Rabu, 31 Maret 2010

How to Replace a 1985 Saab 900's Brake Pads

The 1985 900, made by Swedish car maker Saab, is iconic for it's looks, performance, and engine design.

Owning any imported car can get expensive. The routine maintenance alone can add up quickly. Saabs are no exception. Changing the front brake pads on your 900 yourself can reduce some of that cost. Saab advises against user replacement of rear pads, because specialized tools are required.

Instructions

Preparation

    1

    Set the car's emergency brake. Open the hood and disconnect the negative (-) battery cable, using a wrench. The negative lead is usually black.

    2

    Open the brake fluid reservoir and check the brake fluid level. You will be retracting the pistons in the calipers later on, which will cause the brake fluid level to rise and possibly overflow, so if the tank is more than half full, use the turkey baster to remove some of the fluid, to prevent overflow. Put the fluid in a suitable container.

    3

    Place the two wheel chocks behind the rear wheels. Loosen all four lug nuts one full turn only on the two front wheels, using the tire iron. Do not remove the lug nuts.

    4

    Jack up the car at the proper jacking point (located behind the front wheel). Insert a jack stand, adjust it to the desired height, and make sure it is secure. Slowly lower the car onto the jack stand. Repeat this process on the other side. Both front tires should now clear the ground.

    5

    Remove the lug nuts and remove both front wheels. Perform this job on one side at a time, so you will always have one complete assembly as a visual reference.

Removing the Old Brake Pads

    6

    Remove the the lower 13 mm caliper bolt on the back side of the caliper. Use the 15 mm wrench to hold 15mm hex (located on the caliper side) in place while using the 13 mm socket to remove the bolt.

    7

    Place the large screwdriver between the rotor and the caliper and use it to start to compress the piston. Do this until the the pads loosen from the rotor. Swivel the caliper upward until it clears the rotor. There is a good chance that the caliper will be rusty. If necessary, spray it with rust removal spray, wait 10 minutes, wipe clean, and try again. Remove the brake pads.

    8

    Clean all surfaces with the brake cleaner.

    9

    Slide the upper slide out of the bracket and remove the caliper. Use the slip-joint pliers or a C-clamp to fully compress the piston into the caliper.

    10

    Check the condition of your rotors. If the rotors are warped or scored (grooved), replace both (not just one) of them. This is advisable in any case.

Installing the New Brake Pads

    11

    Pull out the lower slide pin located in the caliper bracket. Use a temperature-resistant synthetic grease to lubricate the slide pin. Push the lower pin back into the bracket.

    12

    Grease the back of both the brake pads and any sides that touch the caliper using the same temperature resistant synthetic grease. Apply the grease sparingly, and be careful not to get any on the surface that will touch the rotor.

    13

    Install the outer pad in the bracket for the caliper. Then install the inner pad with its clips into the caliper's piston.

    14

    Slide the upper pin, that should still be attached to the caliper, back in to the original hole at the top of the caliper mount.

    15

    Swing the caliper back down into position and reinstall the lower 13 mm bolt. Be careful not to crimp the brake line. If the brake line interferes, gently press it aside, but do not bend it.

    16

    Reinstall the caliper, and make sure the rattle clips on the top of the pads get compressed by the caliper. This will prevent hang ups and rattling later on.

    17

    Replete the process on the other side.

    18

    Replace the wheels and lug nuts.

    19

    Raise the car, one side at a time, and remove the jack stands. Slowly lower the car to the ground and use the torque wrench to tighten the lugs to 80 foot-pounds. Fill the brake-fluid reservoir to the "full" mark. Reconnect the battery cable.

    20

    Pump the brake pedal until it feels firm. This adjusts the pistons to the new pads. Adjust the brakes before driving, not while driving. This is important.

    21

    Test the car at very low speeds first and gradually work your way up to higher speeds. Remember to use the emergency brake if necessary.

How to Replace Brake Fluid on an Acura TL

How to Replace Brake Fluid on an Acura TL

The Acura TL has power brakes that use a power booster fueled by a vacuum to increase the stopping power of the vehicle. The whole hydraulic system wears with age, leaving the fluid contaminated and in need of replacement. Flushing the system is the same for almost every vehicle.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the brake reservoir cap. Siphon out any fluid using a turkey baster. Refill it with clean DOT-3 brake fluid. Monitor the reservoir while flushing the clean fluid through the system so that the reservoir does not drop beneath half-full.

    2

    Loosen all four bleed screws on the wheels until fluid is flowing out. Press the brake pedal firmly to the floor and tighten all four bleed screws. Release the pedal. Check the reservoir and fill it as needed. Repeat the process until clean fluid is pumping out of the bleed screws.

    3

    Press the brake pedal firmly to the floor. Tighten all four bleed screws and release the pedal. Check the reservoir and fill it as needed. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until clean fluid is pumping out of the bleed screws.

    4

    Bleed the passenger rear brake first, the driver rear brake second, the passenger front brake third and the driver front brake last. Prepare the bleed screws by placing one end of a rubber tube on the bleed screw and the other end in a clear plastic bottle partially filled with brake fluid. Check the reservoir to ensure it is full. Fill it as needed.

    5

    Press the brake pedal firmly to the floor and hold it there. Loosen the bleed screw. Monitor the fluid coming out of the rubber tubing and watch for air bubbles. Tighten the bleed screw when the flow stops. Release the pedal. Repeat the process until you see no air bubbles coming out of the tube for three turns.

    6

    Repeat steps 5 and 6 in the order outlined in step 5.

How to Remove the Rear Drum Brakes on a 2005 Sebring

The 2001 Chrysler Sebring was equipped with front disc brakes and rear drum brakes. The rear drum brakes on the 2001 Sebring include brake shoes, hardware and springs, brake drums and wheel cylinders. Replacing the brake drum parts will add strength to the entire brake system of the car. The 2001 Sebring was equipped with a 2.7-liter V-6 engine in the base model, with an optional 3.0-liter V-6 engine available. Replacing all parts in congruity on both sides of the vehicle, will add stability to the rear brake system.

Instructions

Rear Drum Brake Replacement Instructions

    1

    Loosen the rear-wheel lug nuts with a tire iron. Raise the rear of the Sebring with a jack. Place jack stands beneath the rear axle cross member. Lower the car onto the jack stands. Remove the rear-wheel lug nuts completely, then remove the rear wheels from the Sebring.

    2

    Remove the brake drum screw with a Phillips screwdriver or Torx bit hand driver. Remove the rear drums from the brake assembly by hand. If the drums do not come off easily by hand, remove the rubber stopper from the rear of the brake backing plate. Insert a flat-head screwdriver into the hole in the backing plate, and adjust the self-adjuster wheel on the brakes upward to loosen the brake shoes from inside the drum. Tap the drum on the sides to the front and rear of the car, to further loosen the shoes. Remove the brake drum.

    3

    Remove the shoe-to-lever spring between the brake shoe and adjuster lever, using a brake spring pick tool. Remove the adjuster assembly from between the two brake shoes. Remove the retainer spring from the bottom of both shoes, with the spring pick tool.

    4

    Remove the brake shoe hold-down springs and caps, using a cylindrical brake tool or nut driver. Turn the cap until the slot in the cap lines up with the flattened head of the hold-down pin. Release the cap and pull the pin out of the rear of the brake assembly by hand. Repeat this step to pull the hold-down spring off of the second brake shoe.

    5

    Remove the parking brake lever from the rearward shoe with a flat-head screwdriver. Open the retainer on the parking lever and remove the lever from the pin on the shoe. Remove the horseshoe-shaped retainer completely from the brake shoe, and remove the pin from the shoe by hand. Remove the brake shoes completely from the vehicle.

    6

    Inspect the wheel cylinder for damage or cracks in the rubber boots, on both ends of the cylinder. If the boots are cracked at all, the wheel cylinder needs to be replaced. Pull the banjo bolt off the rear of the wheel cylinder with a line wrench. Remove the brake line from the cylinder. Remove the two cylinder-mounting bolts with a ratchet and socket. Install a new wheel cylinder, and tighten the mounting bolts snug with your ratchet and socket. Install the brake line and banjo bolt, and tighten the banjo bolt snug.

    7

    Insert a parking brake lever pin into one of the new rearward facing shoes, according to the directional letter stamped on the shoe. The rear-facing shoes have an "L" to indicate the driver's side, or an "R" to indicate the passenger side, because they are designed to fit only one side of the car. The primary (front) shoes have no letters, and can go on either side. Insert the horseshoe clip onto the pin, and use your flat-head screwdriver to lock the clip and pin into place.Install the parking brake lever on the pin, and install the whole assembly onto the car.

    8

    Insert the hold-down pin for the rearward brake shoe through the backing plate and the brake shoe. Install the spring onto the pin, followed by the hold-down cap. Turn the cap with a cylindrical brake tool until the slit in the cap and the hold-down pin form a "+" shape. Install the forward-facing shoe and the hold-down spring. Install the lower return spring between the two brake shoes, using a spring pick tool.

    9

    Install the adjuster assembly between the two brake shoes. Install the shoe-to-lever spring between the brake shoe and adjuster lever, using the pick tool. Install the upper return spring between the two brake pads, using the pick tool to set the spring.

    10

    Inspect your brake drums for severe pitting or gouging on the inside of the drum. Measure the diameter of the drum opening with a tape measure. If the drum opening is more than 9 1/8 inches across, the brake drum needs to be replaced. Install an old or new brake drum over the new brake shoes. Insert the drum retaining screw and tighten the screw by hand, using a Phillips screwdriver or Torx bit driver.

    11

    Repeat steps 2 through 10 to complete the drum brake replacement on the second side of the Sebring. Continue to the second section of this project for bleeding instructions, once you have completed installation of the entire rear brakes and drums. If you did not replace the rear wheel cylinders, disregard this step and proceed to Step 12.

    12

    Install the rear wheels and fasten the lug nuts snug, using a tire iron. Raise the rear of the Sebring off of the jack stands, and remove the stands from beneath the car. Lower the Sebring to the ground and tighten the rear lug nuts to 100 foot-pounds, using a 1/2-inch drive torque wrench and socket.

    13

    Sit in the driver's seat of the Sebring. Pump the brake pedal slowly two times. Start the Sebring, and place your foot on the brake pedal. Engage the rear parking brake, then put the car in reverse or "R" on the shift indicator. Release the brake pedal slowly and allow the Sebring to roll backwards slightly with the parking brake engaged. This method of backing with the parking brake on, will automatically set the tension for your new brake shoes and drums. Stop the car and put the car in park. Turn the car off and disengage the parking brake.

Bleeding the Rear Brakes

    14

    Ask an assistant to sit in the driver's seat of the Sebring. Instruct your assistant to push the brake pedal completely to the floor of the car and hold it down. Open the bleeder screw on the back of the wheel cylinder with a line wrench. Allow the air to escape the brake line. Repeat this step three times on both sides of the Sebring, to bleed the large air pockets out of the brake lines.

    15

    Instruct your assistant to pump the brake pedal slowly until the pedal becomes stiff and hard to depress. Instruct your assistant to keep pressure on the brake pedal as it travels to the floor of the car. Open the bleeder screw and release the air from the brake lines. Close the bleeder screw snugly. Instruct your assistant to release the pedal. Repeat this step three times on both sides of the car, or until no more air comes out of the brake lines while bleeding.

    16

    Install the rear wheels and fasten the lug nuts snugly, using a tire iron. Raise the rear of the Sebring off of the jack stands, and remove the stands from beneath the car. Lower the Sebring to the ground and tighten the rear lug nuts to 100 foot-pounds, using a 1/2-inch drive torque wrench and socket.

Selasa, 30 Maret 2010

How to Replace the Jaguar XJ6's Rotors

How to Replace the Jaguar XJ6's Rotors

The Jaguar XJ6 is a luxury mid-sized saloon vehicle first sold in 1968. The XJ series was the last Jaguar model designed by founder William Lyons. Disc brakes were introduced in the Mark II series of XJ6, introduced in 1986, and have been added as a standard feature to every XJ6 since. Replacing the rotors of the XJ6's brake system is similar to other disc brake replacements and should only be done by a person knowledgeable about automotive mechanics.

Instructions

    1

    Place the wheel blocks underneath the wheels opposite the end of the vehicle that will be lifted. Use a 1/2-inch ratchet wrench and lug socket to break loose the lugs on the wheel that will have the rotor replaced. Roll the hydraulic lift underneath the vehicle and lift at a structure point. Place the jack stands underneath the wheel control arms (or axle support if replacing rear rotors) and lower the hydraulic lift until the weight of the vehicle is distributed evenly amongst the lift and the jack stands.

    2

    Remove the lugs entirely from the wheel and pull the wheel of the hub assembly. Place the lugs inside the wheel and slide the wheel underneath the vehicle. Use a slotted screwdriver to gently pry off the caliber retainer clip. For newer XJ6 vehicles, use the appropriate sized Allen wrench to remove the two retainer bolts also. Use a rubber mallet to gently tap the caliper off the rotor.

    3

    Place the caliper on the lower control arm. Pull the rotor off of the wheel assembly and discard. Replace with the new rotor, lining the drilled holes up with the hub assembly lug bolts.

    4

    Remove the brake pads from the caliper. Put a C-clamp inside the caliper near the piston unit and extend the pistons to their fully open position. Put the brake pads back into place. Push the caliper back into place, tapping it with a rubber mallet if necessary. Reinstall the metal retainer clip to the caliper and secure the two retainer bolts by tightening them to torque specifications, if used.

    5

    Put the wheel back onto the hub bolts and hand thread the lugs to the bolts. Lift the hydraulic lift to remove the jack stands. Lower and drop the vehicle and remove the hydraulic lift. Tighten the lugs to the torque specifications using the 1/2-inch ratchet wrench and lug socket. Remove the the wheel blocks.

Symptoms of Brake Problems

Symptoms of Brake Problems

If you have a car, it is likely your primary mode of transportation; however, your vehicle can become a danger to yourself and others if you start experiencing problems with your brakes. Problems with this crucial part of your car can start small and, if left unnoticed, can become a major issue. To avoid catastrophe, be aware of any problems as soon as they start.

Slow Response

    If you notice that your car doesn't start slowing as soon as you step on the brakes, or that the pedal seems mushy or spongy, there is likely a problem. There may be an air leak in the brake hose, or you may be leaking brake fluid. Look for a puddle on the ground when the car is parked, as this is a sign that there is a brake fluid leak. This fluid resembles motor oil.

Noise

    If your car makes a squeaking or grinding noise when you step on the brakes, you have a serious problem. These noises are a surefire sign that the brake pads have been completely worn down and are no longer working. When the pads are completely worn down, the disc and the caliper will rub together, resulting in the noise that you are hearing. Worn brake pads often results in damage to the rotors, as they get scratched by the rubbing of the caliper and disc. In addition to needing new pads, the rotors will either need to be turned, or resurfaced, or you will need new ones.

Pull

    If your car is pulling to one side when you step on the brakes, you may be experiencing a problem with the brakes. This may be a sign that the brakes are improperly adjusted and not wearing evenly, or that there is something in the brake fluid.

Dashboard Light

    Many cars, especially newer ones, have a brake warning light on the dashboard. If the light that simply says, "BRAKE," becomes illuminated, you could be experiencing one of two issues: your emergency brake may be on, in which case just release it, or you may have lost pressure in one of the hydraulic circuits due to a leak, in which case, you will need to have them repaired immediately. If your car has an anti-lock brake system, a light that reads, "ABS" will come on if something is wrong. When this light comes on, you vehicle should still stop, but the anti-lock brakes will automatically turn off.

Senin, 29 Maret 2010

DIY Brakes in a Mitsubishi Galant

DIY Brakes in a Mitsubishi Galant

The Mitsubishi Galant was manufactured with four-wheel hydraulic disk braking systems on most models. This system uses a pressurized design that applies force to friction rotors with braking pads to stop the vehicle. These parts can wear out and require repair and can be replaced by the average backyard mechanic in about a half-hour per wheel.

Prepare the Galant

    Raise and prepare the car by jacking it up and placing it on jack stands, then removing the wheel by turning its lug nuts counterclockwise. Set the wheel aside and inspect the brake for rust, damage or fluid leakage.

Remove the Caliper

    Remove the caliper and pads by turning the two bolts at the rear counterclockwise, then sliding the caliper off of the rotor. Check the pads for wear and pull them free, restraining the caliper's pistons with a clamp or vice grips. Set the caliper off to the side of the rotor, but do not let it hang by the brake lines. On the Galant, a convenient area to place the caliper temporarily is the control arm directly in back of the rotor.

Replace the Rotor

    Remove and replace the rotor, if necessary, by pulling it free of the hub. Older rotors may have become seized to the hub and can be broken free with anti-seizing spray and/or light taps from a mallet. The rotor can be "turned" by local automotive shops, where they machine the surfaces; the rotor must meet thickness requirements to be machined. Replacement is done by firmly pressing a new rotor into place.

Replace the Caliper

    Slide fresh pads onto the caliper (removing the clamp) and quickly position the caliper onto the rotor. The pistons will attempt to push out due to fluid pressure; the caliper must be on the rotor before it extends too far. Tighten the bolts on the rear of the caliper.

Wrapping Up

    Spray a generous amount of anti-squeal spray to the caliper's pad openings, but not on the front or sides of the pads directly. Replace the wheel by tightening the lug nuts, then lower it from the jack stands onto the ground with the jack. Bleed the brake line to this wheel by adding fresh fluid to the master cylinder while the bleeder nipple is open.

Minggu, 28 Maret 2010

How to Replace the Filter for a Bendix AD-9

The Bendix A9-D is an air dryer used as a filtration system for air brake compressors on 18-wheelers and other large vehicles. All large trucks with air brakes have air compressors, which keep the brake air tanks full so the truck can always stop when necessary. Since all air contains some humidity, the cooling of this humidity as it travels through compressors discharge lines can cause pools of water to gather at the bottom of the air tanks. The Bendix A9-D dries and removes contaminants trapped inside the "dessicant cartridge" --- the filter for the air dryer. You must replace the Bendix A9-D Dryer filter, or dessicant cartridge, when it becomes dirty.

Instructions

    1

    Access the vehicle's motor, and locate the air compressor for the air brake system. The air compressor is mounted on the side of the engine block. However, the side of the engine block on which the compressor is located may vary depending on the make and model of your rig. Locate the Bendix A9-D, a black object resembling a standard oil filter but larger. It will be mounted either directly below or on the side of the compressor.

    2

    Loosen the nut holding the metal clamp in place at the top of the filter using a wrench. Work the clamp, with the nut still inside it but loosened, off the top of the dryer body head.

    3

    Work the cover of the air dryer off by hand, or with a pipe wrench if necessary, by twisting it slightly back and forth and then pulling up on it.

    4

    Remove the old filter from the dryer canister by hand, and install the new filter.

    5

    Replace the dryer's cap, then slip the tightening bracket over it. Tighten the bracket retaining nut with your wrench.

Sabtu, 27 Maret 2010

How to Repair the Brakes on a 2008 Volkswagen Jetta 2.5

How to Repair the Brakes on a 2008 Volkswagen Jetta 2.5

Keeping your brakes in shape is very important for maintaining the safety and braking performance of your 2008 Volkswagen Jetta 2.5. In order to repair and replace the Jetta's brakes, the wheels must be removed and the components removed from the vehicle. Performing this task may take several hours to complete in normal conditions, but those who wish to perform this task themselves will save possibly hundreds of dollars on labor costs.

Instructions

Removing the Old Brakes

    1

    Park the Jetta on a flat, level surface. Loosen the lug nuts with the lug wrench prior to raising the vehicle. Siphon 1/3 of the brake fluid inside the brake master cylinder reservoir with a turkey baster. Dispose of the siphoned fluid in an environmentally friendly manner.

    2

    Raise the vehicle off the ground with a floor jack and secure the vehicle with jack stands. Finish removing the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the wheel from the hub to reveal the brake hardware.

    3

    Locate the caliper guide pins. These pins consist of a 13mm bolt and a 16mm nut in between. Use one combination wrench to hold the 16mm nut while working the 13mm bolt loose with a second combination wrench. Pull the caliper off of the caliper bracket and suspend it in mid-air with mechanic's wire.

    4

    Pry the brake pads loose from the caliper bracket with a slotted screwdriver. Use a 14mm triple square driver to remove the two bolts holding the caliper bracket to the hub. Move the bracket out of the way to gain access to the brake rotor.

    5

    Use a T30 Torx driver to remove the Torx screw from the front of the rotor. Grasp the rotor with both hands and pull it away from the hub. If the rotor is frozen on, apply a liberal amount of penetrative lubricant on rotor where it joins with the hub and allow it to set for a few minutes, and then gently tap the rotor free with a rubber mallet.

Installing the New Brakes

    6

    Apply a liberal amount of anti-seize lubricant to the hub prior to installing the new rotor. Mount the rotor onto the hub and secure it with the T30 Torx screw.

    7

    Reattach the caliper bracket onto the hub and over the rotor. Reinsert and tighten the two retaining bolts with the 14mm triple square driver. Insert the new brake pads into caliper bracket.

    8

    Use a brake service kit with the appropriate adapter to twist the brake caliper piston back inside of the caliper housing. The correct adapter will have two raised bits that fit inside of the notched slots on the caliper piston.

    9

    Slide the caliper over the brake pads and onto the caliper bracket. Reinsert the two guide pins and tighten them with the combination wrenches.

    10

    Repeat the procedure on the other wheels. Mount the wheel onto the hub and reattach the lug nuts. Tighten the nuts by hand before lowering the vehicle. Remove the jack stands and lower the vehicle to the ground. Use a torque wrench to tighten the lug nuts to 90 foot-pounds. Add fresh DOT 4 brake fluid to the brake master cylinder reservoir until it reaches the Full mark.

Jumat, 26 Maret 2010

Problems with Sebring Brakes

Problems with Sebring Brakes

The Chrysler Sebring was manufactured with a hydraulic braking system that uses a caliper/pad and drum/shoe setup to stop the vehicle. Later or upgraded models can have four wheel disc brakes. The average backyard mechanic can troubleshoot the Sebring brakes in about 30 minutes.

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Anti-Lock Braking

    The Sebring, like most other Chrysler models, had early problems with the anti-lock braking system (ABS) incorporated into the front calipers. The wiring harness connectors and sensors could malfunction and confuse the computer, or cause the calipers not to allow complete braking. The system is designed to prevent wheel lockup during hard braking by preventing the calipers from fully pushing the pads onto the rotor. This can be felt as a "hard pedal", or a lack of stopping power when the brakes are applied. Hard pedal can also be caused by problems with the power booster (in back of the master cylinder), but the ABS system is easier to repair and should be checked first.

Calipers and Pads

    As with many other disc brake systems, the inherent design of the rotor/caliper mechanism can lead to several issues: rotor warping, groove damage to the rotor, inexpensive pads causing grinding or squealing, and a loss of pressure due to bad caliper piston seals. All of these problems are alleviated by replacement parts, but could return if the cause is not addressed. Heat buildup from over-braking is the primary cause of braking system failures and damage, and can cause most of the issues listed. Poor manufacturing or obstruction from debris can cause grooves in the rotor (as the pads continue to scratch the friction surface), cutting large gashes that cannot typically be repaired except by total replacement.

Fluid

    Damaged parts and a buildup of heat can break down the hydraulic fluid that is in the caliper, brake lines, and master cylinder. The fluid, DOT-3 for the Sebring, will go from a golden-yellow color to a dark brown or black when the particles are damaged from heat. A complete purge of the braking system is required, to replace all of the fluid. Usually, the caliper pistons are at fault, as the pads heat up they come closest to the fluid at the piston. This "cooks" the fluid, and as it is retracted back into the system (as it cools or the brakes are released), it causes the heat to travel into sensitive areas of the system. The seals in the master cylinder and power booster are prone to damage from heat. The fluid will lose its ability to maintain pressure, as it introduces air into the system and compresses.

Pads

    Using ceramic pads instead of the semi-metallic types that came on the Sebring from the factory can reduce noise and increase the braking system's lifespan. Semi-metallic pads are usually produced as the cheapest, lowest common denominator of brake pads available. Ceramic pads are about 50% more money to purchase, but they do not wear as quickly, reduce heat buildup, and do not typically squeal.

Upgrading

    The Sebring's rotors are the same models used on many other Chrysler products, and while parts are less expensive, they are not ideal brakes for the car. Aftermarket brakes with larger rotors and calipers are manufactured to a higher quality, and will perform much better under stressful conditions. The larger rotor normally has air vents cut into it, and these are designed to reduce heat buildup. Larger rotors require larger calipers and pads, and these usually come as a kit.

Kamis, 25 Maret 2010

How to Change a Brake Rotor on a Dodge Ram 2500

The front brake rotors on a Dodge Ram 2500 are dual-faced vented rotors. Rotors always have a minimum thickness inscribed into the front of the rotor. They must be checked every time either the pads are being replaced or if they are being turned, due to a warpage situation.

Instructions

    1

    Raise and support the front of the vehicle on the jack stands. Remove the front wheels using the -inch drive air gun and the appropriate socket.

    2

    Place the drip pan under the rotor and caliper. Loosen the brake bleeder screw using a wrench. Spread the brake pads so you can push the caliper piston back into its bore. Insert the common screwdriver between the inside face of the rotor and the brake pad and pry the piston back into the caliper. Tighten the brake bleeder screw.

    3

    Remove the two bolts holding the caliper to the caliper mounting bracket using the 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Lift the caliper off the rotor and support the caliper so it does not hang by its hose.

    4

    Remove the caliper-mounting bracket using the 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Remove the rotor by pulling it off the wheel studs.

    5

    Replace all components in reverse order of removal. Refill the master brake cylinder. Start the engine and pump the brakes 10 times to adjust the front calipers.

Rabu, 24 Maret 2010

What Are Loaded Calipers?

What Are Loaded Calipers?

Calipers are clamp devices located on a vehicle's brakes. They work by pressing against the brake pads to help the vehicle stop or slow down. Over time, calipers become worn, and replacements can be purchased loaded or unloaded.

Comparisons

    Loaded calipers include an inner and outer brake pad, eliminating the need to purchase brake pads separately. An unloaded or bare caliper does not include brake pads.

Benefits

    Loaded calipers include new brake pads and parts--which make the brakes appear like new. They prevent the pads from wearing faster and prevent brake fluid leaks.

Exceptions

    If a vehicle only needs one caliper replaced, it is cheaper to purchase an unloaded caliper. If both calipers are faulty, purchasing loaded replacements will be less expensive.

How to Install Rotors on 2003 Civic

How to Install Rotors on 2003 Civic

You can install new brake rotors on your Honda Civic in your driveway, so there is no need of wasting money at an auto repair shop to get the job done. How often you need to change them depends on the amount of use they get. As you depress the brake pedal, fluid pushes the brake pads against the brake rotors. When you permit the brake pads to wear beyond the recommended thickness, the rivets will begin to cut grooves into the rotors. Brake rotors can be damaged other ways as well, but brake pad wear is the most common.

Instructions

    1

    Open the engine compartment of the Civic. Remove half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using the turkey baster. Place the fluid in the drain pan for future recycling. The brake master cylinder is on the back firewall of the engine compartment, on the driver's side.

    2

    Place the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels of the Civic. Raise the car up with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the car near the jacking point, and raise it to the frame. Remove the lug nuts from the wheel with the lug wrench, and pull the wheel off the car.

    3

    Remove the brake caliper bolts using a socket and ratchet. Secure the caliper to the strut using a wire tie. Remove the caliper mounting bracket using the socket and ratchet to remove the bolts. Remove the rotor retaining screws from the rotor using a screwdriver, and pull the rotor away from the wheel assembly.

    4

    Put the new rotor on the wheel assembly, and secure it with the retaining screws. Install the caliper mounting bracket, and tighten the bolts with the socket and ratchet. Cut the wire tie holding the caliper to the strut with the pliers. Place the caliper in the mounting bracket, and tighten the bolts with the socket and ratchet.

    5

    Put the wheel back on the Civic and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the car. Lower the Honda to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel.

    6

    Pump the brakes several times after both rotors are changed to make sure the brake pads seat themselves against the rotors. Add fresh brake fluid as needed.

Selasa, 23 Maret 2010

How to Change the Rear Brakes on a 1998 Toyota

How to Change the Rear Brakes on a 1998 Toyota

The rear brakes on the 1998 Toyota don't wear out nearly as fast as the front brakes do, but you still need to change them periodically. Making this project one of your regular maintenance tasks and changing them yourself can keep you from paying your hard-earned money unnecessarily to a repair garage. The project is not at all difficult and someone with no experience can change the rear brakes in about 45 minutes per wheel. When you start hearing that high pitched sound coming from the wheels when you apply the brakes, you'll know it's time to change them.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle on a level surface and wedge the wheel chocks on the front wheels. Loosen the lug nuts on the wheel on which you plan to work first, while the tire is still on the ground.

    2

    Raise the rear end of the car up with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the frame near the jacking point and raise it up to the frame. Release the automobile jack so the car rests on the jack stand.

    3

    Remove the wheel from the side you are starting with using the lug wrench to continue removing the lug nuts. Place the lug nuts aside.

    4

    Remove the brake drum by pulling it straight from the axle. Sometimes if the brake drum has been on for a long time, you will need to loosen it with the rubber mallet. Strike the drum on the sides a couple of times to free it and then pull it off.

    5

    Remove the return spring from the front brake shoe by unhooking it. The return spring is the one that is hooked both on the front and rear brake shoes.

    6

    Remove the retaining spring using the pliers to depress the round retainer and twisting one-quarter turn and pulling it from the brake shoe. Do this for both the front and rear brake shoes on that wheel. Remove the automatic adjuster, the adjuster strut and the springs. Remove the parking brake lever.

    7

    Clean the backing plate as well as the rest of the brake area. Check for any signs of leakage from the brake cylinder. Check inside the brake drum of any signs of scoring from bad brake shoes. If there is any damage, have the drums machined smooth or replace them.

    8

    Connect the automatic adjuster assembly to the new rear brake shoe and lock it into place with the C-clip. Connect the adjusting strut, return spring and the adjusting spring to the rear shoe. Place the rear shoe into place on the wheel assembly and lock it into place with the retaining spring. Turn it one-quarter turn while depressing it with the pliers to lock it in.

    9

    Put the front brake shoe on the wheel assembly and connect the return spring and adjuster spring to it using the pliers to stretch it across. Make sure the brake adjuster seats properly between the two brake shoes.

    10

    Install the anchor spring between the two screws and then place the brake drum over the brake assembly. Place the wheel back on the car.

    11

    Remove the jack stand from under the car and lower the car back to the ground. Repeat the process for the other wheel.

    12

    Once you have installed the rear brakes on both sides of the Toyota, have someone help you bleed the air out of the brake lines. Your helper pumps the brake pedal four or five times, stops at full depression and holds the pedal there as you open the bleeder valve on the backside of the wheel using a wrench. Do this two or three times until no more air comes out of the brake line. Repeat this for the other wheel.

How to Remove Rear Brake Drums on My 1999 Dodge RAM 2500

How to Remove Rear Brake Drums on My 1999 Dodge RAM 2500

While typically thought of as an obsolete technology, drum brakes are still in common use on vehicles today. Most trucks, like the 1999 Dodge Ram 2500, use drums on their rear wheels for reliability, durability and ease of maintenance. The rear drums on the 1999 Ram 2500 are typical of their type--sturdy and well built, and easy to remove and inspect when needed.

Instructions

    1

    Ensure that the truck is parked on a flat, dry surface with the front wheels blocked. Loosen the lug nuts and raise the rear of truck with floor jack and secure to jack stands.

    2

    Remove the wheels. Spray penetrating oil around the hub at the center of the drum as well as around each lug. Allow the oil time to penetrate for between five and 15 minutes, depending on the severity of any rust of seizing.

    3

    Tap lightly around the outside of the drum with a hammer to break free any rust or corrosion. Once the drum is loose, slide it from the lugs and remove it.

Senin, 22 Maret 2010

How to Do a Brake Job on a 1989 Corvette

The 1989 Chevy Corvette is equipped with four wheel anti-lock brakes, and a drum-in-hat style parking brake assembly. The drum-in-hat parking brake assembly eliminates the need for an actuator in the rear calipers. As a result, replacing the rear brake pads on the 89 Vette is very similar to replacing the front brake pads.

Instructions

Front brakes

    1

    Put the wheel chocks behind the rear wheels. Place a floor jack under the lower control arm and raise a front wheel off the ground. Position a jack stand under the frame and lower the Corvette onto it. Mark the position of one lug stud and the wheel, using a permanent marker, so that the wheel can be reinstalled in the proper orientation on the hub. Remove the front wheel, using the lug wrench, and place the wheel and lug nuts out of the way.

    2

    Remove the retainer clip and retainer pin that attach the caliper to the caliper bracket. Pry the caliper off the rotor and bracket, and remove the brake pads from the bracket. Remove the two caliper bracket bolts that attach the bracket to the steering knuckle. Slide the bracket off the rotor. Slide the rotor off the hub assembly.

    3

    Measure the rotor, using a micrometer, to determine if the rotor is within thickness tolerances. Replace any rotor on the front of the 1989 Corvette that is below 0.724 inch in thickness on standard duty brake systems, and 1.039 inch thickness on heavy duty brake systems. Rotors above this minimum specification can be resurfaced ( machined on a brake lathe) by your local auto repair shop or parts store. If you don't have a micrometer, the parts store or machine shop will measure the rotors for you.

    4

    Use a small wire brush to clean the contact surfaces of the caliper bracket and caliper. Apply a small amount of silicon brake lube to the caliper bracket at the top and bottom contact points on the bracket. Slide the new or resurfaced rotor onto the hub assembly, and bolt the caliper bracket in place.

    5

    Push the caliper pistons into the caliper housing using a caliper piston tool designed for multiple piston calipers like the ones on the Corvette. Snap the new pads into the caliper. Install the caliper and retaining pin onto the caliper bracket. Install the retaining clip onto the retaining pin. Reinstall the wheel and tighten the lug nuts securely. Repeat the procedure for the remaining front wheel.

Rear brakes

    6

    Place the wheel chocks in front of the front wheels. Jack up the rear of the car and support on jack stands. Remove a rear wheel. Remove the two guide pins that attach the caliper to the caliper bracket. Slide the caliper off the bracket and rotor. Remove the two bolts that attach the caliper bracket and remove the bracket. Slide the rotor off the hub assembly. Measure the rotors for thickness. Replace any rotor that doesn't meet the minimum thickness standards. Minimum thickness is 0.724 inch for standard duty brake systems and 1.039 for heavy duty systems. If the rotors meet this minimum thickness standard, have them machined at your local auto parts store or repair shop.

    7

    Clean and lubricate, using a wire brush and brake lube, the contact points for the brake pads on the caliper bracket. Re-install the rotor and caliper bracket.Compress the caliper piston using a c-clamp.

    8

    Slip the new pads into the caliper bracket, and slide the caliper into place over the rotor and new pads. Install the slide pin bolts and tighten them securely.

    9

    Pump the brake pedal to expand the caliper piston into the pads. Top off the brake fluid and test drive to burnish the pads.

Minggu, 21 Maret 2010

How to Change Rear Brakes on a 1997 Ford Taurus

How to Change Rear Brakes on a 1997 Ford Taurus

The Ford Taurus' rear brakes use brake shoes, which primarily work with the parking brake. These shoes are installed within cylinders encased by the brake drums. The brake shoes are held and controlled by multiple springs and levers, making the rear brakes a complex assembly that requires precision when you need to change the shoes. Talking with your mechanic is highly recommended before changing them out.

Instructions

Accessing the Brake Shoes

    1

    Apply the parking brake and block the car's front wheels.

    2

    Raise the car's rear end and support it on jack stands.

    3

    Remove the rear wheels with the lug wrench.

    4

    Take off the brake drums by removing any retaining clips and slipping the drum off. You will not need to reinstall the clips later.

    5

    Clean off the brake assembly with brake cleaner spray, using a drip pan to catch any residue.

Removing the Brake Shoes

    6

    Depress and turn the retainers for the hold-down springs and pins to remove them from each shoe. This requires pliers or a special tool from the auto parts store.

    7

    Slide the brake shoe assembly--including the shoes and springs--down so you can disengage the top ends of the shoes from the cylinder and tilt them to lift them past the retaining plate.

    8

    Unhook the lower retracting spring from the front brake shoe to disconnect it. Spread the shoes apart at the bottom to remove the adjusting screw, the screw's retracting spring and the adjuster lever. Remove the front brake shoe.

    9

    Pull the parking brake cable spring back with diagonal cutting pliers, grip the cable with the pliers without cutting it, unhook the cable from the parking brake lever and remove the rear brake shoe with the lever.

    10

    Disconnect the parking brake lever from the rear shoe by spreading the retaining clip with a screwdriver and removing the clip and its spring washer.

Installing the Brake Shoes

    11

    Connect the parking brake lever to the replacement rear brake shoe by inserting the lever's pivot pin into the back of the shoe and then through the lever. Connect a new washer and retaining clip onto the lever and crimp it closed with pliers.

    12

    Install the parking brake cable within the lever and hook the lower retracting spring onto the new rear and front brake shoes. Slide the shoes down and onto the cylinder's retaining plate.

    13

    Install the hold-down pin for the rear shoe with its spring and retainer, then insert the adjuster screw assembly into the notch on the rear shoe.

    14

    Connect the adjuster lever onto the parking brake lever's pivot pin and install the front shoe with its hold-down pin, spring and retainer. Stretch and attach the adjuster screw's retaining spring to the adjuster lever using pliers.

    15

    Connect the drum back onto the brake assembly and pull out the rubber plug from the backing plate.

    16

    Turn the star wheel with the backing plate's hole using a thin screwdriver until the brake shoes drag against the drum. Turn it in the opposite direction just enough for the shoes to stop dragging. Reconnect the rubber plug.

    17

    Reconnect the wheels and lower the car once you've changed the brake shoes on both sides.

How to Troubleshoot Brake Problems

No other system is as important to any vehicle as the brake system, since the brake system is solely responsible for slowing and stopping the vehicle. Brake problems can be difficult to precisely identify without visually inspecting the various components of the system. However, most problems can at least be narrowed down to a few possible causes based on what the vehicle is or is not doing.

Instructions

Vehicle Pulls to One Side

    1

    Check for low or uneven tire pressure with a tire pressure gauge.

    2

    Remove the brake fluid reservoir cover and check for a low fluid level in one of the divided sections of the reservoir, which indicates that one or more of the wheel cylinders are leaking. Some fluid reservoirs, particularly those on older vehicles, use a wire to hold the cover onto the reservoir. Rotate the wire to the side and lift the cover off. More modern designs typically use a single bolt in the center of the cover to secure the cover to the fluid reservoir. Remove the bolt with a wrench and lift the cover off of the reservoir. If one side of the fluid reservoir is low, remove the wheels with a lugnut wrench and inspect the wheel cylinders for leaks.

    3

    Inspect the wheel bearings for signs of wear, such as deep gouges in the surfaces of the bearings.

    4

    Inspect the brake lining for wear and for the presence of oil or grease.

    5

    Check whether the brake shoes are improperly adjusted or distorted, if the vehicle is equipped with drum brakes.

Brakes Chatter

    6

    Inspect the brake lining for a glazed finish and for the presence of oil or grease. Glazing occurs when the lining is subjected to higher-than-normal temperatures, and typically results when the lining has not been replaced for a long period of time.

    7

    Ensure that each brake's backing plate is not loose. If necessary, tighten the plate's retaining bolts with a wrench.

    8

    Check for excessive clearance between the brake shoes and the caliper and between the shoe and the splash shield, if the vehicle is equipped with disk brakes. Also check for a missing or improperly positioned shoe hold-down clip.

    9

    Check each of the front suspension's components if the brakes seem to be in working order but the problem persists.

Excessive Brake Pedal Travel

    10

    Remove the brake fluid reservoir cover and check for a low fluid level. If the fluid is low, add only new brake fluid to the reservoir and inspect the brake lines for signs of fluid leaks. Also note that brake fluid is not universal, meaning that specific brake fluid must be used with specific vehicles. Consult the vehicle owner's manual for the proper type of brake fluid.

    11

    Bleed the brake system of any air, particularly if the brake pedal has a spongy feel when depressed.

    12

    Check whether the brake shoes are improperly adjusted or distorted, if the vehicle is equipped with drum brakes. Also inspect the drums for cracks.

Noisy Brakes

    13

    Check the brake drums for distortion and for improper adjustment.

    14

    Inspect the brake lining for a glazed finish and for the presence of oil or grease. Glazing occurs when the lining is subjected to higher-than-normal temperatures, and typically results when the lining has not been replaced for a long period of time.

    15

    Remove the brake caliper and inspect the caliper for a frozen or seized piston, if the vehicle is equipped with disk brakes. Also check the alignment between the caliper and the rotor.

    16

    Check the front wheel alignment if the problem persists, as the noise may be caused by the brakes falling out of adjustment as the suspension flexes, particularly if the noise is only produced when the vehicle is turned.

Sabtu, 20 Maret 2010

How to Replace a Caliper in a GMC Sierra

Replacing a major part on any car, like a brake caliper on a GMC Sierra, is not an easy task. The chassis of a Sierra is pretty much the same as the Chevy Silverado, so similar parts can be used. However, consult your mechanic or an expert before taking on such important repairs.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the vehicle up on the jack stand. Drain two-thirds of the brake fluid from the master cylinder. Remove the tire and wheel assembly.

    2

    Disconnect the brake hose from the caliper by removing the fitting bolt. Throw away the washers that are with the bolt. Plug the hose with a piece of rubber.

    3

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts and slide the caliper off the body. You will need to remove the outer shell of the mounting bracket to remove a rear caliper.

    4

    Install the new caliper onto the rotor or bracket. Attach the caliper mounting bolts and tighten them to 31 foot pounds for the front and 74 foot pounds for the back on a 15 series, and 80 foot pounds for both ends on the 25 series.

    5

    Connect the brake hose to the caliper. Use new washers with the inlet fitting bolt. Tighten the bolt to 33 foot pounds.

    6

    Bleed the brake system. Open the bleeder valve, attach a transparent hose to it and have another person depress the pedal to remove the air.

    7

    Reattach the wheel and lower the car. Pump the brake until it feels firm and road test the vehicle.

Kamis, 18 Maret 2010

How to Replace the Brake Booster on a Ford Explorer

Brake boosters for the Ford Explorer don't typically need replacing. However, if you press on the brake pedal and the pedal goes all the way to the floor (and there are no fluid leaks), that's a good indication that your booster has failed. The brake booster on the Ford Explorer is mounted to the firewall in the engine bay. You'll need to remove the master cylinder to get to it. If you've never done this job before, you'll need to allow yourself at least an hour to get through it.

Instructions

    1

    Mark the brake lines coming into and out of the master cylinder using masking tape and permanent marker.

    2

    Orient the tube wrench so that it grabs the end of the nut by first sliding it over the brake line.

    3

    Pull the brake lines out of the master cylinder.

    4

    Unbolt the two bolts that hold the master cylinder to the brake booster.

    5

    Slide the master cylinder off the brake booster.

    6

    Remove the bolts that hold the brake booster to the firewall.

    7

    Remove the cotter pin from the pin holding the back of the brake pedal to the master cylinder.

    8

    Slide the brake booster to brake pedal pin out of the mounting bracket.

    9

    Pull the brake booster off the firewall.

    10

    Install the new brake booster. Installation is the reverse of removal.

How to Remove a Master Cylinder in a 1993 Ford Ranger

How to Remove a Master Cylinder in a 1993 Ford Ranger

The master cylinder is an important part of the braking system. It takes the braking power produced by the brake booster and pushes the brake fluid to the front and rear brakes. As it is a hydraulic system, there are internal seals. If they go out, your brakes can go out too, which could cause an accident. If you feel your brakes slipping in your '93 Ford Ranger and it has a lot of miles, replace the master cylinder preemptively to solve the problem.

Instructions

    1

    Pop the hood. Unplug the electrical connection to the master cylinder using your hands.

    2

    Remove the brake lines running to the master cylinder using the line wrench. Then unbolt the bracket retaining nuts on that hold on brake line brackets at the connection between the master cylinder and the brake booster.

    3

    Unbolt the master cylinder from the brake booster using an open-end wrench. Lift the master cylinder off of the studs and place it to the side.

Selasa, 16 Maret 2010

How to Replace a Caliper in a Mercury Cougar

Because the Mercury Cougar is out of circulation, finding replacement parts like brake calipers can be hard. Your best bet is to find complimentary parts from related models, like the Ford Thunderbird. Consult with an expert and verify all parts before performing major service on your Cougar.

Instructions

Removing Old Calipers

    1

    Remove the tire and wheel assembly once the car is securely raised. Use the "five-star" pattern to remove the lug nuts, removing the nut across from the one previously removed.

    2

    Disconnect the outer disc brake pad spring clip (also called the anti-rattle clip) from the front caliper. Remove the parking brake's rear cable and conduit from the rear caliper (This will require a pair of pliers).

    3

    Take the covers off the two locator pins and remove the pins.

    4

    Unhook the brake hose from its mounting on the strut. Place a pan under the caliper, disconnect the hose from the caliper and allow the fluid to drain. Dispose of the fluid properly.

    5

    Lift the caliper off the brake rotor and remove the inboard disc brake pad from the caliper. Remove the caliper from the rotor completely.

Installing New Calipers

    6

    Position the brake hose onto the new caliper and the inboard brake pad into it. Make sure the outboard brake pad is also positioned properly.

    7

    Install the caliper over the brake rotor and position it onto the anchor plate. Connect the locator pins and attach the pin covers.

    8

    Attach the outer disc brake pad spring clip to the caliper. Connect the brake hose to the front strut.

    9

    Connect the spring clip/cable and conduit to the caliper. If attaching the cable and conduit to the rear caliper, operate the parking brake control several times to properly adjust it.

    10

    Bleed the brake system.

    11

    Reinstall the wheel and lower the car.

    12

    Pump the brake pedal several times while stopped to position the brake pads. Then road test the car and check for proper brake operation.

Bleeding the Brake System

    13

    Clean around the master cylinder fill cap and bleeder screws. Fill the master cylinder with brake fluid to within a quarter inch of the reservoir's top edge.

    14

    Attach a rubber hose over the bleeder screw Place the hose's other end in a glass jar half-filled brake fluid.

    15

    Open the bleeder screw a little more than a half turn. Have another person slowly depress the brake pedal, close the screw and wait for the pedal to retract. Repeat this until all air is removed from the system.

    16

    Top off the reservoir afterward.

How to Repair Disc Brakes

Disc brakes work with large metal discs that turn with the wheels and are squeezed by the brake pads to stop. Over time, the discs can become worn down and damaged, especially if you leave worn out brake pads installed. Brakes with bad pads can cut grooves into the discs. If you see this while changing your brakes, the discs need to be repaired by having a professional refinish them, if not replaced outright.

Instructions

    1

    Raise one end of the vehicle-- front or back--on jack stands and remove the wheels. It helps to loosen the lug nuts before raising the vehicle.

    2

    Remove the caliper from the disc by disconnecting its mounting bolts. If the caliper is in good condition, hang it somewhere out of the way with a strong wire--never let it hang by the brake hose. If the caliper is damaged, disconnect it from the hose by removing the banjo bolt and replace the caliper.

    3

    Disconnect the lug nuts and/or retaining screws to remove the disc from the vehicle. If the mounting screws are stuck, loosen them with an impact screwdriver. If the disc is stuck on the rotor, thread two bolts into the open holes that are on the disc and tighten them to force the disc off.

    4

    Remove any glaze from the disc's surface by running an emery cloth or sandpaper across it in a swirling motion.

    5

    Take the disc to an automotive machine shop to refinish or machine the disc. The disc cannot be refinished to where it is thinner than its specified minimum thickness. This thickness is stamped or cast into the disc and can be measured with a micrometer.

    6

    Fit the disc back onto its rotor and apply its lug nuts or screws. Reconnect the caliper to the disc with its mounting bolts, replace the wheel and lower the vehicle.

Senin, 15 Maret 2010

How to Change the Brake Rotors on a 2001 Ford Taurus

How to Change the Brake Rotors on a 2001 Ford Taurus

Ford Motor Company introduced the Taurus in 1986. The 2001 Ford Taurus was equipped with three different engines, a 3.0-liter V-6 DOHC engine, a 3.0-liter EFI engine and a 3.0-liter Flex Fuel engine. The front brakes on the 2001 Taurus were disc brakes, and the rears were drum brakes. Replace the rotors on the 2001 Taurus when the brake rotors are too thin to assist in stopping the vehicle properly.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Taurus on a level surface. Raise the hood of the Taurus. Find the brake fluid reservoir in the driver's side rear area of the engine compartment. Remove fluid from the brake fluid reservoir with a turkey baster or a small bottle siphon until the fluid level is about 1/4-inch below the "Full" mark.

    2

    Loosen the wheel lug nuts with a tire iron. Raise the front of the Taurus with a jack. Place jack stands beneath the front of the vehicle, under the subframe rails. Find these rails on either side of the bottom of the engine. Lower the vehicle onto the jack stands. Remove the wheel lug nuts, and then the wheels completely from the front of the car.

    3

    Remove the caliper bolts from a single caliper, using a ratchet and socket. Use a small pry bar to help pull the caliper free from the caliper bracket, if needed. Hang the caliper from the front-strut coil spring with a metal clothes hanger or thin metal rod. Do not let the caliper hang by the rubber hose attached to it. Remove the brake pads from the caliper-mounting bracket.

    4

    Set one of the pads against the caliper piston found on the inside rear of the caliper. Attach a large C-clamp against the rear of the caliper and the brake pad. Compress the brake caliper, using the C-clamp as a lever.

    5

    Remove the caliper-mounting bracket from the rear of the steering knuckle assembly, using a breaker bar and a socket. Set the caliper bracket to the side, and remove the brake rotor by hand. Use a hammer to tap the old rotor gently from the wheel hub if necessary.

    6

    Install the new rotor onto the wheel hub assembly. Put the caliper bracket back onto the steering knuckle, and tighten the bolts between 65- and 87 foot-pounds of torque, with a torque wrench and socket.

    7

    Install new brake pads onto the caliper bracket. There are two types of pads in a set. Two of the pads have a metal "L" protruding from the back of the pad. This "L" is a wear indicator. Place one pad with the wear indicator behind the rotor. Place one pad without a wear indicator in front of the rotor. Lightly lubricate the backs of each brake pad with a thin film of caliper grease.

    8

    Remove the two metal slide tubes from the rear of the hanging caliper. The slide tubes are the threaded tubes, which the caliper bolts screw into. Lubricate each tube thoroughly with caliper grease, and then install the tubes back into the caliper. Remove the caliper from the metal hanger, and place the caliper back onto the brake assembly. Do not twist the rubber brake hose attached to the caliper. Insert and tighten the caliper bolts to 26-foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and socket.

    9

    Repeat Steps 3 through 9 to complete the second side of the Taurus. Double-check the torque on both calipers and caliper brackets when finished with the rotor replacement.

    10

    Install the wheels on the car and tighten the lug nuts with a tire iron. Raise the front of the Taurus using the jack, and remove the jack stands. Lower the vehicle to the ground, and immediately tighten the wheel lug nuts on both front wheels between 85- and 104-foot pounds, using the torque wrench and socket.

    11

    Enter the driver's side of the Taurus. Pump the brake pedal slowly, no less than ten times. The pedal should "stiffen" or be more difficult to push downward with each pump.

    12

    Check the fluid level in the brake fluid reservoir. Add D.O.T. III or greater brake fluid to the reservoir, until the fluid reaches the "Full" mark, if necessary. Replace the brake-fluid reservoir cap, and ensure it secures properly. Close the hood when finished adding fluid.

Pipe Flaring Tools

Pipe Flaring Tools

Whether you perform plumbing or car repair as a hobby or are a full-time mechanic or plumber, a good flaring tool makes the job of replacing or fixing pipes and pipe fittings a lot easier.

Pipe Flaring Tools for Brake Systems

    A flaring tool helps keep your car's brake pipes in great condition.
    A flaring tool helps keep your car's brake pipes in great condition.

    Professional brake tube flaring tools range widely in price and quality. A good pipe flaring tool for brake systems should be constructed of hard steel and be easily operated by hand. The flaring bar should consist of two parts with adjustable indentations for various pipe sizes. Different sized adaptors and dies for the pipes to be flared should be part of the tool, and the flaring cone and the screw that pushes the flaring cone into the pipe should be able to withstand pressure and should be easy to screw, preferably with a sliding T-handle.

Pipe Flaring Tools For Plumbing

    Every plumber relies on a pipe flaring kit.
    Every plumber relies on a pipe flaring kit.

    Pipe flaring tools for plumbing are similar to brake flaring tools. They, too, should have a separable flaring bar with indentations for the different sizes of pipes. This bar or yoke should be made of stainless steel or a similar hard metal. Pipe flaring tools for plumbing should be able to flare copper, aluminum, brass and other thin-walled tubing, and should handle the most common sizes from 3/16-inch to 5/8-inch tubing. It should also feature extended bars for use in a vise, dies and adaptors.

Pipe Flaring Toolkits

    A professional brake pipe flaring toolkit has the tools to create 45-degree single and double brake flares in brake lines, transmission cooler lines and fuel lines. The mechanic should be able to use the tools in this kit on steel and other metal tubing. A good kit has the necessary brake-flare-forming dies for the different diameters of the more common tubing. The kits should come with the pipe flaring tool, dies, the handle for the dies if necessary, instructions and a case. They may also include tube benders. A good professional plumbing flaring tool kit includes double-flare inserts and should have the tube sizes marked on the bars. It should also include the dies and adaptors for the most common sized pipes. A trimming tool to smooth the flare afterward is also part of a good flaring toolkit.

Minggu, 14 Maret 2010

How to Replace the Brake Booster in a C1500

The brake booster on a Chevrolet C1500 takes the vacuum power from the engine and converts it into extra braking power for the brake master cylinder. If the brake booster fails, the brakes will still work, but they will be substantially more difficult to activate. To fix the problem, the brake booster must be removed from the truck, and then a replacement model must be installed. This should take about an hour to do.

Instructions

    1

    Pop the hood. Pull off the vacuum line on the brake booster, which is located on the driver's side of the firewall. Unbolt the master cylinder from the brake booster using an open-end wrench.

    2

    Look underneath the dash and find the end of the brake pedal where the brake booster linkage connects to the pedal. Remove the clip holding the linkage to the pedal with the flat head screwdriver. Unbolt the four bolts holding the booster to the firewall with the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket and 3/8-inch universal joint.

    3

    Pull the brake booster off of the firewall with both hands and discard it. Put the replacement brake booster onto the firewall and slide the master cylinder over the studs on the booster. Loosely install the nuts onto the master cylinder.

    4

    Connect the brake linkage to the pedal using the factory clip, then bolt the booster to the firewall with the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket and 3/8-inch universal joint.

    5

    Push the vacuum line onto the booster with your hands. Tighten up the master cylinder to the brake booster using an open-end wrench.

Sabtu, 13 Maret 2010

How to Replace the Front Brakes on a 1998 Sunfire

How to Replace the Front Brakes on a 1998 Sunfire

Properly performing brakes are essential to a safely operating vehicle. Pads are a component of your vehicle's braking system. The pads are held in place by a caliper that compresses the pads against the rotor. Your wheels are attached to the rotor and mounted in place with several bolts (lug nuts). Brake pads often contain an embedded device designed to "squeak" during braking once the pad reaches a certain level. This squeak acts as an indicator that the brake pads are wearing thin and in need of replacement. Replacing the brake pads on your 1998 Pontiac Sunfire is a task a do-it-yourselfer can perform.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Sunfire on a level surface and brace the rear wheels using wheel chocks. Loosen the lug nuts on both front wheels. Place the floor jack under the center of the front axle. Raise the front end and position a jack stand under the front axle on each end, then lower the car onto the jack stands.

    2

    Remove the wheel lug nuts and take off the wheel and tire. Locate the two mounting bolts located on both ends of the caliper and remove them using the socket wrench.

    3

    Lift the entire caliper assembly off of the rotor and support it on bricks or another suitable structure. This will prevent the caliper from hanging and being supported only by the brake fluid hose, which could damage the hose.

    4

    Take out both the outer and inner brake pads from the caliper assembly and discard.

    5

    Repeat steps 1 through 4 on the opposite side brake assembly.

    6

    Raise the hood and remove the master brake cylinder reservoir cap. Remove approximately half of the fluid within the reservoir using the turkey baster. This will prevent overflow when you retract the caliper piston in the next step.

    7

    Push the caliper piston back into the caliper cylinder to create space for the replacement brake pads using the C-clamp. The piston must be pushed completely into the cylinder for the replacement pads and caliper unit to fit over the rotor.

    8

    Set the outer replacement pad in the caliper assembly, followed by the inner replacement brake pad. Snap each pad into place, being certain that they're correctly seated.

    9

    Place the caliper assembly over the rotor and into its mounting bracket. Install the two mounting bolts and tighten using the socket wrench.

    10

    Repeat steps 7 through 9 on the opposite side brake assembly.

    11

    Remount both of the wheels and lug nuts. Tighten the lugs on both wheels.

    12

    Refill the master brake reservoir with new DOT 3 rated brake fluid.

    13

    Have an assistant press the brake pedal down, while you replace the reservoir cap, and then release the brake. Remove the cap and once again have the assistant press down the brake pad while you then replace the cap. This will remove any trapped air within the braking system.

    14

    Raise the car and remove the jack stands, then lower the car to the ground. Finish tightening the lug nuts. Drive the vehicle, making several sudden and abrupt stops to test the brake system. Recheck the brake fluid level and add more as necessary.

2000 Nissan Xterra Brake Job Instructions

2000 Nissan Xterra Brake Job Instructions

A full brake job on your Nissan Xterra should include changing the brake pads and inspecting the condition of the brake disc, or rotor, itself on your front brakes. This procedure is similar to that of other vehicles, but it is important to make sure you get the exact size and type of brake pads for your model. You will likely need a brake job on your Xterra at 80,000 miles, maybe sooner.

Instructions

Inspection

    1

    Open up the brake fluid reservoir in the engine compartment and siphon out two thirds of the fluid using a turkey baster or similar tool. Follow proper procedures for disposing of the brake fluid. Laws for disposal may vary by locality.

    2

    Loosen the wheels' lug nuts using the tire iron. Raise the Xterra's front end using the floor jack (consult the owner's manual for proper lifting points) and lower the SUV onto the jack stands. Remove the front wheels.

    3

    Wash off the entire brake disc assembly using brake cleaner spray and a drip pan. Make sure you know how to dispose of this residue in your area.

    4

    Press the brake caliper's piston into the piston bore using a C-clamp; tighten the clamp a little bit at a time and check the reservoir's fluid level, making sure it doesn't overflow.

    5

    Unbolt and remove the brake caliper from the disc using your wrench and hang it from the suspension using a strong wire, making sure you don't stretch the brake hose.

    6

    Inspect the surface of the brake disc, looking for deep grooves that would indicate the need to replace the rotor. You can disregard shallow grooves or light scratches.

    7

    Connect a dial indicator to the disc about a half inch from the outer edge, set the indicator to zero and then turn the disc. The indicator should not exceed .07 millimeters (.0028 inches).

    8

    Unbolt and remove the caliper mounting bracket and slide the brake disc off the studs to replace it if it fails either of the two tests above.

Pad Change

    9

    Pull and remove the brake pads out of the caliper mounting bracket with the bracket connected to the brake disc.

    10

    Remove the slide pins and the pad retainers from the ends of the caliper bracket and clean them off. Remove the shims from the old pads.

    11

    Apply an anti-squeal compound to the back of the replacement brake pads and connect the shims to the new pads.

    12

    Install the pad retainers into the bracket and then install the replacement brake pads.

    13

    Coat the slide pin with high-temperature grease and install it within the bracket.

    14

    Reconnect the brake caliper to the mounting bracket and tighten the bolts to between 16 and 23 ft-lbs.

    15

    After changing the brake pads on both wheels, put the wheels back on the lug nut bolts and tighten the lug nuts by hand in a star pattern. Jack up the Xterra above the jack stands, remove the stands and lower the SUV to the ground. Finish tightening the lug nuts in a star pattern with the tire iron.

    16

    Fill the reservoir to the maximum line with fresh brake fluid.

    17

    Press the brake pedal multiple times until it feels firm.

How to Replace Rotors on a Honda Civic

How to Replace Rotors on a Honda Civic

The brake rotors on a Honda Civic perform a critical safety function. They provide the friction surface needed for your brake pads to clamp down on so that you can stop your car. The rotor is a disc that is connected to the drive shaft or half shaft (depending on the side of the vehicle the rotor is on) and spins with the wheel. When the brake pad clamps down on the rotor, the vehicle slows down. Over time, the rotor will wear down and must be replaced. Service times will vary, depending on your driving style.

Instructions

    1

    Put the socket end of the tire wrench over the lug nuts of the driver's-side and passenger's-side wheel. Turn the wrench counterclockwise to loosen the lug nuts.

    2

    Place the floor jack under the front jack point on the Civic and jack up on it. This will be an extension of the frame.

    3

    Place the jack stands under the frame of the Civic on each side. You can also place the jack stands under the pinch welds of the vehicle located under the driver's and passenger's side door.

    4

    Lower the Civic onto the jack stands and check to make sure the car is stable. To do this, check the contact of the frame or pinch welds to the jack stands. If they look unstable, jack the car back up and reposition the stands.

    5

    Finish loosening and removing the wheels.

    6

    Unbolt the upper and lower caliper mounting bolts.

    7

    Lift the caliper off the rotor and secure it to the coil springs above the brake assembly using zip ties.

    8

    Locate the two screws near the center of the rotor. Using the mini screwdriver, loosen and remove the screws. Most cars do not have these retaining screws, but you cannot remove the rotor without removing these screws on the Civic.

    9

    Hit the back of the rotor with the rubber mallet until the rotor comes loose.

    10

    Remove and replace the rotor with a new rotor.

    11

    Reassemble the brake assembly. Installation is the reverse of removal.

    12

    Put the wheel/tire back over the hub assembly and tighten the lug nuts down.

    13

    Repeat steps 5 - 12 for the other wheel.

    14

    Lower the Civic to the ground and torque all of the lug nuts to 100 foot lbs.

How to Replace the Brakes and Calipers on a 1998 Plymouth Voyager

How to Replace the Brakes and Calipers on a 1998 Plymouth Voyager

The brake pads and brake calipers on your 1998 Plymouth Voyager work in conjunction to stop the vehicle when the brake pedal is depressed. The cylinder inside of the brake caliper pushes the brake pads to the sides of the rotors. When the cylinder inside of the caliper has completely compressed the brake pads to the sides of the rotor, the Voyager will come to a safe stop. When the brake pads wear down, they will need to be changed.

Instructions

    1

    Park your 1998 Plymouth Voyager on a flat surface and open the hood.

    2

    Remove the black plastic lid on the brake fluid container. The brake fluid container holds all of the brake fluid.

    3

    Loosen the lug nuts from both front wheels with a lug wrench. Jack your 1998 Plymouth Voyager up in the air and position jack stands under the side rails on both sides of the van. Be sure to position the jack stands near the front of the van. Release the jack so that the Voyager is sitting securely on the jack stands.

    4

    Remove both front wheels from the Voyager by taking off the lug nuts a lug wrench. Pull both the front driver side and passenger side wheels off.

    5

    Locate the opening at the top of the brake caliper. Slide a small pry bar inside of the opening and pry the caliper back and forth. This will free the caliper from the rotor.

    6

    Remove the brake caliper from the front driver's side hub. There are two small bolts on the back side of the caliper that can be removed with a 1/2-inch drive ratchet and a metric socket. Turn the bolts counterclockwise to loosen then remove them.

    7

    Remove the brake fluid supply line from the rear of the caliper with an open-end wrench. Turn the hex nut on the brake fluid supply line counterclockwise to loosen and remove the line from the rear of the caliper.

    8

    Slide the caliper off of the brake rotor and set the old brake caliper to the side.

    9

    Place the new brake pads inside of the new brake calipers. Position the new pads into the new caliper in the same direction as the old pads.

    10

    Place the new caliper with the new brake pads onto the brake rotor. Position the new brake caliper so that you can put the bolts back into the rear of the caliper. Retighten the bolts with the 1/2-inch drive ratchet and metric socket.

    11

    Screw the brake fluid supply line back onto the rear of the brake caliper. Retighten the brake fluid supply line with the open-end wrench.

    12

    Replace the driver's side front wheel onto the hub and screw all of the lug nuts back onto the lugs. Tighten the lug nuts down until the wheel begins to turn. Follow these same steps for replacing the pads and calipers on the front passenger side hub also. Jack the front of the Voyager back up and remove the jack stands.

    13

    Lower the Voyager to the ground. Crank the Voyager up and pump the brakes in and out seven or eight times. This will fill the new caliper with brake fluid and set the new brake pads to the brake rotor. Turn the Voyager off.

    14

    Check the brake fluid level and add any if necessary. Then put the lid back onto the brake fluid container. Close the hood.

Jumat, 12 Maret 2010

How to Replace a Caliper in a VW Beetle

The Volkswagen Beetle has always been a different type of car, even in its revival. The process of removing and replacing a brake caliper on a Beetle is slightly different, especially how the caliper relates to the hydraulic brake line. It actually may be simpler than replacing a caliper on other models.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the car onto an appropriate jack stand and make sure it is secure and stable up there. Remove the wheel to reach the caliper.

    2

    Loosen the hydraulic brake line where it connects with the caliper. Don't completely remove it yet.

    3

    Remove the caliper from the carrier by removing the bolts. If they are guide pin bolts, hold the pin in place with an extra wrench while removing the bolts. You can now disconnect the caliper from the hydraulic line.

    4

    Thread the replacement caliper onto the hydraulic line, tightening it by hand. Fit the caliper onto the carrier, attach the bolts and tighten the hydraulic line.

    5

    Bleed the braking system. Connect the bleeder valve to a bleeder bottle's hose, open the valve and push the brake pedal to remove air from the system.

    6

    Reattach the wheel and lower the car. Pump the brake pedal until firm before testing the brakes on the road.

How to Replace the Rear Disc Brakes

How to Replace the Rear Disc Brakes

The rear disc brakes are basically the same on all automobiles, with the primary difference being the location of the brake caliper. Everyone's driving habits are different, so there is no specific interval dictating when the brakes should be changed. Most pads have wear indicators--a piece of steel that is factory set to emit a high-pitched squeal when the pads have worn far enough to require changing. You should inspect the brakes periodically and change them before they are worn enough that they start to damage the rotors (discs).

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle on a level surface and place the wheel chocks in front of the front wheels.

    2

    Jack the vehicle up using the automobile jack and place a jack stand under the frame near the jacking point. Raise the jack stand as close to the frame as possible.

    3

    Remove the wheel.

    4

    Remove the caliper by taking out the caliper guide pins using the proper socket and ratchet. The pins are located on the back side of the caliper.

    5

    Remove the brake pads by unclipping them from the caliper.

    6

    Return the caliper piston to the full "in" position. This will vary depending on the model of the vehicle and may be done with a C-clamp by twisting the screw of the clamp in until the piston is seated. On some vehicles you will need a specific tool to twist the piston back into place.

    7

    Clip the new brake pads into place on the caliper.

    8

    Reinstall the caliper and tighten the caliper guide pins using the proper socket and ratchet.

    9

    Replace the wheel and remove the jack stand.

    10

    Lower the vehicle back to the ground, tighten the lug nuts on the wheel and repeat the process for the other rear wheel.

How to Change Brake Pads on Ford Ranger

The Ford Ranger and Ford Explorer use a similar braking system. The Ford Ranger has been around for many years as a compact truck alternative to the infamous full-size F150. The brake rotors on a Ranger (or other Ford trucks and SUVs) do not have to be replaced as often as the pads unless the rotors have incurred scoring or warping damage. Replacing the pads on the Ranger can be done right in the comfort of your own front or back yard.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the hubcap (if applicable) and crack the front-wheel nuts loose with the lug nut wrench before lifting the Ranger.

    2

    Lift one side at a time with the jack and support the Ranger onto a jack stand.

    3

    Place the extra-large C-clamp over the caliper so the top of the C is against the inside of the caliper housing and the screw-drive of the clamp is against the outboard pad. Tighten the C-clamp to squeeze the caliper pistons into the bores. Most Rangers have dual piston calipers; you'll only be able to position the C-clamp against one of them. Compressing one piston fully will squeeze the pads enough to compress the other piston.

    4

    Locate the two caliper retaining bolts on the inside end of the caliper. Remove both of the bolts using the ratchet and a socket.

    5

    Remove the caliper. It will be loose since the pistons are compressed. Bend the metal coat hanger to create a makeshift hanger and support the caliper to the shock bracket.

    6

    Remove the old pads from the caliper bracket covering the rotor. Pry them out with a screwdriver if necessary.

    7

    Use the acid brush to spread the anti-seize graphite compound onto the upper and lower caliper bracket slots that the pads sit into on both sides. If some of the compound gets on the rotor, wipe it off with a rag.

    8

    Install the shims onto the backing plate of the pads (if not already done so). Shim kits come with aftermarket pads and when not already affixed to the backing plate, may require peeling off the inside plastic wrap and sticking the shim to the pad.

    9

    Install the pads into the caliper bracket. Wipe off any anti-seize compound that may slide onto the rotor from the pad ears sliding across the slots.

    10

    Place the caliper over the new pads and rotor. Wipe the caliper retaining bolts clean with a rag and apply a new coat of the anti-seize over the smooth section of the retaining bolt. Do not place any compound on the threads of the retaining bolt. Insert the bolts into the caliper and tighten with the ratchet and a socket. Do not over tighten.

    11

    Replace the wheel and wheel nuts, tighten the wheel nuts flush to the hub and then lower the Ranger. Re-tighten the wheel nuts. Repeat the steps for the opposite side.

    12

    Pump the foot brake pedal when finished. Compressed caliper pistons will not extend immediately under hydraulic pressure. Forgetting to seat the pistons forward against the pads will create a hazardous situation. The Ranger will not have a braking response until the pistons extend against the pads. Pump the pedal until you feel pressure against the brake pedal and it no longer drops to the floor.

How to Bleed GM ABS Brakes

Bleeding the brake system after changing the brakes can be hard on some anti-lock braking systems. The good news is that on some GM vehicles, a scan tool isn't needed to bleed ABS brakes. A scan tool is only needed with a DBC-7 anti-lock braking system, and then only if air entered the ABS modulator during brake service. The GM vehicles using the DBC-7 system include many recent Chevy and Pontiac cars, so check with your manual or dealer to see which braking system your GM vehicle has.

Instructions

Normal Bleeding

    1

    Open the front bleeder screw on the modulator. There are two screws, open the one at the front. Bleed the brakes by having another person gradually press on the brake pedal until all air is purged and clean fluid flows. Attaching a clear tube to the bleeder valve and placing the other end in a container of fluid helps.

    2

    Bleed the individual brakes, beginning with the brake farthest from the master cylinder. This is often the right front brake. Bleed the brake on the opposite end next (the left front if you started with the right front).

    3

    Test the brake pedal after all the brakes are bled. Once you are certain of a firm pedal, drive the vehicle at more than three miles per hour so the controller can automatically reset the system. Stop the vehicle afterward and bleed the rear brakes.

Scan Tool

    4

    Attach a pressure bleeder to the master cylinder reservoir and turn the ignition key to the On position. Pressurize the system to 35 pounds per square inch with the bleeder screws closed.

    5

    Connect the scan tool and set it to "Automatic Bleed Procedure." Wait one minute for the tool to energize and cycle the ABS solenoids.

    6

    Bleed each wheel as the scan tool instructs you to. The pump will run and the release valve on each wheel will cycle for one minute. Afterward, the scan tool purges any extra air with one last 20 second cycling of the solenoids.

    7

    Relieve the pressure at the bleeder connected to the master cylinder and then remove it from the cylinder. Test the pedal's height and feel it to make sure the pedal feels firm and all the air is purged.

Selasa, 09 Maret 2010

How to Change the Brake Rotors & Pads on a 1995 Oldsmobile

How to Change the Brake Rotors & Pads on a 1995 Oldsmobile

The brake pads in your 1995 Oldsmobile car will wear down over time and will need changing. The brake rotors can also develop scratches and grooves. You should inspect the rotors for these when changing the pads and replace them if needed. Changing an Oldsmobile's pads and rotors will require the pads and rotors designed specifically for your model; you may need to find a specialty shop for these parts. The procedure is very similar to that of many other vehicles.

Instructions

Preparation

    1

    Remove at least two-thirds of brake fluid from the brake master cylinder using a never-used siphon tool like a clean turkey baster. Discard the fluid.

    2

    Raise the car's front end, support it on jack stands and remove both front wheels with your tire iron.

    3

    Wash off the caliper assembly with brake cleaner spray, using a pan underneath the assembly to catch any dripping residue.

Removal

    4

    Press the caliper piston back into its bore using a C-clamp positioned under the arches of the caliper.

    5

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts with a Torx wrench and remove the caliper from the rotor. Hang the caliper by an unbent coat hanger or mechanical wire to avoid stretching the brake hose.

    6

    Snap the inner brake pad out of the caliper piston to remove it from the caliper. Pry off the retaining clip for the outer pad using a screwdriver to remove the outer pad.

    7

    Slip the brake rotor off the wheel studs.

Installation

    8

    Slide the replacement rotor onto the wheel studs.

    9

    Coat the backing of the new brake pads with anti-squeal compound.

    10

    Snap the retaining spring onto the replacement inner brake pad and install it in the caliper, seating the spring within the caliper piston. Slide the outer pad into position with its retaining clip.

    11

    Lubricate the upper and lower areas on the steering knuckle where the caliper comes in contact using a high-temperature grease.

    12

    Connect the caliper to the brake rotor and steering knuckle and apply the mounting bolts.

    13

    Reconnect both front wheels after servicing both brake assemblies and lower the car.

    14

    Refill the master cylinder reservoir with fresh brake fluid.

Senin, 08 Maret 2010

How to Replace the Rotor in a Nissan Sentra

If your Nissan Sentra shudders when you come to a stop, it's time to inspect your brakes. If your brake pads and calipers look good but there's still a problem, then you need to replace the rotors, also known as brake discs. Rotors rarely need to be replaced, but if they become warped or worn down, then it's time to swap them out.

Instructions

    1

    Get new rotors at your local auto parts store that are appropriate for your Nissan Sentra. Buy a pair and do the front end or buy two pair and do all four rotors at once. Never swap a single rotor, as this leads to uneven and unsafe braking.

    2

    Prep your vehicle for the job. Disable the battery by disconnecting the negative cable from the battery to prevent injury. Secure the disconnected cable securely to avoid reconnecting the battery. Release the parking brake.

    3

    Loosen the lug nuts on the first tire with a socket wrench and then jack up your vehicle and place jack stands under the sturdy parts of the vehicle. Make sure your Sentra is on level ground and block the wheels to keep it from rolling away.

    4

    Remove the tire and wheel assembly and then set it aside. Slide off the caliper by loosening the two mounting bolts with the socket wrench, and then support the caliper and attached brake hose with mechanic's wire so that it's safely out of the way while you work and so that the brake line doesn't get disconnected.

    5

    Take off the old rotor and then slide on the new rotor. Line up the new rotor on the pins in the same rotation that you removed the original rotor. Secure the new rotor with the holding screws provided.

    6

    Put the caliper back on and replace the mounting bolts with a torque wrench. Discard the mechanics wire and the then put the wheel assembly and tire back on.

    7

    Move on to each additional rotor that you need to replace, and when you're finished, lower your Sentra and then tighten the lug nuts on each wheel with a torque wrench or air ratchet with a proper adapter. Road test your car to make sure that everything is working properly.

Minggu, 07 Maret 2010

How to Replace the Brakes on a 2006 Tundra

How to Replace the Brakes on a 2006 Tundra

The 2006 Toyota Tundra was one of that year's most rugged trucks. It comes equipped with a 271 HP V-8 engine or a 236 HP v-6 engine. Both are available in 5-speed automatic or 6-speed manual transmission. Off-road capable with a 4-wheel drive option, this truck is tough, rough and quick. With all of the paces this vehicle can be put through its brakes are bound to be put to the test. If the brakes are grabbing, squealing or not working well, it's time to change them.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts. Rotate each lug two full turns but do not remove them. They can be turned with the tire iron. Place blocks in front of the tires you will not be removing. Do not raise both the front and the rear of the vehicle at the same time.

    2

    Raise the truck. Place the floor jack beneath a support strut and lift the frame of the truck enough to let the tires come off. Place the jack stands underneath the same support struts.

    3

    Remove the tires. To remove the tires, finish removing the lugs with the tire iron. Set both the tire and the lugs off to the side.

    4

    Remove the brake caliper mounting bracket. The mounting bracket is held on by two bolts that can be removed with a ratchet wrench set. Tie it to the undercarriage so that there is no strain on the brake line, which is the black hose running from the back of it.

    5

    Remove the brake pads. The brake pads will slip out of the bracket.

    6

    Compress the caliper. The caliper is the cylinder in the center of the bracket. It can be compressed using the c-clamp. If it does not compress and has a groove across the center of it, you will have to use the brake caliper compression tool, which fits onto the caliper and you then crank it to compress it.

    7

    Install the new pads. The new brake pads will fit into the same slots that the old ones were in. Ensure that the black brake material is facing inward, toward each other.

    8

    Reattach the brake caliper mounting bracket. The bracket goes back where it was and can be reattached by tightening the two bolts back onto it. Reattach the tire and lower the truck.

How to Rebuild Brake Cylinders

Rebuilding your brake system's leaking wheel cylinders can restore them to factory performance. This a low-cost alternative to a replacement cylinder. Never use a brake cylinder hone on an aluminum wheel cylinder; these parts have an anodized finish to prevent corrosion, which would be damaged during the honing process. Instead, use a lightly abrasive hand pad (Scotch-Brite is a good one) and warm soapy water.

Instructions

    1

    Disassemble the wheel cylinder by removing the dust boots on each end, and pulling the pistons, cup seals and spreader spring out of the cylinder ends.

    2

    Discard the spreader spring and cup seals, as the rebuild kit comes with replacements.

    3

    Clean the aluminum cylinder bore with warm soapy water and a lightly abrasive hand pad (not steel wool). Then final clean with a can of brake parts cleaner, and dry with a lint-free cloth.

    4

    Hone out cast-iron or steel housing to remove any heavy corrosion and accumulated gunk. The result is a smooth bore and a nice cross-hatch pattern. Clean the external housing with brake parts cleaner and a scrub brush to remove brake dust buildup.

    5

    Scrub the wheel cylinder pistons, which are aluminum, with warm soapy water, then dry. Cleaning these parts thoroughly now will prevent problems later during reassembly and during use.

    6

    Begin reassembly by placing the spreader spring into the cylinder. Then lubricate the cup seals with clean brake fluid. Install them flat side out and pushed in against the spreader spring. This will keep them from collapsing or turning in the bore.

    7

    Insert a piston in each side of the cylinder. Install them flat side in against the flat side of the seal.

    8

    Carefully install one dust boot side by wrapping the large end around the recess in the cylinder housing until it spreads and slips into place. Then install the other end by pushing that side's piston in and using the same wrapping motion until it slips into place.

    9

    Slide the pistons back and forth in the bore to center them; make sure they are positioned properly.