Jumat, 31 Juli 2009

How to Replace the Front Brakes on a Chevy

How to Replace the Front Brakes on a Chevy

As your Chevrolet ages, you're going to have to do some work on it. That work might include replacing the front brake pads. Because most of your Chevrolet's stopping power comes from the front, these pads will wear out far more often than your back brakes. In fact, the front brake pads ought to be replaced every 10,000 miles. In most models of cars and trucks, replacing the brake pads is an easy task that should only take an hour or so.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of your Chevrolet and find the master cylinder reservoir. It is a squarish, white plastic container with a black rubber lid on the top of your Chevrolet's engine.

    2

    Remove the lid of the master cylinder reservoir, then remove roughly two-thirds of the fluid inside. A turkey baster or an empty syringe can make this job easier.

    3

    Raise your Chevrolet with a floor jack, then place jack stands underneath. Different Chevys will have different preferred methods to raise the vehicle, so refer to your owner's manual for details. In general, the front frame is a safe place to lift it.

    4

    Remove the lug bolts on both front tires using a fourway or tire iron. When that's done, pull the wheels off of your Chevrolet.

    5

    Place the seat of a C-clamp against the side of the outside brake pad. Rest the other end of the C-clamp against the outside of the caliper. Now tighten it until the outside pad forces the caliper piston to the bottom of its bolt.

    6

    Remove the caliper bolt from the caliper with a socket. Different models of Chevrolet will have the bolts in different positions. But there will never be more than two, and they will always be either at the top or the bottom of the caliper.

    7

    Pull the caliper assembly off, but do not let it hang by the brake line because this can damage it.

    8

    Pop the worn brake pads off the caliper by hand, then install the new ones in the same manner.

    9

    Replace the caliper and reinsert its bolts.

    10

    Slide the wheels back into place, then retighten the lug bolts. Once your Chevrolet has been lowered, tighten the bolts a second time.

    11

    Top off the brake fluid in your master cylinder reservoir, then go pump the brake pedal a few times. When that's done, recheck the level of fluid in your master cylinder reservoir and refill it as needed.

    12

    Close the hood of your car.

Where Is the Brake Light Switch on a 1966 Ford F-100?

Brake lights turn on when you press an automobile's brake pedal. The switch that causes the brake lights to illuminate when you press the brake pedal is located in a number of positions, depending on what kind of vehicle it is. On the 1966 Ford F-100, the switch is pushed in when the brake is not depressed; it illuminates the brake lights when the switch is released rather than when it is pressed.

Location

    The 1966 F-100 pickup's brake light switch is attached to the right side of the brake pedal, high on the pedal arm. The pedal operates by swinging from a support bracket. When the brake pedal is not pushed down, the switch is depressed, or closed. When you push down on the brake pedal, it causes the switch to release, or open. It opens a circuit that allows the brake lights to turn on.

Replacement

    Replacing the switch is as simple as unbolting the switch from the pedal. Remove the adjusting bolt and disconnect it from the brake pedal. Installing is the reverse of removal.

Adjustment

    Adjustment of the brake light switch requires only that you loosen the retaining bolt on the face of the pedal and move the switch back and forth until you have the desired sensitivity.

Kamis, 30 Juli 2009

A Description of Brake Systems

Modern vehicle brake systems use basic hydraulics where friction is applied to slow and stop the movement of the wheels. When a driver presses the brake pedal, pressurized hydraulic fluid is sent to the brake components, and the resulting friction slows the vehicle.

Types

    the two primary types of brake systems are anti-lock brake systems (ABS), and non-ABS. ABS are designed to ensure more vehicle stability by changing the fluid pressure to automatically pump the brakes, preventing them from locking up. With non-ABS brake systems, the driver must pump the brakes to prevent lockup.

Brake Action

    When the the brake pedal is depressed, this causes a push rod within the master cylinder to force out fluid. This travels through the brake lines to the wheel cylinders. If the vehicle has disc brakes, the brake fluid flows into a caliper and presses against a piston, which then squeezes brake pads against the wheel rotor. If the car has drum brakes, the fluid pushes the brake shoes so that there is friction against the wheel.

Considerations

    A key feature of brake systems is that the brake fluid is incompressible, transferring pressure to the brakes. There can't be any air in the fluid for brakes to be effective.

Brake Pad Problems

Brake pads are a very important element of a vehicle's braking system. Although relatively cheap and easy to install, brake pads provide the main braking action of a vehicle's braking system. When brake pads develop problems, they can jeopardize the efficiency and functionality of the entire braking system. What follows is a list of the most common brake pad problems.

Brake Dust

    All brake pads, regardless of the type, produce brake dust when the breaks are applied. Although a normal part of brake pad wear and tear, brake dust, especially in large amounts, can disrupt normal braking function, cause brake noise, and make wheels and tires dirty.

Vibration

    While it is common for most brakes to exhibit small amounts of movement and/or vibration when the brakes are applied, excessive amounts of brake pad vibration can limit brake pad gripping power and also cause excessive brake noise.

Cracking

    Although brake pads wear and become thinner over time, brake pads, especially pads that are defective and/or of low quality, can develop cracks in their surfaces, which can lead to brake pad breakage and/or failure.

Glazing

    Brake pad glazing occurs when brake pads lose their roughened, porous outer covering and instead develop a smooth, polished covering. This type of brake pad condition reduces overall stopping ability by reducing the amount of friction that the brake pads can apply to the spinning brake rotor.

Overheating

    When brake pads overheat, they can become soft and spongy, a condition that makes them more susceptible to breaking and/or flaking, and reduces braking power. Although most brake pads are made to withstand severe temperatures, many cheaper-quality brake pads are prone to overheating.

Rabu, 29 Juli 2009

How To Repair a Car's Drum Brakes

Drum brakes differ from rotor braking systems in that they use of brake shoes and brake fluids. The drum braking system, which consists of the brake pedal, the brake discs and the master cylinder, slow or stop the vehicle by the use of the brake fluid. When the brakes are applied, pressurized brake fluid flows through the brake lines, causing the discs and drum to press up against the brake pads and shoes.

Instructions

    1

    Jack up the front or rear end of the car and safely place it on the jack stands.

    2

    Remove lug nuts by turning them counterclockwise with the lug wrench, then remove wheel.

    3

    Remove drum brake from the wheel studs. If drum is stuck, wedge a flat board against the drum and gently tap with a hammer to ensure no damage to the brakes.

    4

    With a strong hand, use pliers to remove the spring-loaded shoe retaining clips. Auto part stores may carry a special tool that can be used to remove the clips easier.

    5

    Using pliers, remove the shoe springs that attach each shoe together.

    6

    Push back the retainer spring with pliers and remove the cable.

    7

    Remove brake shoes by lifting off the brake pedal. Be sure that the cylinder pistons do not extend too far as you remove the shoes and that no one touches the brake pedal while the brake drums are off.

    8

    Replace old brake shoes with new ones.

    9

    Push back the retainer spring with pliers and replace the cable.

    10

    Replace the shoe springs using pliers.

    11

    Replace spring-loaded retaining clips into the proper locations.

    12

    Replace the new drum brake onto wheel studs.

    13

    Replace the wheel onto studs and tighten the lug nuts by turning them clockwise with the lug wrench.

    14

    Secure the jack under the vehicle and remove jack stands. Lower the vehicle using the jack.

How to Replace Drum Brakes on a F150

The drum brakes and their shoes on the Ford F150 truck work directly with the parking brake. The shoes don't usually need changing as often as the brake pads (which the F150 has on all four wheels), but likely need replacing if the parking brake's resistance has lessened. Please note that the exact changing process can vary depending on the year of the truck, so check with your mechanic beforehand.

Instructions

Accessing the Brake Drums

    1

    Release the parking brake. While an assistant pulls the parking brake cable on the truck's left underside, lock the brake assembly into position by inserting a 5/32 inch drill bit into the control actuator.

    2

    Block the front wheels, raise the truck's rear end and support it on jack stands. Remove both the rear wheels.

    3

    Disconnect the brake calipers from the brake discs by loosening their bolts with a wrench and pulling them off. Hang the calipers some place secure with a sturdy wire so they don't hang by the brake hoses.

    4

    Remove the brake discs. On a two-wheel drive model, remove the cotter pin and nut lock and then remove the spindle nut in the center. For four-wheel-drive models, clip off the retaining washers from the studs with cutting pliers.

    5

    Clean the brake drum assembly with an aerosol brake cleaner.

Removal

    6

    Pry off the front and rear hold-down clips from the assembly with a flat screwdriver.

    7

    Remove the cylindrical brake shoe adjuster and the lower return spring from the lower end of the assembly.

    8

    Pull the bake shoes away from each other and lift them off of the drum assembly.

    9

    Disconnect the upper return spring from the top end of the brake shoes and install it onto the new shoes.

Installation

    10

    Lubricate the brake drum's backing plate at the areas the shoes come in contact with using a high-temperature grease.

    11

    Install the replacement brake shoes--with the upper return spring attached--by spreading them apart at the lower end and slipping them onto the drum assembly.

    12

    Reconnect the front and rear hold-down clips, the lower return spring and the brake shoe adjuster. Make sure the adjuster's star wheel faces the truck's front end.

    13

    Turn the adjuster screw with a screwdriver so the brake disc will just fit over the shoes without dragging--use a brake shoe adjusting gauge and adjust the shoes until their diameter is .02 inches less than the brake disc's drum surface.

    14

    Install the brake discs and calipers once you've changed the brakes on both wheels. On two-wheel-drive trucks, use a new spindle nut and cotter pin on the brake discs. For four-wheel-drive trucks, you don't need to replace the disc's retaining washers.

    15

    Reconnect the rear wheels and lower the truck.

Senin, 27 Juli 2009

How to Repair Electric Brakes

How to Repair Electric Brakes

Any automotive repair involving the braking system must be done according to precise directions. Close attention to detail and the ability to do both mechanical and electrical work are needed to repair electric brakes. Testing will involve using a voltmeter and understanding the operation of the brake shoes, calipers and solenoids. This repair involves the electrical system only and does not deal with replacing brake shoes or pads. The average weekend mechanic can perform this repair in about three hours.

Instructions

    1

    Put on safety glasses. Locate the electric brake switch, usually under the hood connected to the brake line or the brake pedal linkage, unlike hydraulic brakes which connect to the master cylinder and use fluid. Inspect the two or four wires connected to it and make sure they are tightly secured and in good condition.

    2

    Set a voltmeter to 12-volts and place the positive lead from the voltmeter onto one of the terminals on the brake switch using its alligator clip and the negative lead onto a good ground source connected to the negative side of the battery. Move the positive voltmeter lead to the other terminal if the voltmeter is showing 12 volts or any voltage.

    3

    Read the voltmeter as a helper holds the brake pedal down for about 10 seconds. The voltmeter should read 12 volts.

    4

    Reverse the positive and negative lead locations on the voltmeter if no voltage is displayed then once again ask your helper to operate the brake pedal. Replace the brake switch if no voltage is read while the brake pedal is operated.

    5

    Remove the hubcap and very slightly loosen the lug nuts on the problem wheel if the brake switch worked correctly. Place the jack under the axle and raise the wheel. Remove the lug nuts all the way then remove the wheel from the hub.

    6

    Detach the brake drum, if so equipped, and any plates or covers blocking access to the solenoid(s). Do not remove the solenoids. Place the voltmeter's positive lead onto the positive terminal on the solenoid and the negative lead on the negative terminal and instruct your helper operate the brakes. Repeat the procedure at each solenoid and each wheel if the voltmeter reads 12 volts and the solenoid operates properly. Repeat the procedure until all solenoids have been tested.

    7

    Replace any solenoid that does not operate if the voltmeter displayed 12 volts on its terminals when the brake pedal was held down for 10 seconds. Check the connections and wiring between the solenoid and the brake switch if no voltage was displayed when the brake pedal was depressed.

    8

    Rotate the raised wheel by hand after all tests and repairs have been completed, and have your helper operate the brake pedal for at least 10 seconds, observing if the wheel stops abruptly when the brake is applied. Reassemble all components that were removed and test the other wheels' stopping ability in the same manner. Repeat the electrical tests and repairs to any brake solenoid that does not work properly.

How to Install Brake Light Switch

The brake light switch on an automobile is responsible for turning on and off the brake lights. Without the switch, the brake lights would not light up, potentially causing a rear-end collision. There is no service interval for the switch, so switches can fail at any time. However, most switches have a long service life of 100,000 miles or more. The switch itself is a small relay that is attached to the back of the brake pedal. Once you've removed the old switch, you'll need to install a new one.

Instructions

    1

    Slide the push rod end of the brake light switch through the back of the mounting bracket behind the brake pedal.

    2

    Tighten the retaining nut on the bracket to hold the brake light switch in place.

    3

    Connect the electrical plug to the back of the brake light switch.

    4

    Depress the brake pedal and align the mounting bracket on the back of the brake pedal with the mounting bracket on the brake booster diaphragm.

    5

    Slide the brake pin through the brake booster mounting bracket to connect the brake pedal to the brake booster.

    6

    Slide a cotter pin through the hole in the end of the brake pin and bend the pin down so that the brake pin will not slide out of the bracket.

How to Install Brake Pads on a Dodge Caravan

If you've been told that you need brake pads on your Dodge Caravan, you already know how expensive it is to have them replaced. The pads are affordable enough, but the hourly labor rate at the repair station or dealership seems pretty outrageous. If you have some tools as home and a little technical savvy, you might want to consider attempting the repair yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Caravan on a flat, level paved or concrete surface. Release the hood latch and apply the parking brake.

    2

    Open the hood and suck out half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir using the turkey baster. Discard the fluid appropriately. Do not reuse it. Replace the cap on the master cylinder.

    3

    Break the lug nuts loose on the left wheel first using the breaking bar and a socket. Do not remove the lug nuts or loosen them too much.

    4

    Lift the Caravan using the floor jack and place the lift point under the transmission bushing. Place a jack stand under the inside of the rocker panel in the left front where the frame is boxed. Do not place the jack stand on the rocker panel as it will most likely collapse. You can leave the floor jack in place as an added safety support, but make sure to use a jack stand.

    5

    Remove the lug nuts and wheel.

    6

    Remove the caliper bolts with the ratchet and a socket. Gently pry the caliper off of the rotor using the screwdriver. The pads are clipped to the caliper.

    7

    Remove the outboard pad first by prying it off the caliper housing with the screwdriver. Remove the inboard pad by pulling it out of the caliper piston bore. Support the caliper to the coil spring using the bungee cord.

    8

    Compress the piston in using the C-clamp. Squeeze slowly and steadily to avoid damaging the caliper piston.

    9

    Install the new pads starting with the inboard pad. Since the inboard and outboard pads are identifiably different, there's only one way they will fit properly. There is a slight difference in the molding of the backing plates of the pads. Refer to the old pads you removed to make sure you're applying the pads for the left side.

    10

    Apply a liberal coat of silicone brake lubricant on the caliper anchor where the backing plate of the pads sit against.

    11

    Reinstall the caliper over the rotor.

    12

    Apply a light coat of silicone brake lubricant to the smooth area of the caliper bolts. Insert it into the caliper to lock it to the caliper anchor. Tighten the bolts properly.

    13

    Replace the wheel and lug nuts, tightening the lug nuts as tight as you can using the ratchet and a socket. Lower the Caravan and retighten the lug nuts in an alternate fashion using the torque wrench set at 100 foot pounds and a socket.

    14

    Repeat the procedure for the right side.

    15

    Pump the foot brake pedal when you're finished with the right side until the hydraulic pressure is restored to the caliper pistons and the brake pedal feels normal. Release the parking brake.

    16

    Check and adjust the brake fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir. Only add new DOT-approved brake fluid for your Caravan.

    17

    Remove the wheel chock and test drive.

Minggu, 26 Juli 2009

How to Adjust the Emergency Brake on a 1995 Mustang

How to Adjust the Emergency Brake on a 1995 Mustang

You can save money and time by adjusting the emergency brake on your 1995 Ford Mustang yourself, and it can be accomplished easily at your home. It's time to adjust the parking brake when your Mustang is parked facing downhill and the emergency brake starts to slip when you apply it. You can adjust the emergency brake from inside the vehicle, which means you don't even have to get dirty.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the center console cover situated between the front driver's and passenger's seats.

    2

    Engage the hand parking brake by pulling on it until it clicks four times.

    3

    Locate the adjuster nut at the end of the cable rod in the center console. Turn it with the pliers until it is slightly loose, but do not allow it to come off.

    4

    Release the parking brake. Tighten the adjuster nut with the pliers.

    5

    Engage and release the parking brake four times to set the adjustment.

    6

    Park the Mustang on hill facing downhill. Attempt to hold it in place with only the parking brake. If it slips, repeat the adjustment steps.

Sabtu, 25 Juli 2009

How to Install an ABS Relay in a Nissan Pathfinder

When the ABS warning light is lit on a Nissan Pathfinder, you have to change the ABS relay for safety reasons. The ABS relay controls the anti-lock brake system. Because of this, driving is unsafe while the ABS warning light is lit.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Pathfinder. Engage the parking brake. Open the hood and secure it using the safety bar. Disconnect the negative battery cable by loosening the nut on the clamp using an adjustable wrench. The negative battery cable is the black cable.

    2

    Remove the quarter panel trim under the steering wheel by unscrewing the screws on both sides of the panel with a Phillips screwdriver. Look for the black protective box marked ABS. Remove this protective box by unbolting the four bolts using a 8mm hex socket. You should see the black relay.

    3

    Unplug the wiring harness on the bottom of the relay by pressing the buttons on the side of the harness. Gently pull down on the harness while you are pressing the buttons. Once this is disconnected, remove the two mounting fasteners using a 8mm hex socket.

    4

    Connect the wiring harness into the bottom of the relay. Replace the protective box and secure it by replacing the bolts. Replace the quarter panel trim and tighten the screws. Place the new ABS relay in the place from which you just removed the malfunctioning relay. Secure it by replacing the mounting fasteners. Tighten them with the socket.

    5

    Replace the negative battery cable. Tighten the nut on the clamp. Close the hood. Start the vehicle. Look for the ABS warning light. If it remains off, test drive your vehicle by driving slowly and trying to stop. If it comes on, you should take your vehicle to a mechanic to service the system.

Jumat, 24 Juli 2009

What Is a Master Cylinder?

A master cylinder is a device that converts the motion of a lever or pedal into hydraulic pressure. Master cylinders are commonly used to control a vehicle's clutch or brake systems and can be found on any automobile or motorcycle equipped with hydraulic brakes.

How a Master Cylinders Works

    A typical master cylinder is composed of a fluid reservoir, a piston, and the cylinder itself. Pressure is created when the piston is closed, compressing fluid through a valve, or series of valves, in the cylinder and is routed to the brake or clutch systems through pressurized lines. Automotive brake master cylinders often employ a brake booster to amplify the brake pedal pressure to the master cylinder, generating a stronger braking response in return. When used in a brake system application, the master cylinder is attached to brake calipers. Clutch applications employ slave cylinders.

Combination Valve Master Cylinders

    Most modern automobiles use a fail-safe combination valve-type master cylinder system, meaning that a single master cylinder controls two separate circuits by using two valves driven by a two-stage piston setup. With each circuit controlling two of the four wheels, this combination setup allows the brakes to operate even in the event of a malfunctioning brake circuit.

    As you depress the brake pedal, the primary piston in the master cylinder compresses the brake fluid into the valve. This pressure continues and forces the secondary valve to close, sending the brake fluid from the cylinder into the brake lines to close the brake calipers attached to both circuits. Should a leak occur in the master cylinder, the pressure between the primary and secondary pistons is lost. However, the primary piston presses against the secondary piston and act as a single-piston setup, maintaining brake functionality in an emergency.

Motorcycle Master Cylinders

    Motorcycles use a master cylinder to power their brake and clutch systems as well. Typically much smaller than their automotive cousins, they operate on the same hydraulic principles. Front brake cylinders operate on a single valve that actuates up to two calipers on the front wheel. Rear brake master cylinders are smaller in design and often less powerful to prevent locking of the rear wheel. Radially mounted master cylinders, which are used mainly on newer high-performance motorcycles, mount the master cylinder perpendicularly to the handlebar, and are claimed to increase braking power and transmit improved brake feedback to the rider.

Clutch Master Cylinders

    Clutch master cylinders operate in the same manner as a brake master cylinder, converting clutch pedal pressure into hydraulic pressure to manipulate a slave cylinder, disengaging the clutch. Automotive-type clutch master cylinders are typically mounted next to the brake master cylinder with the clutch slave cylinder mounted on the transmission clutch bell housing. Motorcycle clutch master cylinders are located on the left handlebar and are actuated when the clutch lever is pulled in.

Maintenance

    Brake fluid absorbs moisture and degrades over time leading to corrosion build-up, in the form of rust, within the master cylinder. It is recommended that you flush your brake and/or clutch lines every to two years. More frequent fluid changes may be required for high-performance machines. If the fluid is cloudy or is filled with debris, replace the fluid immediately. Bleed the brake (or clutch) lines, being sure that any air trapped in the line is removed to prevent loss of hydraulic pressure.

Kamis, 23 Juli 2009

Auto Disk Brake Repair Information

Auto Disk Brake Repair Information

Disc brakes are the most common brake type used on passenger cars and light trucks today. Repairing this system is a straightforward operation, but there are a few caveats of information to be aware of. The system consists of a disc brake caliper, rotor (or disc), brake pads and anti-rattle clips called hardware.

Calipers

    The caliper is the hydraulic portion of the system and provides the clamping force needed to slow or stop your vehicle. It is made up of the housing, caliper piston, square-cut seal and dust boot.

    The square-cut seal is the key to proper disc brake function. As the brake is applied, the seal flexes with the pistons movement. When the brake is released, the seal straightens back up and pulls the piston partially back into the bore of the housing. This eliminates rubbing of the pads on the rotors and premature wear of the pads. However, over time the seal becomes hard from normal heat cycling, and even though it may not leak, it will not flex the way it should. Premature pad wear can occur because of this. The simple fix for this problem is to replace or rebuild calipers with every brake job performed.

Rotors

    The brake rotors (or discs) are the round metal disc-shaped parts that the caliper clamps the pads onto to slow the vehicle.

    Common problems associated with rotors include noise and vibrations caused by warp. This warp is commonly called run out and can be eliminated by resurfacing the rotors. There are minimum thickness specifications for every rotor that must be followed when resurfacing. Machining requires removal of metal, and after the metal is removed, the rotor must still be thicker than the minimum. If not, at some point during the life of the pads, the rotor will be thinner than is safe to use.

Hardware

    There are three types of hardware used in disc brakes, but they all serve the same purpose. The purpose is to isolate and absorb vibration. When vibration occurs in the disc brake system, noises like squealing and rattling occur as well.

    The three types used are slide shims that give the pad a smooth hard surface to move on, the pad shim that sticks or clips to the pad and isolates it from the caliper, and the spring clip that mounts between the caliper housing and the pads to absorb vibrations. Replacement hardware should be used from time to time to restore their function as they wear.

Pads

    Brake pads come in three varieties on passenger cars and light trucks.

    The organic brake pad is used on older cars. These pads are made up of particles of bronze and organic material like asbestos and carbon. These pads work in a lower relative heat range than the others. Some rear disc brake applications use the organic compounds as well.

    The semi-metallic brake pad is made up of bronze, as well as other metals and manmade fibers like aramid and Kevlar. The ability of these pads to operate at a higher heat range is why they are used on the downsized brake systems of late model cars.

    Many newer cars use a ceramic pad, and replacement pads of this design are available for most applications. Their advantage is the high heat they can withstand and quiet operation. Brake dust is reduced but not eliminated, and the dust these pads generate is light gray in color, so it does not show as bad as the dark black dust of the semimetallic.

Summary

    Understanding these few things about disc brakes will go a long way in helping to keep your brake system functioning as it was designed to.

Rabu, 22 Juli 2009

How to Adjust the Rear Drum Brakes of a 1998 Mercury Mystique

How to Adjust the Rear Drum Brakes of a 1998 Mercury Mystique

The 1998 Mercury Mystique was produced with a 2.0 liter, four-cylinder engine, and a 2.5-liter V-6. The models were called the GS and LS, respectively. The Mystique and its counterpart, the Ford Contour, replaced the Mercury Topaz and the Ford Tempo. The Mystique was short lived, with a five-year production run from 1995 to 2000. The larger Milan replaced the Mystique in the 2000 model year, as a bigger and more luxurious vehicle with many more options. The Mercury Mystique had front disc brakes and rear drum brakes. The process for adjusting the rear brakes on the Mercury Mystique and Ford Contour is identical.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen all the lug nuts one-half turn, to remove initial torque on the wheels. Raise the rear of the Mystique. Place jack stands beneath the left and right suspension arms, on the back sides of the wheels. Remove the wheels from the car.

    2

    Use a flat head screwdriver to remove the lock rings that hold the brake drum in place. The lock rings are small rings around the lug studs, or wheel studs.

    3

    Remove the brake drum by hand if possible. If you encounter too much resistance, tap the face of the brake drum with a metal hammer to vibrate the drum loose from its internal components.

    4

    Spray 1/2 can of aerosol brake spray onto all of the rear brake hardware and brake shoes. This will eliminate any dirt, debris and brake dust that could inhibit your progress. Spray the inside of the brake drum lightly with brake cleaner, to remove excess dust.

    5

    Locate the "star wheel adjuster," or self-adjuster, in the center bottom of the brake assembly. The self-adjuster is a shaft that connects the two brake shoes, and has a vertical star shaped gear in the middle for making adjustments. Press the teeth on the star shaped gear downward to tighten your rear brakes. Push the self-adjuster gear upward to loosen your rear brakes.

    6

    Press the brake drum back onto the rear brake assembly. If the brake drum will not go on by hand, then the rear brakes are too tight, and the self-adjuster needs loosening. The ideal position for the rear brakes is when the shoes resist the drum slightly. If the drum just slides on with no resistance, then the brakes are too loose.

    7

    Repeat steps 2 through 6 to complete the second side of the Mystique.

    8

    Reinstall the rear wheels only when you have completed adjusting the rear brakes and installing the rear drums back onto the car. Lower the vehicle and tighten the wheel nuts between 95-100 pound-feet of torque, using a certified torque wrench.

How to Change a Brake Hose

The rubber hoses on your vehicle's brake lines need to be checked every six months or so. Any hoses that are dry, cracked, leaking or show other signs of damage need to be changed to prevent loss of fluid, and to keep air from entering the brake system. You will inevitably cause air to enter the system when you change any brake hoses, so bleeding the brakes of every caliper you change a hose at is crucial.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the vehicle securely on jack stands and remove the wheel using the brake hose that is to be changed. Loosening the lug nuts on the wheel before raising the vehicle will make removing the wheel easier.

    2

    Disconnect the brake-line fitting from the hose at the bracket using a flare-nut wrench. Grasp the hose with a wrench while unscrewing the fitting to avoid twisting the frame bracket. Remove the clip and then detach the hose from the bracket.

    3

    Separate the hose from the caliper at the hose's other end by removing the inlet fitting bolt. Discard any washers that were with the fitting bolt.

    4

    Connect the new brake hose to the caliper using the original fitting bolt with new washers (make sure you know the correct torque for the bolt on your vehicle). Route the hose to the bracket, making sure it isn't twisted, and tighten the hose bracket bolt. Connect the brake line fitting, tightening it first by hand and finishing it with the wrench.

    5

    Bleed the brake system at the caliper. Loosen the caliper's bleeder valve and connect a clear tube to it, placing the tube's other end in a container with brake fluid. Have an assistant press the brake pedal for a few seconds while you slowly open the valve to purge the air out. Close the valve and repeat until all air is removed.

    6

    Replace the wheel and lower the vehicle.

Senin, 20 Juli 2009

How to Replace the Rear Brakes on a 2002 Dodge 1500 4X4 Truck

The 2002 Dodge 1500 4x4 came equipped with four wheel disc brakes and an anti-lock brake system that controlled brake lock-up on all four wheels. Another feature of this brake system was the drum-in-hat style parking brake; the system used a small set of brake shoes that expand against the inside of the rotor to provide parking brake function. The procedure for replacing the rear brakes on this truck is similar to that of replacing the front ones.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts using a 7/8-inch lug wrench. Place wheel chocks in front of, and behind, the front wheels. Position a floor jack under the rear differential and lift the truck until the wheels are off the ground. Place jack stands under the rear axles and lower the Dodge onto them slowly. Remove the floor jack.

    2

    Remove the caliper bolts that attach the rear calipers to the rear axle, using a 13-mm socket and ratchet. Pry the caliper off the rotor, using a large screwdriver. Open the bleeder screw on the top of the caliper, near the brake hose, using a 10-mm wrench. Slip a C-clamp onto the caliper housing and tighten it to push the caliper piston into the housing. Close the bleeder screw and remove the clamp.

    3

    Slide the rotor off the rear hub assembly. Clean the hub face that contacts the rotor with a wire brush to remove the rust and scale that will prevent the rotor from seating on the hub properly. Slide the new rotor onto the hub. Slide the new pads onto the rear axle and slide the rear caliper onto the pads. Install the two 13-mm caliper bolts and tighten them securely.

    4

    Reinstall the wheels and raise the truck off the jack stands. Remove the stands and lower the truck. Torque the lug nuts to 150 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench. Pump the brake pedal several times to seat the new pads on the rotor. Test drive the Dodge and make several (six to ten) stops from 30 mph, allowing two minutes between stops for the brakes to cool. This will burnish the pads and help reduce brake noise and premature wear.

Sabtu, 18 Juli 2009

How to Replace a 2000 Chevrolet Cavalier's Brake Cylinders

How to Replace a 2000 Chevrolet Cavalier's Brake Cylinders

The wheel cylinders on your 2000 Cavalier are hydraulic components located at each rear wheel that use hydraulic pressure to actuate the rear brakes. The brake fluid is forced into the wheel cylinders, forcing two cups outward which push against two pistons, that push against the brake shoes, slowing or stopping the car. If a leaking wheel cylinder isn't replaced immediately, the leaking brake fluid will ruin the brake shoes. Replacing the rear wheel cylinders on your 2000 Chevy Cavalier is something you can accomplish in your yard in about 2 to 3 hours.

Instructions

    1

    Park the car on a firm and level surface. Place wheel chocks in front of and behind one front wheel. Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels by turning them counterclockwise with the lug wrench. Keep them finger-tight.

    2

    Place the jack under the jacking pad on one side of the car and lift it until the rear wheel clears the car. Place the jack stand under the rear portion of the frame and carefully lower the car onto the stand. Repeat this on the other side.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and wheels and set them aside. Remove the brake drums and set them aside.

    4

    Remove the hubs. Spray the four hub retaining nuts behind each backing plate with the penetrating oil. Rotate the hub until one of the bolt heads is exposed. Use the appropriate tool (usually an Allen wrench) to hold the bolt while turning the nut behind the backing plate counterclockwise with the wrench. Pull the hub off and set it aside. Repeat on opposite side.

    5

    Remove the brake line from the wheel cylinder by turning the fitting counterclockwise with the flare nut wrench. Don't use a regular wrench as you may round the fitting off and be unable to remove it.

    6

    Remove the return springs by inserting the center stud into the round open part of the return spring tool and turning it counterclockwise. Repeat this with the other spring. Let the springs hang.

    7

    Remove the two retaining bolts behind the wheel cylinder by rotating them counterclockwise with the appropriate wrench.

    8

    Pull the brake shoes apart and push the wheel cylinder out.

    9

    Pull the shoes out from the backing plate and insert the wheel cylinder in the opening. Install the bolts by inserting them through the holes in the backing plate and turning them clockwise by hand. Tighten the bolts to 15 foot-pounds.

    10

    Reinstall the brake line by threading the fitting into the back of the wheel cylinder clockwise. Tighten the fitting to 17 foot-pounds with the flare nut wrench.

    11

    Remove the two pistons from the old wheel cylinder and insert them into the openings on the sides of the wheel cylinder. Pull the brake shoes apart and slide them into the prongs on the pistons.

    12

    Hold the hub assembly in place and insert the bolts through the holes and thread the nuts onto the ends of the bolts, turning them clockwise. Tighten these nuts to 43 foot-pounds.

    13

    Use the return spring tool to replace the return springs over the top center stud.

    14

    Replace the brake drum. Replace the wheel, inserting the lug studs through the lug holes. Thread the lug nuts onto the studs by hand, turning them clockwise.

    15

    Repeat steps 5 through 14 above on the other side.

    16

    Bleed the brakes, starting on the passenger side. This process removes the air from the brake line. Have a helper depress the brake pedal 3 to 5 times and hold it. Crack the brake line fitting and allow the fluid and air to escape. Repeat this until no more air escapes. Repeat this process on the driver side. Refill the master cylinder under the hood as necessary.

    17

    Raise the vehicle and remove the jack stands. Lower the vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to 50 to 60 foot-pounds.

Care & Maintenance of Air Tools

Care & Maintenance of Air Tools

Pneumatic tools, often referred to as "air tools," provide mechanics and technicians the ability to perform tasks faster and with more power and efficiency than manually possible. Proper care, cleaning, handling and maintenance plays essential roles in ensuring that pneumatic tools operate at their optimum capacity and maintain longevity.

Proper Handling

    When using pneumatic tools, do not over tighten nuts and bolts with a ratchet or press too hard when using a grinder. Doing so causes anvil and gear damage. Choose the right tool for the job. For example, when using impact wrenches, don't use smaller wrenches when the job requires a heavier model. Keep your air tools in a safe resting place to prevent the tool from falling or otherwise being damaged. AMTOnline.com recommends using a shock-absorbing material around the base of the resting place as insurance against accidental slips. Placing rubber boots on your tools also helps protect them. Never toss an air tool, as doing so may cause damage to the tool and possible injury to others.

Proper Oiling

    According to AMTOnline.com, pneumatic tools require regular oiling and lubrication. Without lubrication, air tool parts grind against each other, eventually rendering your tool unusable. Use the lubricant that the air tool manufacturer recommends. When oiling your pneumatic tools, do not allow oil to get into the air line or on rubber parts. Doing so may cause irreparable damage. Oil your air tools at the end of each day of use and run them to distribute the oil evenly and have it remain in the tool overnight, protecting it from moisture.

Proper Cleaning

    Keep your air tools stored in cool, dry containers to protect them from moisture and dirt. Wipe grime and moisture from the outer surface of your air tools regularly. In the event that you drop your pneumatic tool into a puddle of water, follow the manufacturers instructions on proper drying of internal parts and re-lubrication.

Kamis, 16 Juli 2009

How to Replace a Caliper in a Saturn VUE

The Saturn VUE comes standard with drum brakes on the rear wheels. This means only the front brakes have calipers, so you'll only need to replace a maximum of two calipers at a time if needed. This does not reduce the importance of the proper procedure.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the front wheel and tire once the vehicle is securely raised. Make sure you're using a jack stand suitable for a larger vehicle like the VUE.

    2

    Disconnect the brake hose from the caliper and throw away the copper washers that were connected with the bolt. Plug the holes in the hose and caliper with rubber pieces.

    3

    Extract the guide pin and lock pin to free the caliper. Make sure you don't damage the pin boots while you remove the caliper.

    4

    Lubricate the guide pins and pin boots with silicone grease before installing the new caliper. Place the caliper in position on the support and over the brake pads, and install the lubricated bolts.

    5

    Connect the brake hose to the caliper, using two new washers with the bolt. See that the brake line isn't twisted and is correctly routed with a loop to the rear.

    6

    Bleed the brake system. Open the bleeder valve and connect a transparent hose or tube to it. Have another person press the pedal to release air from the system.

    7

    Reconnect the wheel and lower the vehicle. Make sure the brakes are set by pumping the brake pedal until it feels firm.

Selasa, 14 Juli 2009

How to Change the Disc Brake Pads for a Saab

The disc of a disc brake is actually a steel brake rotor that spins with the wheel hub when the car is moving. The rotor has a machined surface on each side that the brake pads are pressed against to slow or stop the car. The pads are actuated by a caliper that is mounted over the rotor. Disc brakes gained popularity over drum brake systems due to their ability to shed off excess heat and their resistance to fade with repeated hard use. Saab is a European car maker that has only been making autos since the late 1940s, but came standard with disc brakes when most American cars used the drum system. The brake pads can be changed on your Saab in about one hour.

Instructions

    1

    Place your Saab on jack stands by raising the car with a floor jack and sliding the stands under each corner of the car's frame rails. Remove the wheels with a lug wrench and place them aside.

    2

    Work on one wheel at a time a avoid inadvertantly mixing parts from different wheels. Pry off the rubber plugs that protect the two caliper mounting bolts with a flat-blade screwdriver and set them aside. Remove the bolts in a counterclockwise direction with a 7 mm hex wrench. Lift the caliper from the brake rotor and suspend it from the coil spring in the wheel well with a piece of wire or cord to avoid putting a strain on the flexible brake line that still will be attached to the caliper.

    3

    Remove the wire spring that holds the brake pads in the caliper by prying it off with a flat-blade screwdriver. Slide the brake pads out and discard them.

    4

    Compress the piston back into the caliper by placing a "C" clamp over the end of the piston and the opposite side of the caliper. Tighten down the clamp to push the piston back into the caliper to make room for the new and thicker brake pads.

    5

    Push new brake pads (two per caliper) into the caliper in the same orientation as the old pads were installed. Press the ends of the wire clip back into the holes in the caliper to hold the new pads in place.

    6

    Remove the wire or cord from the caliper and push the caliper back over the rotor, making sure to line up the mounting holes. Run the caliper mounting bolts in and tighten them in a clockwise direction with a 7 mm hex wrench.

    7

    Repeat steps 2 through 6 to replace the brake pads on the other wheels. Replace the wheels and tighten the lug nuts with a lug wrench. Remove the jack stands and lower the car.

How to Change the Brake Pads of a 2007 Chevy 1500

How to Change the Brake Pads of a 2007 Chevy 1500

Chevrolet introduced its first truck in 1918. The full-sized trucks never had a true name until 1999. From 1962 through 1998, Chevrolet labeled the trucks with a "C" for two-wheel drive or "K" for four-wheel drive followed by the truck's size, K2500 for example. In 1999, General Motors finally gave Chevrolet full-sized trucks a formal name, the Silverado. The 2006 Silverado came standard with a 4.3-liter V-6 engine that produced 195 horsepower and 260 foot-pounds of torque. The 2006 Silverado also came standard with front disc brakes. Chevrolet recommends replacing the brake pads when their friction lining falls below 0.030 inches thick.

Instructions

    1

    Open the Chevy 1500's hood and remove approximately half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder with a turkey baster. Transfer the brake fluid to a small container and save it for reuse.

    2

    Loosen the front lug nuts with a ratchet and socket, but leave the lug nuts loosely attached to the wheels.

    3

    Lift the front end of the 2006 Silverado, with a floor jack, and sit jack stands under the frame rails. Lower the floor jack until only the jack stands support the Chevy's weight. Remove the lug nuts and pull the wheels from the truck.

    4

    Place two 8-inch C-clamps over the brake caliper so the screw part of each clamp is touching the outer brake pad and the fixed side of each clamp is touching the rear of the caliper body. Tighten both C-clamps in equal intervals until they will not tighten any farther to depress the caliper. Remove the C-clamps.

    5

    Loosen the upper caliper guide pin, located on the rear of the caliper, with a ratchet and socket. Remove the lower guide pin, also on the rear of the caliper, with a ratchet and socket. Pivot the caliper upward and secure it with a bungee strap, exposing the brake pads.

    6

    Grab the brake pads and pull them from the caliper bracket.

    7

    Clean any rust and debris from the brake pad hardware -- the thin metal shims inserted where the pads go into the caliper bracket -- with a wire brush. Apply a thin coat of disc brake grease to the brake pad hardware.

    8

    Place the new shims, included with the new brake pads, on the rear of the new brake pads. Press the shims onto the new brake pads until they snap into place.

    9

    Insert the new brake pads into the caliper bracket and pivot the caliper downward, covering the brake pads. Tighten the caliper guide pins to 74 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    10

    Place the front wheels back on the Silverado and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the truck up from the jack stands using a floor jack. Remove the jack stands from under the Chevy and slowly lower it to the ground.

    11

    Tighten the lug nuts to 140 foot-pounds in a crisscross pattern with a torque wrench and socket.

    12

    Loosen the rear lug nuts with a ratchet and socket, but do not remove the lug nuts.

    13

    Raise the rear of the Silverado with a floor jack and place jack stands under the rear axle. Lower the Silverado until its weight is supported only by the jack stands. Remove the rear lug nuts and pull the rear wheels from the truck.

    14

    Repeat Steps 4 through 9 for the rear brake pads, tightening the caliper bolts to 80 foot-pounds on the rear with a torque wrench and socket.

    15

    Place the rear wheels back on the Silverado and hand-tighten the lug nuts.

    16

    Raise the truck from the jack stands, using a floor jack, and lower the truck to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts to 140 foot-pounds in a crisscross pattern with a torque wrench and socket.

    17

    Press the brake pedal slowly until it's about 2/3 from its total travel distance and slowly release the pedal. Wait 15 seconds, then press and release the pedal until it feels firm. This process properly seats the dual caliper pistons onto the brake pads.

    18

    Add brake fluid from the small container into the brake master cylinder until it reaches the "Max" line. Close the Silverado's hood.

    19

    Drive the truck to a road with little to no traffic. Accelerate to approximately 30 mph and stop the truck quickly without locking up the brakes. Allow the truck to sit for about two minutes, so the brakes cool. Repeat this step about 20 times, properly brandishing the new brake pads. This improves the braking performance and prolongs the life of your Silverado's brake pads.

Senin, 13 Juli 2009

How to Replace Brakes in a Mercury Tracer

The brakes in a Mercury Tracer perform a vital safety function. Hydraulic fluid is forced through steel lines and forces a piston inside of a caliper to push against a brake rotor. Inside the caliper is a brake pad that makes the connection with the rotor. Over time, the pad will wear down due to friction. When you start to feel vibration in the steering wheel during braking, check and replace the brakes in your Mercury Tracer.

Instructions

    1

    Turn the lug nuts on the front wheels 45 degrees to loosen.

    2

    Put the floor jack under the front jack point located near the radiator and jack up the Tracer.

    3

    Continue to loosen the lug nuts and remove them.

    4

    Slide the wheel of the hub assembly.

    5

    Unbolt the top and bottom caliper mounting bolts, pull the caliper off the rotor, and secure them to the coil spring above the brake assembly.

    6

    Remove the brake pad from the caliper. You may need to tap the pad from behind using a rubber mallet to knock it loose from the caliper.

    7

    Push the caliper piston back into the caliper. Slide the face of one of the brake pads over the piston. Slide the c-clamp over the piston and caliper and tighten the c-clamp to force the piston back into the caliper assembly.

    8

    Insert the new brake pads and reassemble the caliper.

    9

    Slide the caliper back over the rotor and reinstall the caliper mounting bolts. Place a small amount of thread locker on the bolt threads and tighten the bolts until you feel resistance. Then, give the bolts an additional 1/4 turn.

    10

    Spray the brake assembly down with brake parts cleaner. Make sure that there is no residual oil or residue on the brake assembly.

    11

    Mount the wheel on the wheel hub assembly and tighten the lug nuts down.

    12

    Lower the vehicle to the ground and torque the lug nuts to 100 ft lbs.

Minggu, 12 Juli 2009

How to Change Brake Pads on a '98 Chevy Tahoe

Badge engineering -- the automotive industry's tendency to create "new" models by simply changing a model's name -- is no stranger to General Motors and none of these engineering jobs were as obvious as the introduction of the Tahoe in 1995. Essentially, GM grew tired of distinguishing the full-size Blazer from the midsize S-10 Blazer, so it simply renamed the full-size model the Tahoe and made minor revisions. The front brake pads recently started grinding on my 1998 Tahoe and I found this process to work well to complete the task.

Removal

    I found that the best place to lift the front of the Tahoe is at the front suspension crossmember, and the jack stands should go under the frame rails, just behind the front wheels. I found that my Tahoe's caliper used a pair of bolts to secure it to the bracket, and these came off with a ratchet and socket.

    When I removed the caliper, the pads actually remained with the caliper and I removed the inner pad by simply pulling it away from the caliper piston until the retaining pins disengaged from the piston. The outer pad was a little trickier, as I had to pry one the retaining arm on the rear of the pad upward with a flat-head screwdriver to disengage it from the caliper body, then pivot that side of the pad from the caliper. I then pried up the opposite side of the retaining arm and pulled the pad from the caliper.

    My rotors were pretty rough, so I needed to replace them. I had to pry the metal dust cap from the center of the rotor with a flat-head screwdriver, pull the cotter pin from the spindle in the center of the rotor with needle-nose pliers, then remove the castellated nut with a ratchet and socket, and pull the bearing washer from the spindle. From there, I pulled the rotor off of the spindle, and inspected the wheel bearings, but I decided I didn't need to replace them.

Installation

    I repacked and installed the bearings and tapped a new grease seal on the back of the rotor. I then slid the rotor back onto the spindle, and installed the wheel bearing washer and loosely installed the castellated nut. To seats the bearings, I spun the rotor forward as I tightened the castellated nut to 12 foot-pounds, then loosened it again and tightened it until it was only finger tight. I then slid a new cotter pin into place and bent its legs, then tapped the dust cap back into place on the center of the rotor.

    I reinstalled the brakes pads by aligning the tabs on the rear of the new inner pad with the cavity in the caliper piston and pressing the pad toward the piston until the pad sat flush against the piston. On the outer pad, I simply sat the pad against the edge of the outer portion of the caliper body and pressed the pad into the caliper while prying upward on the retaining arm on the rear of the pad until the buttons on the retaining arm seat in the divots in the caliper body.

    When I installed the caliper, I tightened it to the manufacturer's specified torque of 38 foot-pounds. I then installed the wheels, raised the SUV off of the jack stands, removed the jack stands, lowered the SUV and tightened the lug nuts, in a crisscross pattern, to 140 foot-pounds. To pressurize the brake system, I simply pressed and released the brake pedal until it felt firm, then I topped off the master cylinder to 1/4-inch from the top with fresh DOT 3 brake fluid.

2007 Jeep Liberty Brake Problems

2007 Jeep Liberty Brake Problems

The Liberty is a compact sport utility vehicle (SUV) offered by Jeep. According to MSN Autos reliability ratings, the 2007 Jeep Liberty has minimal problems with the brakes. As with any wear and tear item, the brakes of the 2007 Jeep Liberty still may be subject to some common problems.

Squealing

    When the brakes on a 2007 Jeep Liberty start to squeal it could be a simple or complicated problem. On the simple side, a buildup of dirt can cause the squealing noise and can be resolved by running the Jeep through a car wash. The squeal could also be the Liberty's brake sensors informing you that the brake pads need to be replaced. On thecomplicated side, the squeal could be caused by broken brake returns, failed wheel bearings, warped brake shoes or wheel alignment.

Soft and Spongy Brakes

    A soft or spongy brake pedal, a brake that travels to far or with little resistance, could be caused by air in the brake lines. Air could have been introduced to the Liberty's brakes through improper bleeding, fluid loss or a leak in a brake line. This could also be a sign of a failing master cylinder, which could cause serious injuries if not addressed immediately.

Hard Brakes

    Several events can cause the brake pedal to be difficult to depress or wont depress at all. First check behind the brake pedal to ensure it is not obstructed. If the brake pedal is clear of obstruction,faulty power brake boosters, failed calipers, problematic vacuum lines or pinched brake lines could all be the potential problem.

Warning Lights

    The dashboard of the 2007 Jeep Liberty may display two different warning lights. The first could be an ABS (anti-lock braking system) and the other could be a brake warning light. An ABS light indicates a failure of the ABS and should be diagnosed by a certified mechanic. A brake warning light is most commonly activated because of an engaged parking brake or low brake fluid.

Sabtu, 11 Juli 2009

How to Change Rear Disk Brakes on a 1996 Cadillac Eldorado

How to Change Rear Disk Brakes on a 1996 Cadillac Eldorado

The 1996 Cadillac Eldorado came equipped with a 4.6 liter, v-8 engine. It was a powerful family car, with a plethora of safety features, including anti-lock brakes, airbags and reinforced framework. The brakes are all disc brakes which is exactly what every at-home mechanic dreams of. Disc brakes are quite simple to change and to change the rear brakes should take less than one hour from set up to clean up.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the lug nuts from the tires using the tire iron. Set them aside. Set the wood blocks in front of the front tires to keep the vehicle from rolling.

    2

    Set the jack underneath the support strut that runs along the bottom outer edge of the vehicle. Raise the frame up until the tire leaves the ground. Remove the tire.

    3

    Loosen the bottom bolt of the caliper mounting bracket with the socket wrench. Tie the bracket to the car with the twine to keep the brake line from being strained. Remove the brake pads from the bracket.

    4

    Compress the brake caliper with the c-clamp. If the caliper has a groove running across it, it most likely will need the caliper compression tool. They both fit over the bracket and screw down to tighten.

    5

    Install the new brake pads. Place them so that the shiny metal side faces away from each other.

    6

    Rebolt the caliper mounting bracket to the rotor and set the wheel back on the rotor. Tighten all of the lug nuts. Lower the vehicle and tighten the lugs with the tire iron.

Jumat, 10 Juli 2009

How to Clean Rusty Rotors & Brakes

It is common for many brake rotors and calipers to develop rust on their outer surfaces, even on new vehicles. For the most part, this is not an issue that affects performance. It is however, annoying for owners that don't want their otherwise sharp looking vehicles marred by the rusty brake parts. Fortunately a relatively simple cleaning process that cleans off the rust and protects the surface from it happening again.

Instructions

    1

    Pour 1/2 gallon of the Fast Etch rust remover in the plastic bucket. You can use a similar product that both removes rust and leaves a zinc phosphate coating on the metal.

    2

    Place the brake parts in the bucket and allow them to soak for 15 minutes.

    3

    Remove the parts and apply additional rust remover by brushing in on with the paint brush. Use the steel wool to scrub any areas with remaining rust. Place the parts back in the bucket to soak for another 15 minutes.

    4

    Remove the parts, and dry them with a clean rag. Use paper towels to apply acetone to any surfaces to which the brake pads make contact, and then scrub them with steel wool.

    5

    Wipe the parts with a clean rag that has been dampened with water, and allow them to air dry.

How Do I Remove Rotors From a 98 Lincoln Mark 8?

How Do I Remove Rotors From a 98 Lincoln Mark 8?

Ford Motor, the manufacturer of Lincoln, recommends that you inspect your Mark 8's rotors every 10,000 miles. Under normal driving conditions, the rotors should typically last through three sets of brake pads. However, individual driving patterns and conditions vary from driver to driver. You can remove the rotors for resurfacing or replacement right at home with a few tools. The job should take 90 minutes or less to do if you're servicing all four of the rotors.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the hood on your Mark 8 and locate the car battery. Remove the negative cable from its post with your socket wrench. Wrap electrical tape around the terminal at the end of the cable completely. There should not be any visible metal showing after you wrap the terminal.

    2

    Remove the cover on the power distribution center, right next to the battery. On the right side of the PDC you should see eight maxi fuses lined up vertically. Remove the top two fuses in the row by hand. Pull them straight out. Do not twist or turn them. Both of the fuses power your air suspension system.

    3

    Apply the Mark 8's emergency brake. Loosen the lug nuts on the front passenger's-side tire a quarter-turn counterclockwise with a lug wrench.

    4

    Raise the car behind the tire with your hydraulic jack. Place a jack stand no more than 3 inches from the hydraulic jack on the right side to help support the car.

    5

    Remove the lug nuts one at a time with your lug wrench. When you reach the final lug nut, hold the tire in position with one hand while you finish removing the lug nut. Grasp the tire horizontally with both hands and slide it off the wheel studs. Do not drag the tire across the wheel studs. Roll the tire away from your work area and place the lug nuts in a safe location free of debris.

    6

    Remove the two inner caliper mounting bracket bolts with a socket wrench. Do not remove the caliper's bolts. The mounting bracket's bolts are below the caliper's bolts and they sit right next to each other.

    7

    Set the 5-gallon bucket down next to the caliper assembly. Lift the assembly off the rotor with both hands and gently set it down on top of the bucket. Make sure that the brake line isn't taunt or twisted.

    8

    Remove the push nuts on the wheel studs. Grasp them one at a time between two fingers and pull them straight off the studs. Remove the rotor by pulling it off the wheel studs toward you.

Kamis, 09 Juli 2009

How to Replace 1998 Honda Accord Brakes

How to Replace 1998 Honda Accord Brakes

Brakes are one of the most important safety features on any car. The brakes on your 1998 Honda Accord use pads that squeeze the rotors and stop the car with friction. Over time, these brake pads wear down and braking will become more difficult. When you hear your brakes start to squeal or grind as you press down on the brake pedal, or when the brakes no longer seem as responsive, it's time to replace them. This task is rather challenging and requires at least 30 minutes, especially if you have no experience with basic auto repair.

Instructions

Front Brake Pads

    1

    Park your Honda Accord on a level surface. Place a jack under the frame near the driver's side tire and raise the car until the tire is about an inch off the ground. Place a jack stand under the car to secure it. Raise the passenger side of the car in the same manner and place a second jack stand on that side.

    2

    Remove the four lug nuts on each front tire, using the lug wrench and working in a star pattern. Start with the top lug nut and then go to the bottom, then the left, then the right. Remove both tires, exposing the caliper and rotors, and set the tires aside.

    3

    Connect the 5/16-inch socket to the ratchet and use it to unscrew the retaining nuts on the caliper of the driver's side tire. These nuts are located on the rear left and right sides of both calipers. Once loosened, pull the calipers off the rotor with your hands and remove the worn brake pads from the calipers by prying them out.

    4

    Slide the new brake pads into the calipers in the same position as the old ones and press them in securely. Place the calipers back onto the rotor and refasten the retaining nuts. Use a torque wrench to tighten the retaining nuts to 43.7 foot-pounds.

    5

    Reinstall the tire and tighten the lug nuts using a lug wrench and working in a star pattern as you did when you removed the tire. Repeat Steps 3 through 5 for the passenger tire. When finished, remove the jack stands, lower the Honda Accord to the ground and remove the jack.

How to Install Brake Pads on a 1997 Toyota Corolla

In 1993, Toyota completely redesigned to Corolla, giving it a rounded and more modern look. This body design lasted through the 1997 model year. The 1997 Corolla came standard with a 100-horsepower, 1.6-liter four-cylinder engine. The only brake system available on the 1997 Corolla used front discs and rear drums. Knowing how to replace the disc brake pads on your 1997 Corolla can save you a lot of money over the life of the car.

Instructions

    1

    Open the brake master cylinder reservoir and siphon out about half of the brake fluid, using a turkey baster. Transfer this fluid to a small container.

    2

    Loosen, but do not remove, the Corolla's front lug nuts, using a ratchet and socket.

    3

    Raise the front of the Corolla with a floor jack. Set jack stands under the vehicle's subframe and lower the Toyota until only the jack stands support its weight.

    4

    Remove the front lug nuts and pull the front wheels from the Corolla.

    5

    Position an 8-inch C-clamp over the caliper, so the screw part of the clamp touches the outer brake pad and the fixed part touches the rear of the caliper body. Tighten the C-clamp until it stops moving and remove the C-clamp. This retracts the caliper's internal piston.

    6

    Remove the caliper bolts on the rear of the Corolla's caliper, using a ratchet and socket. Pull the caliper up and off of the rotor. Suspend the caliper from a nearby suspension component with a bungee strap or coat hanger.

    7

    Grab the anti-squeal pins -- the "W" shaped wires on the rear of the pads -- and pull them out. Pull the old brake pads out of the grooves in the caliper bracket. Remove the two bolts on the rear of the caliper bracket, using a ratchet and socket, and remove the caliper bracket.

    8

    Grab the rotor and pull it off of the Corolla's hub. If the rotor does not pull off easily, lightly tap the rear of the rotor with a rubber mallet to free it.

    9

    Inspect the rotor for any visual imperfections, such as: deep grooves, grinding, hot spotting or a mirror-like shine. If any imperfections exist, replace the rotor with a new one. If no imperfections exist, place the rotor back on the hub.

    10

    Install a new rotor, if needed, and set the caliper bracket back over the rotor. Tighten the caliper bracket bolts to 65 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    11

    Install the new brake pads in the caliper bracket and insert the anti-squeal pins into the holes on the rear of both pads. Coat the rear of the brake pads with disc brake grease to prevent high-pitch squeals.

    12

    Remove the bungee strap from the caliper and set the caliper on the caliper bracket. Tighten the caliper bolts to 25 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and socket.

    13

    Repeat steps 5 through 12 for the pads on the other side of the Corolla.

    14

    Reinstall the Corolla's front wheels and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the Corolla off of the jack stands, using a floor jack, and remove the jack stands. Lower the Toyota to the ground.

    15

    Tighten the lug nuts to 80 foot-pounds in a crisscrossing pattern, using a torque wrench and socket.

    16

    Check the fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir and fill it to the "Max" line with DOT 3 brake fluid, if needed. Close the master cylinder reservoir cap.

    17

    Press and release the brake pedal until it feels firm under your foot.

Selasa, 07 Juli 2009

How to Remove the Brake Rotor on a 2005 Toyota Sienna

How to Remove the Brake Rotor on a 2005 Toyota Sienna

Toyota introduced the Sienna minivan in 1998, to replace the Toyota Previa. The 2005 Toyota Sienna was equipped with a 3.3-liter multi-port fuel injected, DOHC V-6 engine capable of producing 230 horsepower. This van was equipped with the option of two-wheel or four-wheel disc brakes. Replacing the rotors on the 2005 Toyota Sienna is a task that should be performed by someone with prior automotive experience.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the hood of the Sienna. Check the brake fluid level in the reservoir, located on the driver's side firewall of the engine compartment. Remove the brake fluid with a turkey baster or a bottle siphon if the reservoir is at the "Full" mark. The brake level should be about 1/2-inch below the "Full" mark prior to servicing the brakes.

    2

    Loosen the front wheel lug nuts with a tire iron. Raise the front of the Sienna with a jack. Place jack stands under the subframe, just inward from the lower control arms. Remove the lug nuts completely, then remove the front wheels from the Sienna.

    3

    Hold the lower caliper slide pin with an open-end wrench, on the rear of the caliper. The slide pin is on the rear of the caliper, between the caliper and the steering knuckle. Remove the lower caliper mounting bolt with a 3/8-inch-drive ratchet and socket. Remove the upper mounting bolt in this same manner.

    4

    Pull the caliper free of the brake assembly, and hang the caliper from the front strut spring, using a wire clothes hanger or thin metal rod. Do not let the caliper hang by the rubber hose it is attached to. Remove the outboard anti-squeal clip from the caliper, using a screwdriver if necessary. Remove the outboard brake pad from the caliper.

    5

    Install a large C-clamp around the inboard brake pad and the rear of the caliper. Slowly tighten the C-clamp to completely compress the caliper piston. Remove the C-clamp when the piston is compressed, then remove the inboard brake pad anti squeal clip and inboard brake pad. Discard the old brake pads completely.

    6

    Remove the caliper mounting bracket bolts from the back of the steering knuckle with a 1/2-inch-drive breaker bar and socket. Remove the caliper bracket from the Sienna. Remove the brake rotor by pulling it off.

    7

    Install the new brake rotor. Spin a lug nut onto the lug stud, against the face of the new rotor. Thoroughly coat the new brake rotor with aerosol brake spray. You should use about one-half of a can spraying both sides of one rotor. Install the caliper bracket and bolts, and tighten the bolts to 79 foot-pounds of torque with a torque wrench and socket.

    8

    Install the new inboard pad into the brake caliper, then install a new anti-squeal clip. Make sure the inboard brake pad has the "L" shaped metal wear indicator on it. Use a screwdriver for installing the clip if needed. Install the outboard brake pad (without "L" shaped indicator) into the caliper. Install the anti-squeal clip onto the outboard brake pad.

    9

    Remove the caliper slide pins from the back of the brake caliper by hand. Dip the slide pins directly into a tub of caliper grease. Insert the pins back into the rear of the caliper. Dab a thin layer of caliper grease on the exposed backing plate of the outboard brake pad. Install the caliper assembly and pads onto the brake assembly. Insert the caliper mounting bolts and tighten them to 25 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket. Remove the single lug nut from the hub.

    10

    Repeat Steps 2 through 8 to complete the rotor replacement on the second side of the Sienna. Double-check your torque on all of the caliper mounting bracket bolts and caliper bolts. Install the front wheels and snug the lug nuts with the tire iron. Raise the Sienna off of the jack stands, then remove the stands from beneath the van. Lower the van to the ground. Immediately tighten the front wheel lug nuts to 80 foot-pounds with the torque wrench and a socket.

    11

    Pump the brake pedal slowly and gently, at least 10 to 15 times. The brake pedal should stiffen up and become harder to depress. If the brake pedal is still soft after 5 to 7 pumps, stop pumping and bleed the front brake system.

    12

    Check the brake fluid level under the hood. Add brake fluid as needed, then tighten the reservoir cap back into place.

Senin, 06 Juli 2009

Tools for Removing the Caliper on a 2001 Chevrolet Suburban

Tools for Removing the Caliper on a 2001 Chevrolet Suburban

The brake calipers on a 2001 Chevrolet Silverado are designed to apply pressure to the brake pads, which brings this truck to a complete stop. When the calipers need to be removed, it is important to use the proper tools.

Ratchet

    A ratchet is a long metal rod with an attachment on the end for a socket to be attached to. This tools allows you to reset the position of the rod without repositioning the socket, called a ratcheting motion. This allows for speedy removal of nuts and bolts.

Locking Pliers

    Locking pliers are basic adjustable pliers that lock when they are attached to a nut or bolt. These are locked onto the brake hose to prevent fluid from leaking when the brake hose is removed from the caliper.

Socket Set

    Sockets are short, cylindrical, metal tools that are hollow in the middle. One side of the socket has a square hole so it may be attached to a ratchet or wrench. The other end has a hole in the shape and size of a bolt head or nut. This side is placed over the nut and the socket is turned by a ratchet or wrench to remove the bolt.

Brake Rotor Replacement Tips

Brake Rotor Replacement Tips

Most vehicle models use disc brakes or rotors on both front wheels because of their braking power compared to drum brakes. Still, a worn out or faulty rotor can put your life in danger in a high traffic street, road or highway. Consequently, this is one of those vehicle system components where you should not compromise. Replace that bad rotor on your car easily with a few tips.

Precautions

    Before beginning to replace the rotor, disable the air bag system if your particular vehicle model is equipped with it. This will prevent you from accidentally triggering an impact sensor and injuring yourself or someone else inside or around the car.

    Loosen the wheel lugs, and use a floor jack to raise the tire and wheel assembly with the rotor you need to replace. Support the car on a jack stand and chock the rear or front wheels to keep the vehicle from rolling. Then remove the tire.

Removing the Rotor

    Safely Support the Vehicle

    Detach the brake caliper and mounting bracket from the rotor, and then secure the caliper to the suspension using a piece of wire. Leaving the caliper hanging loose may damage the brake hose.

    Spray the wheel assembly with brake parts cleaner and use shop towels to remove brake lining dust if necessary. Some brake pads may contain asbestos, which is known to cause cancer, and you should not breathe it.

    Note that you will need to remove the wheel bearings as well if you are replacing a rear rotor. Be careful not to let dust, dirt or other particles contaminate the bearings and grease. If necessary, repack the wheel bearings with new high-temperature wheel bearing grease.

    Make sure the rotor on your vehicle is not attached to the wheel hub with mounting screws or bolts, which you need to remove first. If the rotor seems stuck, use a rubber mallet to tap at the back of the rotor to dislodge it from the hub. If the rotor is rusted and hard to remove, you will need to use a puller, which you may rent from your local auto parts store.

Resurface or Replace the Rotor

    A Runout or Slightly Damaged Rotor May Still be Resurfaced

    Some rotors can be resurfaced to correct imperfections or damage caused by years of service without the need to replace it. If you are not sure, take the rotor to a brake repair shop for inspection.

    If you are installing a new rotor, compare the old rotor with the new one, and make sure you have the correct replacement.

    When installing the resurfaced or new rotor, keep grease off the rotor friction surface. According to "Modern Automotive Technology" by James E. Duffy, grease will harden and cause serious breaking problems.

Minggu, 05 Juli 2009

How to Change the Brake Pads on an '02 VW GTI

John was a happy fellow. His life was great and he was loving his new 2002 Volkswagen GTI. The turbocharged 1.8-liter engine was way more powerful than the little 2.2-liter in his old rusty Honda. Of course, with power comes responsibility, which John lacked a little bit when it came to having fun. See, that lead foot that he used to push that little GTI to 60 mph in 6.3 seconds also brought him to a dead stop fast enough to roast through a pair of brake pads in about nine months. Being mechanically inclined he knew he could swap out the brake pads, so he got himself a set of high-performance pads, and broke out the old tool box.

Removal

    After loosening the lug bolts, John placed the jack under the pinch weld -- just behind either front wheel -- then lifted the driver side corner off of the ground. He placed a jack stands below the subframe rail, in the flat spot between the control arm mounting points. He lowered the driver side onto the stand, then did the same thing for the passenger side. John held the lower guide pin in place with a 13 mm wrench, then removed the lower caliper bolt. From here, he was able to pivot the caliper upward and remove the pads from the caliper bracket. He then removed the pad retainers from the top and bottom of the caliper bracket. He checked the rotors for pits or grooves, but they were in good shape, so he was able to proceed on with replacing the pads. If the rotors were bad, he would have remove the two bolts for the caliper bracket, then he would have hung the caliper and bracket from the suspension. After removing the two retaining screws, he would slip the rotor off the hub.

Installation

    Had John removed the rotor, he would have slid a new one onto the hub and tightened the retaining screws to 35 inch-pounds. Then he would have lowered the caliper and bracket into place and tightened the bracket bolts to 74 foot-pounds. Instead, he installed the new pad retainers on the caliper bracket, and then the new pads. After compressing the caliper piston, he lowered the caliper into place and installed the lower caliper bolt. He tightened that bolt to 23 foot-pounds and the lug bolts to100 foot-pounds.

Kamis, 02 Juli 2009

How to Install the Rear Brakes on a 2003 Ford Truck

The rear brakes on a 2003 model Ford truck depend on the exact type of truck. Full-size trucks like the F150 will have drum brakes and shoes exclusively on the rear wheels, while super-duty trucks like the F250 will have brake calipers and pads in addition to the drum brakes. Installing new brake pads or shoes can be a difficult job, but brake shoes are especially hard because of the multiple springs used on the brake assembly.

Instructions

Accessing the Brakes

    1

    Raise the rear end of the truck and support it on jack stands, then remove both rear wheels using the tire iron. Block the front wheels with wheel chocks and release the parking brake.

    2

    Clean the entire brake assembly with aerosol brake cleaner. Catch any residue from the brake cleaner with a drip pan or tray placed under the assembly.

    3

    Remove the brake caliper from the discs if you are working on a truck with disc brakes on the rear wheels--remove the caliper mounting bolts with a flare nut wrench.

Brake Pads

    4

    Squeeze and remove the V-springs holding the brake pads in place within the caliper mounting bracket.

    5

    Pull the old brake pads out of the mounting bracket, beginning with the outer pad.

    6

    Apply an anti-squeal compound to the backing plates of the replacement brake pads, then install the pads into the mounting bracket, beginning with the outer pad. Install the V-springs onto the mounting bracket.

    7

    Pull the slide pins out of the caliper, lubricate them with high-temperature grease and install them back within the caliper.

    8

    Connect the brake caliper back onto the disc and secure it with the guide pin bolts.

    9

    Reconnect both of the rear wheels and lower the truck after changing the brake pads on both wheels.

Brake Shoes

    10

    Remove the brake disc or the brake drum--whichever the truck is equipped with. Unbolt the caliper's mounting bracket from the disc first with the wrench. The drum or disc should then slip off the wheel studs.

    11

    Disconnect the upper and lower springs from the brake shoes using pliers, then disconnect the cables and lever connecting the brake assembly to the parking brake.

    12

    Remove the old brake shoes--remove their hold-down springs with pliers. Remove each shoe individually on a full-size truck; for a super-duty, spread the shoes apart and lift them off the actuator, then disconnect the final retractor spring holding them together.

    13

    Disconnect the parking brake lever from the rear shoe--pry off its clip with a screwdriver or pliers. Install the lever on the replacement shoe and clamp the new retaining clip in place on the pin with the pliers.

    14

    Lubricate the brake assembly's backing plate with high-temperature grease on the spots where the brake shoes come in contact with the backing plate.

    15

    Connect the new brake shoes to the backing plate--either one at a time for a full-size or with them connected by the retractor spring for a super-duty. Connect the hold-down springs with the pliers.

    16

    Connect the parking brake cables and the upper and lower springs to the brake shoes by stretching them with the pliers and hooking them into the holes they connected to on the old shoes.

    17

    Slip the brake drum or brake disc back onto the wheel studs and connect the brake caliper to the disc if needed with its guide pin bolts.

    18

    Connect the wheels back onto the truck and lower it off the jack stands.

Rabu, 01 Juli 2009

How to Remove Brake Drums for a Ford Focus

The Ford Focus brake system uses a front pad and caliper system with disc brakes while the rear is a shoe and drums system. The drums can crack and wear over time with heavy use. The heat generated during the braking process can glaze the drums as well. If your drums have damage to them, you can replace them with new drums, which are available at any auto parts store or though a Ford dealership.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the rear lug nuts on your Focus with a lug wrench, but do not remove them from the wheel studs yet. The wheels will become unstable if you take the lug nuts off while there is still weight on the wheels.

    2

    Position a jack under the rear suspension of the car and lift it off the ground. Place a set of jack stands under it and lower the car onto the stands to support it. Remove the lug nuts from the wheel studs, then remove the wheels.

    3

    Examine the area around the wheel studs where they come through the brake drum. If the drums have never been off the car, there may be several metal clips on the wheel studs. These were used to retain the drums during assembly. Use a flat screwdriver to pry the clips off the studs. Discard the clips.

    4

    Grasp the sides of the brake drum and pull it back toward you. It should slide right off the brake shoes and wheel studs. Move to the opposite side of the car and repeat the process, removing the second drum if necessary.

How to Maintain Brake Calipers

How to Maintain Brake Calipers

The brake calipers are the main components that house the brake pads. When the brake pedal is applied, the brake caliper cylinder compresses the brake pads to the brake rotor. This is the process that stops the wheels from turning. The main components of the brake caliper are the slide bolts and the caliper cylinder. Each of these components play a vital role in making sure that the brake caliper performs properly. Service the caliper every time the brake pads are changed to keep the caliper working properly.

Instructions

    1

    Pull the vehicle onto a level surface and apply the parking brake. Shut the engine off.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the front wheels about one-quarter of a turn with a tire tool.

    3

    Jack the front end of the vehicle up and place the jack stands under the proper front jacking points. Lower the vehicle safely on top of the stands and leave the jack sitting in the upright position.

    4

    Finish removing the lug nuts from the front wheels. Pull the wheels off and set them down flat. Begin the brake caliper servicing on the front driver side of the vehicle.

    5

    Locate the upper and lower slide bolts on the back of the brake caliper. Loosen and remove the bolts from the caliper with a ratchet and a metric socket. Pull the bolts completely out of the caliper.

    6

    Slide a flat-head screwdriver between the outboard brake pad and the brake rotor. Pry the brake pad toward the caliper cylinder to loosen the caliper from the rotor.

    7

    Pull the brake caliper off the rotor and hang it to one of the suspension components behind the wheel hub assembly. Remove the brake pads from the inside of the brake caliper.

    8

    Spray the inside of the brake caliper with the brake cleaner spray. Wipe away any excess brake pad build-up around the caliper cylinder and the rubber boot that surrounds the caliper cylinder. Also spray the caliper slide bolts with the brake cleaner spray and wipe with a clean rag.

    9

    Wipe the inside of the brake caliper clean with a clean rag. Inspect the rubber boot that the caliper piston slides in and out of for cracks or tears. Apply a thin layer of synthetic or silicone grease onto the caliper piston where it slides in and out of the rubber boot. Also, coat the slide bolts and the threads of the slide bolts with the grease. Inspect the inside and the outside of the caliper for cracks or any other types of damage.

    10

    Remove the rope from the caliper and slide it back over the rotor. Screw the slide bolts back into the back of the caliper and tighten the bolts with the ratchet and socket. Slide the wheel back on along with the lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts until the wheel begins to turn.

    11

    Move to the other brake calipers on the vehicle and repeat the process. Jack the vehicle back up and remove the jack stands. Lower the vehicle to the ground and remove the jack.

    12

    Finish tightening the lug nuts down tight with the tire tool. Crank the engine and push the brake pedal in and out five or six times. This will cause the caliper piston to retract in and out of the caliper housing. This will also allow the grease to spread throughout the inside of the rubber boot around the caliper piston. Turn the engine off.