheel from the car to expose the brakes.

    2
    Brakes shoes are exposed, after the brake hub is removed.
    Brakes shoes are exposed, after the brake hub is removed.

    Inspect the rotor or pull the brake hub and check it for signs of damage caused by the metal of the brake pads or shoes rubbing against it. This damage will appear as grooves forming around the rotor or inside the outer rim of the hub. If this damage is found, the pads or shoes will need to be replaced. The rotor or brake hub must be removed and repaired or replaced to eliminate the squeak. You might also look at the brake pads. Disc brake pads have a metal tab designed to scrape against the rotor when the pad becomes worn to warn the driver that new brake pads will be needed soon. This tab can be bent out of the way for a temporary fix, but it is better to just replace the pads while you have the brakes exposed. If this does not seem to be the problem, continue to Step 3.

    3
    Disk calipers push the pads against the rotor to stop the car.
    Disk calipers push the pads against the rotor to stop the car.

    Examine the area around the pads or inside the brake hub for foreign material. Small rocks, oil or other items can cause brakes to squeak when some of the material gets between the pad or shoe and the braking surface of the rotor or hub. Removing this material will often eliminate the squeak.

    4
    This is a new brake rotor.
    This is a new brake rotor.

    Look carefully at the surface of the brake pads or shoes. With brake pads, you will have to loosen, or remove, the fasteners for the caliper, and move it out of the way. Lift the pads from their sockets to turn them over, so the surface is visible. You are seeking a spot on the pad or shoe that appears to be soiled or has a different texture or appearance. It may seem to be crystallized. Use fine sandpaper to sand away this area. It is best if you sand the entire surface lightly to keep it flat and smooth. If the squeak is still there, replace the brake pads or shoes to correct the problem.

How to Replace 1958 Corvette Front Brakes

How to Replace 1958 Corvette Front Brakes

The 1958 Corvette is a classic muscle car from America's automotive golden years. The Corvette was redesigned every two years to include safety and performance upgrades. The 1958 model was made larger and more powerful and included heavy-duty brakes and suspension. The brakes, however, were not meant to last forever. They were usually changed two to three times per year or more if subject to excessive use. The brakes are simple to remove and replace with the right tools.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen each of the lug nuts one rotation with the tire iron.

    2

    Position the jack underneath the axle of the car and raise it until the tires leave the ground. Set the jack stand under the axle for support.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and the tire.

    4

    Unbolt the mounting bracket from the rotor with the ratchet wrench. String the bracket to the undercarriage with the string.

    5

    Slide the old brake pads out of the bracket.

    6

    Clamp the c-clamp onto the caliper in the center of the bracket and compress it until it is flush with the bracket.

    7

    Set the new brake pads into the mounting bracket with the black material facing inward, toward each other.

    8

    Bolt the mounting bracket to the rotor. Attach the tire to the wheel and lower the vehicle. Tighten all of the lug nuts with the tire iron.

What Are the Parts of a Brake System?

What Are the Parts of a Brake System?

A brake system transmits force from a driver's foot to the car's brakes. The brakes then transmit the force to the tires and road, where the friction slows and stops the vehicle. Hydraulic and power brake systems use the principles of hydraulics and hydraulic fluids. Engaging the brake pedal or lever in a mechanical braking system pulls a cable connected to the brake shoe assembly and initiates contact with the brake drum or disc. The main parts of automobile braking systems include the pedal, drum and disc brakes, a brake booster and push rod, the master cylinder, valves and lines, and the emergency and anti-lock brakes.

Pedal

    The driver of a vehicle steps on the brake pedal to stop the vehicle. The pressing of the pedal moves a piston located in the master cylinder.

Master Cylinder

    The master cylinder is located directly in front of the driver's seat on the firewall in the engine. A master cylinder typically houses two separate master cylinders. Each master cylinder handles a set of wheels. The master cylinder controls the hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic fluids. The hydraulic tubing lines connect the master cylinder to the brake cylinders. When the pedal is pressed, two internal pistons move and a valve opens in the master cylinder. The hydraulic fluid must pass through the valve, a chamber and a series of tubes and hoses to get to the brake cylinders.

Brake Booster

    Mounted on the firewall behind the master cylinder in a power braking system is the brake booster. The booster is a shell divided by a rubber diaphragm into two chambers. Stepping on the brake closes a valve in the diaphragm and opens another valve, allowing air into the chamber on the pedal side. By using an intake stroke of the engine to create this vacuum, the booster amplifies the applied foot pressure so that the amount of pressure needed to stop is minimal.

Drum Brakes

    Drum brakes are located on the rear wheels. When the brakes are applied, the pressurized fluid forces its way into the wheel cylinder of the drum brakes. This pushes the brake shoes into contact with the inside of the brake drum and slows down the vehicle. A pushrod transfers motion from one shoe to the other.

Disc Brakes

    Most vehicles have disc brakes only on the front wheels, though newer vehicles may have disc brakes on all four wheels. With disc brakes, the fluid from the master cylinder forces into a caliper where it presses against a piston. The piston squeezes two brake pads on a disc rotor attached to the wheel. This forces the wheel to slow down and stop.

Emergency Brake

    The emergency or parking brake is a fully mechanical system that controls the rear brakes. Steel cables connect the parking brake to either a hand lever or a foot pedal and bypass the hydraulic system.

Anti-Lock

    If wheels lock up due to panic braking, steering control is lost. Anti-lock brakes detect locked wheels and rapidly pump the brakes. A computer with a series of sensors monitors the speed of the wheels and, if necessary, signals the brakes to be pulsed.

Proportioning Valve

    Vehicles with disc brakes in the front and drum brakes in the back have a proportioning valve. During a hard brake, the valve reduces some of the pressure going to the rear brakes so that all four brakes operate evenly.