Senin, 30 Maret 2009

How to Replace Brake Shoe Linings

Brake shoe linings attached to the shoes by rivets need replaced when worn to 1/32 inch of the rivet heads. Work on the brakes in pairs to maintain equal braking action on both sides of the car. Always replace the brake shoe linings on both of the front or rear tires at the same time, even when only one wheel lining needs replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Take off the wheel and the brake drum. Note the assembly of the springs and retainers for future reference. Remove the retracting springs and the brake shoe retainers with brake spring pliers.

    2

    Grab the shoes and lift them off the backing plate. Let them slide together. Disassemble the adjusting screw and spring. Lubricate the adjusting screw with a high-temperature lubricant after removal. Mark the front and rear shoe.

    3

    Use a drill with an extra large bit to remove the old linings. Maintain the original size of the rivet holes.

    4

    Clean the backing plate with a dry rag or an approved cleaner. Apply high-temperature lubricant lightly to the backing plate so the brake shoes don't squeak after assembly.

    5

    Secure new brake shoe linings. Install the rivets, starting at the middle and working toward the ends. Rivets should hold the brake shoe lining securely without splitting near the rivet holes.

    6

    Reassemble and test the brakes, making several low-speed stops to ensure that they work.

How to Size Brake Lines

The brake lines on a vehicle are hard metal and encounter a lot of hazards being under the vehicle. When the brake lines are damaged or have aged to the point where they are leaking and require replacement, they must be replaced to prevent brake failure. A key component to the replacement of brake lines is taking the proper measurements. This requires more work than just a tape measure, as brake lines typically have a lot of kinks and bends throughout.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the vehicle, using a floor jack, and secure it by placing jack stands beneath the vehicle and lowering it until only the stands are bearing the vehicle's weight.

    2

    Trace the brake line needing replacement until you find where it's connected to another brake line or component. This is your starting point. Place the end of the mechanic's wire at this point and tape it to the brake line, using masking tape.

    3

    Trace the brake line until you reach its end, attaching the mechanic's wire every six to eight inches on straight areas and every two to three inches on bends using masking tape. Tape the string at the end of the line and cut the mechanic's wire, using side cutters.

    4

    Remove the mechanic's wire from the brake line and lay it flat on the ground. Measure the mechanic's wire length using a tape measure and make a note of the length. To be safe, add approximately two inches to the length. You can always trim any excess line.

    5

    Close the micrometer jaws and press the "Reset" to calibrate it before measurement. Open the micrometer jaws and place them over the brake line.

    6

    Close the micrometer jaws over the line and read the measurement provided by the micrometer, this is the line's diameter.

DIY Brake Change

DIY Brake Change

Squeaky brakes are a warning to a driver that his brakes pads are wearing thin and should be replaced before they erode completely and begin doing structural damage to the car's disc. Though working with such a vital safety feature can be intimidating, replacing disc brake pads is a relatively simple process and can save you money over going to a mechanic for the replacement.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on a wheel that needs its brake pads changed using the lug wrench.

    2

    Jack up the car until the wheel is off the ground.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts with the lug nut wrench and remove the wheel.

    4

    Loosen the pair of bolts on the brake caliper, the metal object positioned around the wheel's disc, using the wrench.

    5

    Place the caliper atop the wheel assembly, where it is out of the way and not hanging by the brake line.

    6

    Remove the old brake pads by pulling them out of the caliper mounting bracket.

    7

    Insert the new brake pads in place of the old pads in the mounting bracket.

    8

    Insert an old brake pad over the caliper piston, then insert the caliper tool and crank so that the tool expands. This will retract the piston, which presses on the pads, so that the caliper will fit over the new, thicker pads in the caliper mounting bracket.

    9

    Place the caliper back over the disc, or rotor, and secure with the bolts.

    10

    Replace the wheel and tighten the lug nuts before lowering the vehicle to the ground, then finish tightening the lug nuts.

    11

    Repeat the procedure for the opposite wheel. When done, pump the brake pedal a few times to seat the caliper firmly against the pads.

Minggu, 29 Maret 2009

How to Take the Brake Rotors Off of a 1989 Toyota 4X4 Truck

Removing the brake rotors from a Toyota four-wheel drive truck is easy to do. There's no fixed period of time to replace them since their wear is relative to the amount of use they get. In other words, if you put a lot of highway miles on your truck, then you won't have to replace the rotors as often as someone who does a lot of stop-and-go driving. The thickness of the brake rotors is the deciding factor as to when you must replace them. In this case, the minimum thickness for your rotors is 23 millimeters (0.9 inches) using a tape measure.

Instructions

    1

    Place a set of wheel chocks behind the rear wheels and jack up the truck with the automobile jack. Place a jack stand under the vehicle and raise it up to the frame.

    2

    Remove the wheel using a lug wrench to remove the lug nuts. If your truck has anti-lock brakes, pull the ABS sensor off of the wheel knuckle. Remove the brake caliper using a ratchet and socket to remove the retaining bolts. Access the retaining bolts from the back side of the caliper. Secure the caliper to the strut using a wire tie to hold it in place. Never let the brake caliper hang free or you will damage the brake line.

    3

    Remove the grease cap from the wheel hub using the screwdriver to pry it off. Pull the cotter pin out of the shaft using the pliers and then remove the castellated nut with the proper size wrench. Remove the brake rotor from the wheel hub.

How to Tell Which Size Drum Brakes for a '99 Dakota

How to Tell Which Size Drum Brakes for a '99 Dakota

The 1999 Dodge Dakota comes with either nine-inch rear drums or 10-inch rear drums. There are five different varieties of 1999 Dakotas. Two of them offer four-wheel drive, while the other three feature rear-wheel drive (two-wheel drive). The other major difference between the varieties is the engine size offered. No matter which variety Dakota, they all may feature either the nine-inch or 10-inch drum system. To make it easier, however, no matter which Dakota, they all take the same brake drum part number, albeit nine-inch or 10-inch drum system.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Dakota on a hard, flat surface and place a wheel wedge block in front of one of the front tire treads.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts of one rear tire with the tire iron by turning them counterclockwise one full turn.

    3

    Hoist the rear of the Dakota upward with the jack placed under the rear differential high enough to place the jack stand under the rear axle. Lower the jack until the axle is resting on the jack stand the the tire is elevated.

    4

    Remove the lug nuts and tire.

    5

    Scrub the hub facing of the brake drum with the wire brush, if necessary. Drums are exposed to the elements and environment and can become severely rust covered. On the outer ridge facing of the drum are stamped numbers in millimeters. Focus on the area with the numbers stamped on the ridge of the drum with the brush.

    6

    Obtain the millimeter size stamped on the side of the drum and enter the number into a calculator. Divide that number by 25.4. There are 25.4 millimeters in an inch, therefore the closer to nine inches would indicate a nine-inch braking system and the same applies for ten-inch systems. Some of the millimeter stamps on brake drums may feature maximum diameter -- also know as discard -- a machine-to size (this depends on the manufactured brand of the drum). Maximum diameter is as far as the drum is allowed to be machined to before it should be discarded (replaced), machine-to size if as far as the drum can be machined to without rendering it beyond the maximum diameter. Therefore, the formula may vary between brake drum manufacturers.

Jumat, 27 Maret 2009

How to Replace Brake Rotor on 1997 Chevy Lumina

How to Replace Brake Rotor on 1997 Chevy Lumina

The brake rotors on the Chevy Lumina are made of cast iron. When your brake pads wear too thin, the rivets will begin to cut grooves into the surface of the rotor. The rotor is also subject to cracking, and can warp if it gets very hot and then gets wet. In any case, when damage occurs to the brake rotor, you need to replace it. This is a project you can take care of in your garage or driveway.

Instructions

    1

    Park your Chevy Lumina on a level surface and turn off the key. Open the hood and drain two-thirds of the brake fluid using the turkey baster. Place the fluid in the drain pan for recycling.

    2

    Set the wheel chocks behind the rear tires of your Chevy Lumina. Raise the car with the automobile jack on the side that you will be starting with. Place a jack stand under the Lumina near the jacking point and raise it to the frame. Remove the lug nuts with the lug wrench and take the wheel off the car.

    3

    Remove the brake caliper by loosening the retaining bolts with a socket and ratchet. Push the caliper piston back into the housing by placing the jaws of the C-clamp over the back of the caliper and the back brake pad. Twist it closed until the piston is fully within the housing. Secure the caliper to the strut using a wire tie. Do not allow it to hang or you will damage the brake line.

    4

    Remove the rotor from the wheel assembly by pulling it off. Thoroughly clean the wheel assembly with a wire brush. This is necessary, because dirt and debris will keep the rotor from sitting flush and it will cause the rotor to wear unevenly.

    5

    Place the new rotor on the wheel assembly. Cut the wire tie securing the caliper to the strut using the pliers. Place the caliper onto the mounting bracket. Tighten the retaining bolts with the socket and ratchet. Do not over-tighten the bolts or you will strip the threads.

    6

    Place the wheel on the Lumina and tighten the lug nuts with the lug wrench. Remove the jack stand from under the car. Lower the vehicle to the ground. Repeat the process on the other wheel.

How to Fix Noisy Drum Brakes

How to Fix Noisy Drum Brakes

Automobile brake noise by itself is seldom a serious problem; however, it can sometimes indicate that a much more serious issue is developing. It is also one of the most irritating and embarrassing problems from the perspective of the driver and passengers. Drum brakes, which are used on the rear wheels of many cars, can make a different range of noises than disc brakes, and learning how to address these noises can make for more peaceful motoring while avoiding more serious problems down the road.

Instructions

Noise Diagnosis

    1

    Determine if the brake noise is constant or only audible when the brakes are applied. Identify if the noise has always been there or has slowly developed over time. Consider if the noise started suddenly and, if so, whether it was after a brake servicing. Determine the type of noise, such as squealing, grinding or thumping. Think about any other symptoms that accompany the noise, such as vibration, reduced braking performance or brake grabbing. Make a list of everything you know about the problem to help in the diagnosis.

    2

    Wait for the new shoes to wear in. It will take about 300 to 400 miles of city driving before the new shoes wear in with the drum, so a tolerable amount of noise, during this period, is not unexpected. If the squeal does not go away during this period, it is possible that the problem lies in the brake shoe linings. Some shoes are made with hard lining material, and brake squeal is normal when this is used. In this case, a change to a softer lining material may make the noise go away.

    3

    Inspect the brake linings to see if they are worn out or damaged. If the lining is completely worn or has failed, then the metal backing on the shoe will contact the drum during braking, and a loud grinding or scraping noise will result.

    4

    Check that the drum is not out-of-round and that all brake parts are secured in their proper positions. If the drum is not round, then the brakes will vibrate, and a rapid throbbing sound will be heard. If the sound is more like a sharp, rapid chattering, then something in the brake assembly is likely loose. Inspect the brakes immediately.

    5

    Examine the parking brake. If there is a continuous faint squeaking or squealing while the car is moving and the sound disappears when the brakes are applied, then it is possible that the parking brake is stuck in a partially applied position. Check for proper operation of the parking brake handle or pedal and be sure that it is releasing properly. Check the cable at both the handle or pedal end in the passenger compartment and at the brake end and look for signs of rust or corrosion.

Basic Drum Brake Inspection and Cleaning

    6

    Loosen the lug nuts on both rear wheels with a lug nut wrench. Raise the rear of the automobile with a jack and support it on axle stands at the designated support points. Remove the rear wheels. It is possible to work on one wheel at a time, but it is useful to compare the brake assemblies of two wheels, especially if one side is making noise but not the other.

    7

    Remove the nuts that hold the brake drum to the hub and pull the drum straight off the hub assembly. If corrosion and rust have seized the drum onto the hub assembly, it can be loosened by firmly tapping the drum on the outside shoulder with a hammer or mallet. Do not hit the drum on the inside edge where the drum meets the backing plate and do not pry the drum against the backing plate. With the drum removed, the brake assembly is now visible.

    8

    Inspect the brake components carefully. Start with the drum. Check the inside surface for scoring, deep grooves and other signs of abnormal wear. Look for excessive rust, corrosion or discoloration of the metal. If the inside of the drum shows any abnormal signs, then the drum should be machined. If there are any cracks or spots that are glazed or deeply pitted, then the drum should be replaced. Measure the inside drum diameter in several locations using the brake micrometer. All diameter measurements should be the same. If they are not, then the drum is out-of-round and should be machined. Compare the measured drum diameter to the manufacturer's specifications; and if the measured diameter exceeds the specified maximum diameter, the drum is worn out and should be replaced.

    9

    Check the brake shoes. Look for any foreign material embedded in the surface of the lining. Inspect for damage or scoring of the lining material. Measure the thickness of the shoe linings; if they are thinner than the manufacturer's recommendations, then they should be replaced. Check the steel shoe for signs of damage or bending. Damaged shoes should be replaced.

    10

    Inspect the backing plate. Check for excess corrosion, especially at the points where the shoes touch the backing plate. Look for any sign that the backing plate may be bent or distorted.

    11

    Check all brake components to ensure they are securely and properly fastened and that they are clean and free from excessive corrosion. Check the brake on one side of the car against the brake on the other side. Look for any heavy buildup of dust and dirt anywhere in the brake assembly since this is the major cause of drum brake noise. Be sure the springs are in good shape and properly fastened at both ends. Verify that the clips or pins that hold the brake shoes are in good shape and properly fastened at both ends. Look for heavy dirt buildup or corrosion on the adjuster star wheel.

    12

    Clean the entire brake assembly with brake cleaning fluid spray. Spray all parts liberally and wipe away any dirt and corrosion with a rag. Place a drip pan under the brake assembly to catch the used fluid and dispose of it in accordance with local regulations. Use a rag or small wire brush to loosen stubborn dirt and corrosion. Clean the inside of the drum in the same manner.

    13

    Lubricate the various contact points with high-temperature brake grease. Lubricate the points where the brake shoes contact the backing plate. Apply grease to the shoe hold-down pins and the adjuster lever pivot point. Lubricate the threads on the adjuster star wheel. Take care not to get any grease on the lining surfaces of the brake shoes or on the inside of the drum.

    14

    Reinstall the drums. Remount the wheels and lower the vehicle. Test the brakes.

How a Air Brake Chamber Works

What are Air Brake Chambers?

    Air brake chambers are the primary part of the air brake system in highway and long-haul 18-wheelers. While the front and rear brake chambers of a vehicle are slightly different, they function in conjunction with a set of oversize drum-brakes, taking the place of a normal breaking system's hydraulic assist function.

Front Brake Air Chamber

    The front brake air chambers are solid steel housings connected to an air compressor. Each air brake chamber contains a pressure bleed valve and a push rod. The push rods have a spring return on the interior and a pressure plate the spans the width and depth of the chamber. When the brake pedal is depressed, air from the compressor is pumped into the chamber. This drives the push rod out with upwards of 1,000 pounds of force. Yoked to the end of the push rod is an S-cam.

    The S-cam is a long rod that sits in the interior of the drum brakes. When it turns, it forces out the surrounding brake shoes against the interior of the wheel drums, arresting the tires. Air pressure is used because traditional hydraulic chambers would not be able to create sufficient fluid pressure to stop the tires as quickly.

Rear Spring Brake Air Chamber

    Rear spring brake air chambers perform the same function as front brake air chambers, but they also double as a parking brake, thus their design is a little more complex. These are a dual-chamber system. The push rod and air chamber as present as usual, but behind this chamber is a second one which contains a powerfully coiled braking spring on a solid plate, much like the plate the push rod ends in. It's kept in check by a latch which connects directly to the parking break lever in the driver's cab.

    The brake functions normally when the pedal is depressed, but if the parking brake lever is deployed, the latch snaps away from the spring and it manually drives the push rod forward with several hundred pounds worth of force. In order to disengage the parking brake, the brake pedal must be depressed, filling the first chamber with air and forcing the spring back until the latch catches hold of it again.

When Replacing Disc Brakes Do Rotors Need to Be Turned?

When Replacing Disc Brakes Do Rotors Need to Be Turned?

The quick answer to whether rotors need to be turned (also known as machined or resurfaced) is no. Turning the rotor removes it from the vehicle and brings it to a lathe or employs an on-car lathe, which will true to the rotor to the hub of the vehicle. When replacing pads nowadays, however, many brake installation and repair facilities will want to turn or replace the rotors. The reasoning is twofold: It will provide a clean surface for the pads to break in on as well as minimize customer complaints.

Replacing Disc Brakes

    The term "disc brakes" refers directly to the rotor, despite the friction material coming from the pads. When replacing pads, inspect the rotors thoroughly to look for grooves, rust pits, hard or heat spots (discolored deviations in the surface of the rotor plates) or visual cracks. Measuring the thickness of the rotor, employing a micrometer, will ensure that the rotor has enough material to allow turning it if any of the above symptoms are present (except cracks, which would require replacement). Every make and model vehicle features different-size rotors in length and diameter. As the friction material of the pads rubs against the rotor, the rotor thins down, although not as much as the pads. However, rotors feature what is called discard. This means they're only allowed to get so thin in width. Once they reach a certain width, they no longer have the capacity to maintain the intense heat they must endure during the braking process.

    Inspect pad wear to help determine whether you should turn a rotor. Pads stuck in the caliper carrier or stuck caliper pistons that cause premature pad wear or angular wear will create heat spots on the rotors that should--but may or may not--be able to be turned out on a lathe.

    In addition, a warped rotor that causes a noticeable vibration when braking will most likely not adapt to a resurfacing, because of excessive runout. Once a rotor is warped, most often caused by cheap material or excessive heat, machining the warping out of the rotors will be nominal and temporary at best.

Identifying the Rotor

    Once you have removed the caliper, in addition to the pads and carrier if applicable, inspect the rotors. As mentioned, any visual rust pits, surface cracks or grooves caused by the metal backing plates of the pads may be compromised. Hard or heat spots on the rotor also may not take well to the resurfacing bits on the brake lathe. In the case of grooves in the rotor, the micrometer measurement requires several readings in and out of the grooves to determine whether you can turn down the rotor on the lathe to create a smooth surface at the lowest measurement. Visible lines in the rotor, called a record effect (much like the lines on the old LP albums) can be turned out as long as the rotor is within measurement specifications.

    Smooth surfacing on the brake rotor gives the new pads a fresh surface to brake into. Without the rotor being smooth, the flat pads will end up wearing away to the surface of the rotor and cause adverse braking symptoms.

    Rotors that show no signs of visual deviations, or that were not vibrating from excessive runout before the pads were replaced, may not need to be serviced.

Rotors of Today

    Most rotors for cars nowadays are imported from other countries. While this has dropped the pricing down significantly, it has also compromised the quality of the rotors. Turning rotors isn't as financially viable as replacing them with new ones. Before deciding whether to slap on pads, machine the rotors or replace them, compare how the pads are wearing, what the condition of the rotor is and whether it's cheaper or even just a little more expensive to replace them rather than turning them.

Rabu, 25 Maret 2009

GM Trailer Brake Troubleshooting

Nothing is worse than having your brakes go out. It can result in injury, damaged property or worse. To keep your GM Trailer brakes in great shape, it is important to do occasional checks. If you are already experiencing a problem these troubleshooting techniques can help you figure out what the cause may be. You may want to enlist the help of a friend to help you out with some of these to perform them more accurately.

Instructions

    1

    Have someone hold in the stop button on your brake controller while you hold a compass three inches from each individual wheel. If the needles swings toward the wheel, your magnets are working.

    2

    Drive around the block once or twice, hitting the brake as often as possible. Then, get out and use a laser heat sensor on every wheel. Each one should be warmer than the surrounding air, and they should all be between 70 degrees of one another. If any of them are drastically off, you may have an issue with that brake.

    3

    Use a brake controller with an amperage reading. Push the stop button while parked. It should read 3 amps per brake. So for a two-axle 6 is the optimum reading, while a four-axle should read 12 amps. Anything higher and you may have bare wire touching metal somewhere in your brake system. At 3 amps lower you have one brake not working at all, 6 amps lower means two brakes are out, and so on.

Selasa, 24 Maret 2009

How to Install Rear Brake Drums on a Chevy

The rear brake drum on a Chevy is a large, cast iron cover that fits over the wheel hub. The brake shoes on the hub push against the inside of the drum causing the drum and the hub assembly to slow down (causing the vehicle to slow down as well). While the drum rarely, if ever, needs replacing on Chevy vehicles, the shoes need to be checked at regular intervals. To access them, you need to know how to remove and install the rear drum.

Instructions

    1

    Put wheel blocks in front of the front wheels.

    2

    Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts by turning them 45 degrees counterclockwise with a tire wrench.

    3

    Lift up on the rear jack point on your Chevy. This is usually the rear cross-member on Chevy vehicles. The cross-member is a solid steel beam that runs just behind the trunk.

    4

    Finish removing the wheel lug nuts and pull the wheel off the hub.

    5

    Remove the brake drum by hitting the outside of the drum with a hammer. You will have to hit the drum fairly hard because the drum is made of iron. Chevy doesn't use any retaining bolts on their drums. Instead, the wheel holds the drum to the wheel hub. The reason the drum may initially be so difficult to remove is that the surface of the iron drum rusts and corrodes very easily. You need to knock off the rust to loosen the drum. Once you do that, the drum will come right off.

    6

    Pull the drum off the wheel hub. To install the drum, simply slide the drum back onto the wheel hub and put the wheel back on over the drum.

Senin, 23 Maret 2009

Versa Brake Problems

On August 31, 2006, Nissan North America, Inc. and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration recalled 13,184 model 2007 Versa vehicles due to break problems. Per the NHTSA, Nissan began notifying affected registered vehicle owners in November 2006.

Safety Defect

    According to the NHTSA, certain Versa SUVs subject to the recall do not comply with federal motor vehicles safety standards. In these vehicles, the brake fluid reservoir cap is missing part of the required brake fluid warning. This manufacturing defect violates Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 135 on "Passenger Car Brake Systems."

Potential Danger

    Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 135 specifies requirements for vehicles equipped with hydraulic and electric service brakes and parking brake systems to ensure safe braking performance under normal conditions and emergency conditions. Not meeting these standards can mean putting the driver, passengers and others in danger should an accident or crash occur due to improperly functioning brakes.

Remedy

    According to the NHTSA, Nissan began mailing new brake fluid reservoir caps along with installation instructions to registered vehicle owners on November 10, 2006. Alternatively, vehicle owners who do not wish to replace their own cap were instructed that they may bring their vehicles to the dealer for free replacement. Concerned Versa owners may contact the NHTSA or Nissan to inquire whether their vehicles may have been affected.

How to Change the Brake Pads in a 2002 Ford Super Duty

Super Duty refers to Ford Motor Companys light- and medium-duty trucks. The Super Duty nameplate originated on the 1999 F250 through F550 models, and was still used to describe these vehicles as of 2010. The brake pads on the vehicles press against the circular brake rotor when the brake pedal is pushed, and will wear out after a few thousand miles of use, especially if you haul or tow heavy loads.

Instructions

    1

    Place the transmission in "park" if you have an automatic, or leave the transmission in gear if you have a manual transmission. Open the hood and remove the brake master cylinder cap, which is mounted to the drivers-side firewall.

    2

    Chock the wheel diagonally opposite from the one you will be working on. Place a floor jack under the frame near the wheel you want to work on first. Loosen the lug nuts on the wheel with a lug wrench. Raise the jack until the wheel is off the ground. Remove the lug nuts completely. Remove the wheel from the hub and place it aside.

    3

    Remove the two bolts on the back side of the caliper with a socket and ratchet in a counterclockwise direction. Pull the caliper straight up from the caliper bracket. Support the caliper with a piece of wire to the spring in the wheel well to keep from damaging the rubber brake line that is attached to the caliper.

    4

    Pry the wire spring from the ends of the brake pads with a flat-blade screwdriver. Pry the two brake pads out of the caliper bracket with a flat-blade screwdriver. Place one of the used pads over the double piston on the caliper. Place a C-clamp over the pad and the back side of the caliper housing. Tighten the clamp until the pistons are fully retracted into the caliper. Remove the old pad and the C-clamp.

    5

    Push new pads into each side of the caliper housing until they snap into place. Compress the wire spring with your fingers and push it into the hole in the end of each brake pad. Release the spring.

    6

    Push the caliper back over the caliper bracket. Line up the mounting holes and tighten the retaining bolts with a socket and ratchet.

    7

    Replace the wheel and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Lower the floor jack. Tighten the lug nuts with a lug wrench in a crisscross configuration. Remove the wheel chocks.

    8

    Repeat the above steps for all remaining wheels.

    9

    Check the level of brake fluid in the master cylinder. Use a syringe to remove excess fluid if necessary. Replace the cap and close the hood. Depress the brake pedal a few times to seat the new pads before driving for the first time.

Minggu, 22 Maret 2009

The Rear Drum Removal on a 1997 Nissan Altima

The rear brake drums on your 1997 Nissan Altima fit tighter than many of the brake drums you may have worked with in the past. These drums do not just slide off the hub, in fact pressing them off the hub is the only way they will come loose. You do not need any fancy tools or equipment to accomplish this, just two 10-millimeter bolts and a wrench. Once off the car, inspect the rear drums and resurface or replace them as needed before reassembly.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels of your Altima. A lug wrench or a breaker bar with a socket attached works best for this. Do not take the lug nuts off the studs until the weight is off the wheels.

    2

    Jack up the back of the car until it is high enough to get the tires off the car. One or two inches gap between the bottom of the tire and ground is enough. Slide a set of jack stands under the frame or rear suspension to support the car.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts completely then pull the wheel off the rear hub and set it aside. The rear drum on the Altima has two threaded holes in the face of it. The drums will not slide off this car like they will on some.

    4

    Insert a 10-millimeter bolt (about 4 inches long) into each of the two threaded holes and turn them clockwise with a wrench, alternating between bolts ever couple turns. Continue working back and forth between the bolts until the drum comes loose. Slide the drum the rest of the way off by hand.

    5

    Repeat the process for the second brake drum on the opposite side of the car.

How to Set Driveline Angles

How to Set Driveline Angles

Driveline angles are important in your automobile to reduce driveline vibrations. There are many ways to determine driveline angles, but the easiest way is with an angle finder that measures the angles underneath your vehicle. You can also use what is known as the pinion angle. Both methods involve important calculations. Everything must work correctly if you plan to add custom driveshafts or axles to your car.

Instructions

    1

    Locate a flat spot on the driveshaft to place your angle finder. One of the most accurate places to take measurements is the back of the driveshaft yoke.

    2

    Place your angle finder on the front of the driveshaft, write down the reading and repeat the process on the rear driveshaft.

    3

    Set your pinion angle properly. This refers to the angle in relation to the driveshaft.

    4

    Set the angle between 1 and 3 degrees between the tailshaft of the transmission and the driveshaft and the pinion.

Sabtu, 21 Maret 2009

How to Change Rotors on a 2006 Vue

Saturn came about in 1990 with the release of two simple, yet economical vehicles the SC and SL. In the 2002 model year, Saturn took a leap into the realm of SUV manufacturing with the release of the compact Vue. The Vue was unique in the fact that it was the only SUV in Saturns lineup, but used the same basic styling cues from the automakers lineup of cars. The 2006 Saturn Vue featured a basic braking system that used ventilated front disc brakes and rear drum brakes on all trim levels, which was unusual for the era. When replacing the 2006 Vues rotors, it is best to replace the brake pads, too.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the Vues front lug nuts with a ratchet and socket. Raise the front of the SUV with a floor jack and set jack stands under its subframe. Lower the Saturn onto the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts and pull the front wheel off the Vue.

    2

    Set a drain pan under the brake caliper and set a box wrench on the bleeder valve the quarter-inch metal valve on top of the caliper. Position an 8-inch C-clamp over the caliper, so its fixed side touches the rear of the caliper and the screw part touches the outer brake pad.

    3

    Turn the bleeder valve a quarter-turn counterclockwise with the box wrench and immediately start tightening the C-clamp. Continue tightening the C-clamp until it stops turning, then immediately close the bleeder valve by turning it clockwise until tight with the box wrench. Loosen the C-clamp and remove it from the caliper.

    4

    Remove the two caliper bolts with a ratchet and socket while you hold the caliper guide pins still with a combination wrench. Pull the caliper off its bracket and hang it from the coil spring with a bungee cord. Never let the caliper hang by its rubber hose.

    5

    Pull the brake pads from the caliper bracket and discard them. Pull the pad slippers the thin metal shims from the caliper bracket. Remove the two caliper bracket bolts and pull the caliper bracket off the front steering knuckle.

    6

    Grab the rotor and pull it from the front hub. If the rotor sticks to the hub, lightly tap the rear of it with a rubber mallet to free it. Set a new rotor on the front hub.

    7

    Set the caliper bracket back onto the front steering knuckle. Apply a thin coating of a thread-locking chemical to the bottom two-thirds of the threaded part of each caliper bracket bolt. Allow the thread-locking chemical to cure for the time specified by its directions typically 5 to 10 minutes. Hand-thread the caliper bracket retaining bolts, then tighten them to 136 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket.

    8

    Press new brake pad slippers included with the new brake pads into the brake pad guides on the caliper bracket; the slippers only fit in one direction to prevent incorrect installation. Slide new brake pads into the caliper bracket.

    9

    Place the brake caliper on its bracket and hand-thread its bolts. Tighten the caliper retaining bolts to 32 foot-pounds with a torque wrench and socket, while you hold the caliper guide pins steady with a combination wrench.

    10

    Repeat Steps 2 through 9 to replace the rotor on the other side of the Vue.

    11

    Set the wheels back on the Vues front hubs and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the SUV off the jack stands with a floor jack and remove the jack stands. Lower the Vue to the ground. Tighten the Saturns lug nuts to 92 foot-pounds, in a crisscross pattern, with a torque wrench and socket.

    12

    Check the fluid level in the Vues master cylinder reservoir. Unscrew the reservoir's cap and add DOT 3 fluid, as needed, to bring the fluid level to the Max line. Tighten the cap onto the master cylinder reservoir.

How to Install Rotors & Brake Pads

Once you have the brake assembly apart and the old brake components out, be sure that you are installing the new rotors and brake pads correctly. Some service manuals do not cover this procedure in great depth. If you do not take a few precautions when assembling your brakes, they could fail. Since the braking system is a critical system in your vehicle, it helps to fully understand how to install rotors and brake pads correctly.

Instructions

    1

    Slide the new brake rotor over the hub assembly. On most makes and models of vehicles, the rotor is held in place by the caliper and the wheel. On Honda vehicles, however, there are two retaining screws that you must insert into center of the rotor and tighten.

    2

    Insert the new brake pads into the caliper assembly. There are two pads per caliper assembly. The calipers will only fit one way so you must arrange the orientation so that they fit properly in the caliper. The pads themselves are held in place with retaining clips. The tabs on the ends of the brake pads fit into the retaining clips and the curved end of the pad should be facing the center or inner portion of the caliper with the pad material on both pads facing each other. Once the caliper is fitted with the pads, it is a "loaded caliper."

    3

    Slide the loaded caliper over the brake rotor.

    4

    Place a small amount of thread locker onto the threads of each of the caliper mounting bolts. Insert the bolts into the mounting bracket holes and tighten them. Check your vehicle's service manual for the exact torque specification on these bolts. However, a general rule of thumb is to tighten the caliper mounting bolts until you feel significant resistance in the bolt. They will be "mostly tightened." Then, turn the bolts an additional 1/4 turn for a final tightening. The thread locker will help to prevent the bolts from loosening during normal braking vibration.

    5

    Spray the entire brake assembly with brake parts cleaner. This substance is a solvent that will remove brake dust, residue (from grease), grease, oil, and other debris. It will also strip paint, so do not get any brake parts cleaner on any painted surface.

    6

    Slide the wheel over the hub assembly. Line up the studs on the wheel hub with the holes on the wheel and slide the wheel on. Thread the lug nuts onto the wheel studs and tighten them down until you feel significant resistance in the lug nuts.

    7

    Jack up the vehicle using the front jack point just enough for you to remove the jack stands and then lower the vehicle to the ground.

    8

    Place the socket end of the torque wrench over each lug nut and torque the lug nuts to 100 foot-lbs. Do not over torque lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts in a criss-cross pattern. For example, tighten one lug nut and then tighten the nut directly across from that nut. Continue the process until all lug nuts have reached the proper torque specification.

How to Replace the Front Rotors on a 2006 F150 4WD

How to Replace the Front Rotors on a 2006 F150 4WD

When the F-150 hit the market in 1975, something Ford did not account for happened; the all-new F-150 instantly made up the majority of the F-series sales. Ford gave the 2006 F-150 had a wide array of available options; making sure that there was always an F-150 available to fit a customers needs. One of the options on the 2006 F-150 was four-wheel drive. Replacing the front rotor on the 2006 F-150 with four-wheel drive was actually easier than on a two-wheel-drive version, as there were no bearings inside the rotor to mess with.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the front lug nuts with a ratchet and socket and raise the truck with a floor jack. Slide jack stands under the trucks frame rails and lower the F-150 onto the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts and pull the front wheels off the front hubs.

    2

    Remove the two caliper bolts, using a ratchet and socket, and pull the caliper from its bracket. Hang the caliper from the front coil spring with a bungee strap.

    3

    Pull the brake pads from the caliper bracket. Pry the pad slippers -- the thin metal shims that mount to the caliper bracket just above and below the brake pads -- with a flat-head screwdriver.

    4

    Unfasten the two caliper bracket bolts with a ratchet and socket. Discard these bolts, as you must use new bolts each time you remove them. Pull the caliper bracket from the steering knuckle.

    5

    Pull the rotor off the front hub. If the rotor does not pull off easily, lightly strike the rear of the rotor with a rubber mallet to free it.

    6

    Clean the surface of the hub with parts cleaner and a clean, lint-free cloth. Any debris left on the hub may cause a severe vibration when braking. Clean any anti-rust coating from the new rotor, using parts cleaner and a clean, lint-free cloth.

    7

    Apply a thin coat of an anti-seize chemical to the face of the hub and slide the new rotor onto the front hub.

    8

    Reinstall the caliper bracket and hand-thread new caliper bracket bolts. Tighten the caliper bracket bolts to 148 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and socket. Press new pad slippers, which come with the new brake pads, into the caliper bracket. The slippers are hard formed, so they install only in one direction.

    9

    Slide new brake pads into the caliper bracket.

    10

    Set a drain pan directly under the removed caliper. Set the old inner brake pad inside the caliper so it contacts the caliper pistons. Position an 8-inch C-clamp over the caliper so its screw side contacts the inner brake pad and its fixed side contacts the rear of the caliper. Turn the calipers bleeder valve a half turn counterclockwise with a combination wrench and immediately tighten the C-clamp until the brake pad bottoms out on the caliper body. Immediately tighten the bleeder valve.

    11

    Remove the caliper from the bungee strap and set it on its bracket. Hand-thread the caliper bolts, then torque them to 55 foot-pounds, tightening the lower caliper bolt first, then the upper caliper bolt.

    12

    Repeat steps 2 through 11 to replace the rotor on the other side of the truck.

    13

    Reinstall the front wheels and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the F-150 off the jack stand, using the floor jack, and remove the jack stands. Lower the truck to the ground and tighten the lug nuts, in a crisscross pattern, to 150 foot-pounds.

    14

    Check the level of the brake fluid in the brake master cylinder. If needed, add new DOT 3 brake fluid to the master cylinder until the level reaches the Max line on the master cylinder reservoir.

    15

    Take the old brake fluid to a nearby automotive fluid recycling center. Some auto parts stores take old brake fluid for free.

How to Change the Rear Drum Brakes on a Focus

Vibration in the steering wheel during braking is a clear indication that the brakes on a Ford Focus need servicing, but the rear brakes do far less work than the front brakes, so it may not be immediately apparent that they need servicing. For this reason, you should check the rear drum brakes on a Ford Focus every six months. You will probably need to replace them once a year or once every 18 months.

Instructions

    1

    Break the rear lug nuts loose on the Focus. Turn them 1/4 turn counterclockwise with a tire wrench.

    2

    Raise the rear of the vehicle onto jack stands. The Focus has a rear jack point behind the trunk area that you need to jack up on. Place jack stands underneath the rear pinch welds, and lower the Focus onto the stands.

    3

    Finish loosening the lugs, and slide the rear wheels off.

    4

    Hit the outside of the drum with a large hammer. You'll need to hit it pretty hard, because rust and corrosion usually keep it stuck in place. Since the drum is made of iron, it's pretty durable, so don't worry about damaging it.

    5

    Remove the drum by pulling it off the hub.

    6

    Remove the retaining springs with the brake spring retainer tool (it looks like a hooked pick).

    7

    Hold the retaining pin from behind the wheel and drum assembly, and slide the brake shoe removal tool over the pin. Turn the tool counterclockwise to remove tension on the retainers holding the brake pads to the inner drum.

    8

    Remove the shoes, and install the new brake shoes. Installation is the reverse of removal.

    9

    Spray down the entire brake drum with brake parts cleaner with the outer drum still off. Then, install the drum and put the wheel back on.

Jumat, 20 Maret 2009

What Causes a Wobble in Your Breaks?

What Causes a Wobble in Your Breaks?

Feeling a wobble in your vehicle's breaks may mean you have a serious problem and should be examined as soon as possible. First you should differentiate between brake wobble and other vibrations that may occur when you apply your brakes. They're not always the same, but the cause is similar: something is worn out, worn unevenly or out of balance. The speed at which you first apply your brakes may give you a clue to the underlying cause.

Worn Rotors and Pads

    Brakes live in a world of friction. They wear out. Breaks aren't intended to be used until every millimeter of the break pad is worn to dust, but people do just that. When they do, metal-to-metal contact occurs, essentially turning your front wheel hubs into lathes. The metal contact will wear into your discs at a faster rate than the brake bad. This wear will predictably cause mild to severe brake wobbles. When it happens, you'll need to have your rotors machine-balanced and reinstalled with new brake pads.

Alignment

    Other sources of braking-related wobble, are indirect; they're not necessarily due solely to worn pads and rotors, but often happen in conjunction with brake wear. Poor alignment is a common culprit. The front wheels should track parallel to one another, but they can be jarred or vibrated out of alignment. This results in an asymmetric force that results in a harmonic vibration when you brake. It can happen without any rotor and brake wear, but if the alignment vibration continues, it will quickly cause brake wear.

Tires

    Worn tires -- especially tires so worn, they have a blister -- will predictably cause mild to severe wobbles. While a severely worn tire will probably be noticeable under acceleration, surprisingly, it's possible for worn tires to only make themselves known under braking. Note, this is an extremely dangerous condition and should be fixed immediately. You are safer driving on your spare.

Suspension and Wheel Components

    There's an interrelationship between tires, alignment, brakes and suspension components. Of each of these components, tires wear the most quickly. Tire wear can cause alignment problems. Alignment problems can cause vibration and brake wear, which can cause more vibration. When you get vibration in your wheels, every suspension component will is stressed. Tie rods, hub bearings, shock absorbers, will wear unevenly or otherwise be damaged. Once a vibration starts, you should address the underlying cause right away as it will only cause more problems and greater danger. Be careful you don't fix just the symptom or spend money on misdiagnosed causes.

Kamis, 19 Maret 2009

DIY Brakes on a 1997 Toyota 4Runner

DIY Brakes on a 1997 Toyota 4Runner

The 1997 Toyota 4Runner was the vehicle's second model year. It used mostly the same chassis and specs, including 4-wheel anti-lock brakes and a 4- or 2-door option. The 4Runner was known for its spaciousness and the smoothness of its ride. The 4Runner's disc brakes only need changed every 3 to 5 years.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen all of the lug nuts on the tires you will be removing 1-1/2 rotations with the tire iron. Place the blocks behind the wheels you will not be removing. Work only on either the front or the rear of the vehicle at one time.

    2

    Place the jack underneath the axle off the vehicle and raise it up until there is at least 2 inches between the ground and the tire. Secure the jack stand under the same axle for support. Remove the tire.

    3

    Unbolt the brake mounting bracket with the socket wrench. The bracket is the half moon piece attached to the rotor, located directly behind the tire. When it is unbolted, hang it in the wheel well with the bungee cord.

    4

    Remove the brake pads from the bracket. The pads are merely set in there and will easily pull out by hand.

    5

    Compress the brake cylinder with the c-clamp. The cylinder is in the center of the bracket. Place the c-clamp around the bracket so that one end is pressed against the rear of the bracket and the other is against the cylinder. Compress it until it is flush with the bracket.

    6

    Install the new brake pads. The new brake pads will slip easily into the same nook that the old ones were in.

    7

    Bolt the bracket back on to the rotor. Set the tire back on the rotor and finger tighten all the lug nuts. Lower the vehicle and tighten all the lugs with the tire iron.

Selasa, 17 Maret 2009

How to Remove the Front Rotors on a 2003 Honda Accord

The front rotors that come on a 2003 Honda Accord spin with the wheels. When the brake pedal is applied, the brake calipers close and grip against the rotors, slowing the vehicle. Over time the brake pads wear down in the calipers, and so does the surface of the rotors. When that happens, the rotors need to be removed so that they can either be turned or replaced with new rotors.

Instructions

    1

    Put the jack underneath the front of the car. Lift up the jack and then put the car on the jack stands. Use the tire iron to take off the front wheels.

    2

    Use the ratchet to unbolt the brake-caliper bracket from the steering knuckle. Lift it off the rotor. Loop a length of mechanic's wire around the upper control arm and through the center of the caliper, then twist the ends together using the pliers. Make sure that the caliper isn't twisted and the brake line is loose.

    3

    Remove the two Phillips-head screws on the face of the rotor using the Phillips-head screwdriver. Try to pull off the rotor. If it doesn't move, thread the two 8 mm bolts into the threaded holes located between the wheel lugs. Tighten the bolts down until the rotor pops free. Pull the rotor off the hub.

How Do I Fix a 2004 Saturn Ion's Front Brakes?

How Do I Fix a 2004 Saturn Ion's Front Brakes?

The Saturn S-Series had a long and relatively successful run as the automakers entry-level vehicle, but its reign came to an end in 2003 when Saturn revealed the all-new Ion Quad Coupe. The 2004 Saturn Ion came standard with a 2.2-liter four-cylinder engine that produced 140 horsepower. Also standard on the Ion were ventilated front disc brakes. Replacing the pads on the front of the Ion is a great way to save some money, but you must always check the condition of the rotor to assure a long pad life.

Instructions

Removal

    1

    Park the Saturn on a level area and wedge wheel chocks under the rear wheels. Loosen the front lug nuts with a breaker bar and socket, and lift the front of the Ion with a floor jack. Set jack stands under the subframe and lower the vehicle onto the jack stands. Remove the front lug nuts and pull the wheels off of the vehicle.

    2

    Position a drain pan under the front caliper and set an 8-inch C-clamp so its fixed end wraps around the caliper and its screw end contacts the rear of the outer brake pad. Loosen the bleeder valve the small, metal valve on the top of the caliper one full turn with a six-point, box-end wrench, then immediately tighten the C-clamp until it stops moving. Immediately close the bleeder valve and remove the C-clamp. This presses the caliper piston back into the caliper.

    3

    Remove the two caliper bolts with a ratchet and socket, and lift the caliper from its bracket. Hang the caliper from the front strut spring with a bungee strap, to avoid damaging the caliper hose. Pull the brake pads from the caliper bracket and pry the pad retainers the small shims above and below the pads inside the bracket from the bracket, using a flat-head screwdriver.

    4

    Drag your thumbnail across the face of the rotor and feel for grooves deep enough to catch your thumbnail. If the rotor feels smooth, proceed to the section titled Installation.
    If there are deep grooves, then remove the two caliper bracket bolts with a breaker bar and socket, and pull the caliper bracket from the front steering knuckle. Pull the rotor off of the front hub; if it is stuck, lightly strike the rotor with a rubber mallet to free it.

Installation

    5

    Proceed to Step 2 if you are not replacing the brake rotor.
    Clean the anti-rust coating and dirt off of the new rotor, if you are replacing it, with brake cleaner and a clean, lint-free cloth. Align the rotor with the front wheel studs and guide the rotor onto the front hub. Install the caliper bracket and tighten its retaining bolts to 85 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and socket.

    6

    Press the new brake pad retainer included with the new pads into place in the caliper bracket. The retainers are hard-formed, so they can only install in one direction. Slide the new brake pads into the caliper bracket, remove the caliper from the bungee strap and lower the caliper onto the its bracket. Tighten the caliper bolts to 27 foot-pounds.

    7

    Repeat the removal and installation process on the other side of the Ion.

    8

    Reinstall the front wheels and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Raise the vehicle off of the jack stands and remove the stands. Lower the Ion to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts, in a crisscross pattern, to 138 foot-pounds.

    9

    Press and release the brake pedal until it feels firm, then check the fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir. If the level is below the Max line, add fresh DOT 3 brake fluid to it to reach this level. Take the old brake fluid to a used automotive fluid recycler or to an auto parts store for disposal.

    10

    Drive the Ion to a smooth road of parking lot with little to no traffic. Perform 20 stops from about 25 mph under medium brake pressure dont lock up the brakes with 1-minute pauses between repetitions to burnish the pads and rotors.

Minggu, 15 Maret 2009

How Replace the Rear Brakes on a 97 Chevy S10

How Replace the Rear Brakes on a 97 Chevy S10

The rear brakes on a 1997 Chevy S-10 truck are like many other vehicles in that they use drum brake shoes to control the parking brake along with the brake pedal. These shoes eventually need replacing, though not as often as with brake pads. You will be working with numerous levers and springs with the brake shoes, and you need to change both sets of brake shoes for both rear wheels.

Instructions

Accessing the Brake Shoes

    1

    Raise the truck's rear end using a floor jack and support it with jack stands on the frame rails. Block the front wheels with wheel chocks.

    2

    Remove the brake drum from the studs. If the drum is stuck, apply penetrating oil to the axle flange and wheel studs, wait for it to soak in, tap a hammer around the studs and flange and then around the drum's rear edge.

    3

    Wash and clean the assembly using an aerosol brake cleaner and a drain pan.

Removal

    4

    Pull and remove the return springs from the shoes; you can use pliers, but a spring tool from an auto supply shop works best.

    5

    Pull the actuator lever's bottom end to compress its return spring and remove the actuator link from the lever's top end. Pry the lever spring from the assembly with a large flat screwdriver.

    6

    Slide the flat parking brake strut out of the top end of the assembly, pulling it out from in between the front shoe and the axle flange.

    7

    Remove the shoes' hold-down springs using another spring tool specific to hold-down springs. Pull out the actuator lever with its pivot; make sure the pivot won't fall out of the lever.

    8

    Grasp and spread the two shoes apart from each other and slide it around the axle and out of the assembly. Remove the spring connecting the two shoes and the adjuster screw assembly from the bottom.

    9

    Unhook the parking brake lever from the rear shoe, prying off its E-clip with a small screwdriver and sliding the shoe's pin out of the lever.

    10

    Clean off the adjuster screw with solvent, dry it off and lubricate both ends, including the threaded one, with multipurpose grease.

Installation

    11

    Lubricate the six shoe contact points of the brake backing plate using a high-temperature grease.

    12

    Connect the lower spring and the adjuster screw to the bottom of the replacement brake shoes, linking the two shoes. Connect the parking brake lever to the rear shoe using the shoe's pin and a new E-clip.

    13

    Spread the shoe assembly and slide it into place on the backing plate.

    14

    Install the hold-down pin and spring for the front shoe through the backing plate and the shoe. Insert the actuator lever onto the lever pin, place the lever over the rear shoe's hold-down pin and connect the hold-down spring.

    15

    Guide the parking brake strut into the assembly behind the central axle flange and connect its rear end with the slot on the parking brake lever. Spread the brake shoes again to seat the strut's other end with the front shoe.

    16

    Place the diamond-like shoe guide over the anchor pin at the top of the assembly. Hook the actuator link's lower end to the actuator lever and loop its top end to the anchor pin.

    17

    Connect the lever return spring to the tab on the actuator lever and push the spring onto the rear brake shoe. Install the return springs onto the front and rear shoes using pliers.

    18

    Reconnect the brake drum onto the wheel hub. Pump the brakes multiple times and then insert a flat screwdriver into the hole in the backing plate to turn the adjuster star wheel; turn it until the drum drags against the shoes, then back it off until they stop dragging.

    19

    Reconnect the wheels and lower the truck off the jack stands.

How to Replace the Brake Pads on a Windstar

The brake pads on a Ford Windstar use a brake caliper and rotor design. Over time, the brake pads wear down due to the friction generated by the intense clamping forces of the brake caliper. When the pad material is 1/8-inch thick, you need to replace the brakes before you damage the caliper or the rotor.

Instructions

    1

    Break the lug nuts loose on the front wheels with a tire wrench. These can sometimes be a little tough since they are torqued to 100 foot pounds, which is why you need to loosen them now. It will be practically impossible once the wheels are off the ground. Loosen the lugs counterclockwise, but only turn then 30 degrees. Do not unseat the wheel from the wheel hub or you will damage the vehicle and possibly hurt yourself since the full weight of the vehicle is still on the wheels.

    2

    Raise the Windstar onto jack stands. Lift the Windstar up using the the front jack point located behind the radiator. Place jack stands under the frame of the vehicle or under the front pinch welds on either side of the vehicle and lower the Windstar onto the pinch welds.

    3

    Remove the wheel lug nuts and pull the wheel off the wheel hub.

    4

    Remove the caliper pin bolt on the bottom of the caliper.

    5

    Secure the C-clamp to the caliper assembly. The screw end of the clamp should be flat against the back of the outboard brake pad while the other end of the clamp sits flush with the back of the caliper. Turn the handle on the clamp clockwise to force the caliper piston back into the caliper assembly.

    6

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts, slide the caliper off the brake rotor and secure the caliper to the coil springs above the wheel hub.

    7

    Open caliper bracket up from the bottom and pull the old brake pads out.

    8

    Install the new brake pads and reassemble the caliper. Torque the caliper mounting bolts to 55 foot pounds with a torque wrench.

    9

    Spray the brake assembly down with brake parts cleaner.

    10

    Put the wheel back on and tighten the lug nuts.

    11

    Lower the Windstar to the ground and torque the lug nuts to 100 foot pounds with a torque wrench.

How to Install a Brake Wheel Cylinder Repair Kit

How to Install a Brake Wheel Cylinder Repair Kit

Wheel cylinders are an important component of the brake system and can only be found on the rear axle where drum brakes are used on modern vehicles. The brake pedal will go to the floor if the cylinder leaks or is not properly rebuilt. The wheel cylinder repair kit includes a spring, two rubber cups, and two rubber end-cap dust boots. Cylinders can be rebuilt without removing them from the backing plate.

Instructions

Removing the Brake Drum

    1

    Block the wheels, and place the vehicle in gear. Do not apply the emergency brake, since this will interfere with the removal of the brake drum and brake shoes.

    2

    Loosen all the lug nuts, a couple of turns only, on the wheel to be serviced. Do not completely remove any lug nuts.

    3

    Jack up the wheel to be serviced, and place a jack stand under the frame for safety.

    4

    Remove all lug nuts and the wheel.

    5

    Insert the brake spoon in the bottom slot of the backing plate, and loosen the star wheel adjuster by prying the star up or down to turn it. When complete, remove the drum. Pry the brake drum off If no access slot is provided.

    6

    Remove the brake shoes by removing the shoe retainer springs using the built-in tool on the handle end of the brake pliers.

Rebuilding the Wheel Cylinder.

    7

    Pull the old end-cap dust boots off the wheel cylinder; there is one on each side. The push rods will come off with the dust boots.

    8

    Push the aluminum cylinder puck into the wheel cylinder, and force the internal parts, two aluminum cup pucks, two rubber cups, and spring, out the other side with a screwdriver, or ratchet handle. Use a shop rag to clean up any spilled brake fluid.

    9

    Spray brake cleaner into the empty wheel cylinder, and clean thoroughly.

    10

    Inspect the wheel cylinder for deep gouges or scratches that may cause fluid to seep past the rubber cylinder cups.

    11

    Spray a lot of penetrating oil into the wheel cylinder, then run the brake hone in and out of the cylinder to remove any small scratches or grooves that may exist. Clean the wheel cylinder thoroughly with brake cleaner when complete.

    12

    Place the parts from the wheel cylinder kit onto a new shop cloth. Insert the spring from the kit inside the cylinder, then push the two new rubber brake cups, one from each side, into the wheel cylinder about a half inch. The cup side should face in.

    13

    Clean and insert the two aluminum cylinder pucks, one from each side, into the wheel cylinder cup side out with the flat side against the back of the rubber cup.

    14

    Install the two new dust boots from the kit, one on each side, over the wheel cylinder and into the groove. Then push the the two shoe push-rods, one on each side, into the dust boot. The rounded side of the push rod goes into the cylinder.

    15

    Reassemble the brake shoes, internal brake mechanism and brake drum, by reversing the steps in Section 1. Replace the wheel, and lower the vehicle.

Jumat, 13 Maret 2009

How to Replace the ABS Brake Pads & Rotors

How to Replace the ABS Brake Pads & Rotors

ABS, or anti-lock brakes, is a system of automotive braking that uses brake fluid to force the consistent friction between the brake pads and rotors to slow and eventually stop the vehicle during braking. All parts of the ABS braking system need to be in working order for the system to function properly. Maintenance for the brakes include replacing the brake pads and inspecting the rotors so that they are able to work as designed. Replace the brake pads and rotors at the earliest sign of wear or damage to ensure that the brakes function properly.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the wheels corresponding to the ABS brakes you need to replace. Use the lug wrench or tire iron from your vehicle's wheel maintenance kit.

    2

    Lift the vehicle with the jack and rest it on jack stands.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and wheels.

    4

    Remove the caliper bolts (wrench size found in vehicle repair manual) and take the caliper off of the rotor. Pull the rotor from the wheel bolts.

    5

    Remove the two brake pads from the inside wall of each caliper.

    6

    Open the brake bleed valve on the brake caliper (using a wrench of varying size; commonly 10 mm). Place a drip pan below the valve.

    7

    Use vise-grip pliers to squeeze the caliper pistons into the side of the caliper. The brake fluid contained in the caliper will be expelled through the brake bleed valve and into the drip pan below.

    8

    Close the bleed valve and remove the pliers from the caliper.

    9

    Place new brake pads on the caliper walls.

    10

    Clean the rotor with brake cleaner to remove packing oil from the new disc. Slide the new rotor onto the vehicle's wheel bolts.

    11

    Replace the caliper over the rotor and screw in the caliper bolts.

    12

    Return the wheel to the wheel bolts and screw on the lug nuts. Lift the vehicle to remove the jack stands before lowering the tires to the ground.

    13

    Tighten the lug nuts with the tire iron.

How to Remove the Front Brake Rotor From a 2003 Acura Tl

How to Remove the Front Brake Rotor From a 2003 Acura Tl

The front brake rotors on a 2003 Acura TL are mounted to the drive wheels and are responsible for slowing down the vehicle. Over time, the rotors can wear down from constant use until eventually they can crack and fail. If that happens, you may have a severe brake failure. Before that happens, it's recommended that every time you change your brake pads you remove your brake rotors at the same time and have them either resurfaced or replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the front of the Acura using the jack until the front wheels are off the ground. Place jack stands under the front of the chassis and lower the Acura onto the stands, making sure the weight of the car is supported fully and the wheels are still off the ground. Remove the front wheels with the tire iron.

    2

    Unbolt the brake caliper that is mounted around the rotor using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket. Lift the caliper off the rotor and suspend it from the vehicle's fender well using the mechanics wire.

    3

    Unbolt the brake caliper mounting bracket from the front steering knuckle using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket.

    4

    Place the head of the impact screwdriver onto the retaining screws on the center of the brake rotor. Strike the end of the impact screwdriver with the hammer while twisting the screwdriver to the left. Remove the screws and pull the rotor off the wheel hub.

How to Replace a Caliper in a Honda CR-V

An SUV like the Honda CR-V needs its brakes in top condition. A brake caliper with cracks or wear should be replaced immediately. This type of work is best suited for a trained expert. Make sure you talk with one and know exactly what you're doing before working on your Honda yourself.

Instructions

    1

    See that the vehicle is properly raised and secured on the jack stand, then remove the wheel.

    2

    Disconnect the brake fluid hose from the caliper by removing the banjo bolt. Throw away the copper washers attached with the bolt. Plug the hose's open end with a piece of rubber.

    3

    Remove the caliper's upper and lower bolts. Lift up the caliper and remove it from the rotor/bracket.

    4

    Take off the pad springs, pads, shims and pad retainers. Grease the sides of the shims and the backs of the pads with brake grease.

    5

    Install the new caliper with the pad springs, pads, shims and pad retainers. Reattach the mounting bolts and the brake hose. (Use new copper washers with the banjo bolt on the hose.)

    6

    Bleed the brake system after connecting the hose to remove air from the system. Open the bleeder valves and have another person hold down on the brake pedal.

    7

    Place the wheel back on and lower the vehicle. Set the brake pads by repeatedly pushing the pedal until it feels firm. Test the brakes on the road.

Understanding Car Brakes

Understanding Car Brakes

The automotive brake system works on three fundamental theories: Pascal's Law, leverage and friction. When all three of these theories are applied, we can begin to understand car brakes.

Pascal's Law deals with the way fluids act in a closed hydraulic system. Without this closed hydraulic system, no pressure can be developed in the brake system. Archimedes broadened our knowledge of the principles of using leverage to do work in the 400s B.C. Without applying these principles, enough force cannot be applied to the system to do the work in the first place. Principles of friction and thermodynamics allow us to determine the proper materials to use in a brake pad or shoe and design the system as whole to operate in usable temperature range.

Pascal's Law

    Increasing output force using hydraulic theory

    Pascal's Law states that, because fluids are virtually non-compressible, any force applied to a closed hydraulic system will be felt equally and instantly throughout the entire system. It goes on to show that when a force is applied to one cylinder of a closed system, the output is directly proportionate to the ratio of the input to output pistons.

    If we look at how the brakes stop your car, it becomes apparent that the forces required are many times the force that can be applied to the brake pedal by the driver. So, when designing the brake system, we need ways of multiplying the driver-applied force. One of the ways this is done is to increase the size of the output piston; in this case, the caliper piston. If a typical input piston size in the master cylinder is 1 inch, and a typical output piston size is 2 inches, we double the output force.

    Now for the downside. We also double piston travel on the input side when we double output piston size. This means if the input piston is half the size of the output then the input must travel twice as far to make up for the added volume behind the output.

    So, it's a trade-off. We can multiply the force the driver applies to the system by increasing the output piston size. But when we do that, we also increase pedal travel. The design process is in a delicate balance here.

Leverage

    We have increased the force of the driver's input, but it is not enough. We need another way to increase that force. Leverage is used to do that. A lever and fulcrum is a simple machine that increases output force by trading it for distance.

    The use of leverage to increase driver input force is in the brake pedal assembly itself. This type 2 lever assembly gives us a typical brake pedal ratio of 3 to 1. The distance from the fulcrum to the input end is 9 inches, and the distance from the fulcrum to the output end is 3 inches. As a result, this ratio triples the output force from the input force.

    For example, if the driver applied an input force of 100 pounds, the output would be 300 pounds. So, just as with Pascal's Law, the output is directly proportionate to the input to output ratio.

Friction

    All this brings us to the final piece of the puzzle. Friction can be defined as the resistance of motion relative to objects in contact with each other. More simply put, the amount of force required to slide one object over another. This force varies according to weight and material type. Some materials weigh less or are, by nature, slicker.

    If we can understand the moving vehicle to be a kinetic energy source, then to stop that energy, we must convert it to another type of energy. The first law of thermodynamics addresses conservation of energy and states we can't add to or take away from energy, we can only convert from one form of energy to another. In the automotive brake system, we do this by converting the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle into heat energy.

    The material in a brake shoe or pad should be hard enough to resist wear, but soft enough to generate good friction. An example to start with is a billiard ball rubbed on a glass table top. Since both objects are hard, less friction is developed and less heat is generated. How about a rubber block on a concrete floor? We are getting closer, but the rubber block will wear rapidly. A lot of friction, but no durability.

    This is why the automotive friction material is a composite of materials, including carbon and bronze. Carbon is hard and has good wear characteristics; bronze is soft and has good co-efficient of friction characteristics. These materials allow us to generate maximum energy conversion with good durability.

Conclusions

    Pascal's Law gives us the ability to transmit force to the brake components and increase that force. Leverage allows us another increase in applied force, and friction allows us to use that force to convert kinetic energy to heat energy and slow the vehicle down.

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Kamis, 12 Maret 2009

How to Change the Brake Pads in a Toyota Camry V6

The V6 Toyota Camry comes equipped with front disc brakes and pads. The rear brakes on the Camry may either come as drum and shoe brakes or rear disc brakes and pads. Changing the front and/or rear pads is quite similar despite the rear pads being significantly smaller. Most brake installation facilities recommend replacing or resurfacing discs/rotors when replacing brake pads, but if you're replacing the pads on your own, you should at least inspect the rotor to determine if it should be replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the hubcap (if applicable) and then crack the lug nuts loose on one tire using the lug nut wrench.

    2

    Lift the corner of the Camry with a floor jack and position the jack stand underneath the appropriate frame rail. Finish removing the lug nuts and then remove the wheel. Set it aside.

    3

    Use a 14-mm hand wrench to remove the upper and lower caliper mounting bolts. Set them aside. Remove the caliper. If it is stuck in place, use the screwdriver to pry it off of the pads and rotor from the bottom of the caliper housing. Position the caliper aside without allowing it to dangle from the brake hose.

    4

    Pry the old brake pads out of the caliper bracket using the screwdriver if necessary.

    5

    Inspect the rotor for scoring, uneven grooves, or rust buildup on the face plate where the pads contact it. If the rotor appears smooth and the braking system in the Camry has not been experiencing a pulsation, you can forgo the rotor replacement procedure if desired.

    6

    Apply a light coat of silicone brake lubricant or anti-seize compound to the caliper bracket where the rattle clips sit using an artist paint brush, and then snap the new rattle clips into place. Apply another more liberal coat on top of the rattle clips where the pad tabs contact the clips.

    7

    Install the pad wear indicators onto the pads, if not already pre-installed by the manufacturer. Make sure the arrow on the indicator plate is pointing in the direction of rotation. If not already installed by the pad manufacturer, install the anti-squeal shims on the outside of each pad and then install the pads into the caliper bracket.

    8

    Compress the caliper piston into the bore slowly using a large pair of channel locks. Replace the caliper over the pads and rotor and then replace the caliper bolts and tighten. Replace the wheel and lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts firmly, then lower the Camry and re-tighten the lug nuts with the torque wrench and a 21-mm socket to 80-foot pounds. Replace the hubcap.

    9

    Pump the foot brake pedal until the pedal feels firm and then repeat the process for the other side.

How to Change the Rear Brakes on a 2002 Nissan Altima

How to Change the Rear Brakes on a 2002 Nissan Altima

The Altima is Nissan's mid-sized sedan. It received a few upgrades for 2002, including a slightly larger body, a V-6 engine and increased horsepower. It comes with 2-wheel drive and all-wheel disc brakes with anti-lock. The brakes should be good for 4 to 8 years, based on frequency of use.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts with the tire iron 2 full rotations counterclockwise. Place the wood blocks in front of the front tires.

    2

    Jack up the car so that the tires clear the ground by 2 inches or more. Remove all the lugs and the tires.

    3

    Remove the bottom bolt from the brake caliper mounting bracket. Hang the bracket with the rope from the undercarriage of the car so that there is no pressure on the brake line.

    4

    Remove the brake pads from the bracket by removing the steel clips that hold them in. Note the orientation of the pads in order to install the new ones properly.

    5

    Compress the brake caliper with the c-clamp. Place an old brake pad over the caliper and clamp it down until it is flush with the bracket.

    6

    Install the new brake pads in the same manner that they were removed.

    7

    Re-bolt the mounting bracket to the rotor. Attach the tire and lugs, then lower the vehicle.

Rabu, 11 Maret 2009

How to Remove a Rotor on a 2000 Honda Accord

How to Remove a Rotor on a 2000 Honda Accord

When you change out the brake pads on your 2000 Honda Accord, you also need to either turn or replace the front rotors. As the rotors wear down, grooves form in the surface, which match with the brake pads. When you replace the pads with smooth, fresh pads, you're actually decreasing the amount of braking surface that the pad and rotor have, decreasing your braking ability. Before you replace the rotors, though, you need to remove them.

Instructions

    1

    Place the jack underneath the front of the vehicle, lift it up using the jack handle, then set the vehicle on the jack stands. Make sure that the vehicle is solidly on the stands before crawling underneath it. Remove the front wheels using the tire iron and set them out of the immediate area.

    2

    Unbolt the brake caliper from the brake caliper bracket using the ratchet, then slide it off of the brake rotor. Support the brake caliper on the cinder block so that it doesn't hang by the brake line. If you don't have a cinder block, a metal hook or jack stand will also suffice.

    3

    Unbolt the brake caliper mounting bracket from the back of the steering knuckle using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket and set it to the side.

    4

    Place the impact screwdriver on the screws securing the rotor to the steering knuckle and hold it steady on the screws while twisting your hand to the left, then hammer the base of the impact screwdriver. This will turn the driver counter-clockwise, and remove the screws.

    5

    Remove the rotor from the steering knuckle with your hands. If it won't come off, thread the 8X1.25mm bolts into the threaded holes on the rotor. Tighten them using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket, alternating from bolt to bolt until the rotor pops off of the steering knuckle.

Minggu, 08 Maret 2009

How to Fix Brakes That Are Sticking

How to Fix Brakes That Are Sticking

Nothing stops you in your tracks like screeching brakes that slide or stick while driving. Prevent an accident by replacing your brake pads. There's no need to consult a mechanic; you can replace your own brake pads within a few hours.



Although brake pads and brake shoes complete the same function, stopping the motion of the vehicle, the pair act upon different areas of the brake system. Specifically, brake pads clamp to a rotating disc to create friction to stop motion. Therefore, the thickness of the rotor disc and brake pads remains crucial to creating the proper stopping force. Brake pads also keep rotor discs from dust and build-up.

Instructions

    1

    Jack up your car and remove the wheels. Make sure to leave an entire side assembled so that you have a reference. Use the impact screwdriver if necessary.

    2

    Loosen the brake reservoir cover. Use the brake cleaner to clean the build up and also check the brake fluid level.

    3

    Remove the rotor disc without stripping the mounting screws. Use the hammer and impact screwdriver if necessary.

    4

    Remove caliper bolts if necessary. Torque the fasteners to proper specification. Bolts are responsible for handling the stopping force created, so make sure to secure a tight fit.

    5

    Remove the caliper if required. Certain makes and models require caliper removal. If you can access the brake pads without removing the caliper, then go ahead and remove the old brake pads. Note the position of the clips, shims, and tabs.

    6

    Compress the caliper piston back into the caliper before installing the new brake pads. Again use the brake cleaner to clean excess build up.

    7

    Install your new brake pads. Make sure all shims, clips, and tabs are aligned to proper positions.

    8

    Apply a small amount of high temperature grease to caliper slider pins.

Sabtu, 07 Maret 2009

Warped Brake Rotor Symptoms

Brake rotors are an important part of a vehicle's braking system that, when warped or malfunctioning, can seriously reduce the efficiency of the braking system. Warped brake rotors typically cause several symptoms.

Pulsating Brake Pedal

    An out-of-round or warped brake rotor can cause a noticeable and, in some cases, extreme pulsating of the brake pedal. This is due to the malformed brake rotor striking against the brake pads during braking, which causes brake fluid pressure disturbances and manifests as a pulsating brake pedal.

Vibrating Steering Wheel

    A warped brake rotor, as it spins and is squeezed by the brake shoes, creates vibration. This vibration can travel from the brake assembly up through the wheel and front suspension of the vehicle and, ultimately, be felt in the steering wheel.

Brake Noise

    Brake noise is a common sign of a warped brake rotor. As a warped brake rotor spins, it can strike against the brake pads in an uneven, abnormal manner, causing brake noise. This type of brake noise is commonly heard as a clanking or thumping type of noise heard during vehicle braking.

Brake Pad Failure

    Abnormal brake rotor shape can lead to early brake pad failure. A warped or out-of-round brake rotor creates excessive stress on the brake pads; this can cause increased brake pad wear and early failure.

Worn Wheel Hub Assembly

    A brake rotor sits and spins on a slender, elongated metal piece called the wheel hub, or hub. A warped brake rotor, especially one severely warped and bent, can cause abnormal wheel hub assembly wear by striking and spinning against the hub in an uneven, erratic manner.

How to Make Parking Brake Adjustments in a Chrysler Town & Country

Make parking brake adjustments to your Chrysler Town & Country from underneath the vehicle. You need a helper to complete this adjustment. Reset the automatic adjuster to have the Chrysler Town & Country parking brake reset itself. Make this simple parking brake adjustment if your car does not stop from rolling on a slope. Use this procedure for Chrysler Town & Country Minivan built after 1999.

Instructions

    1

    Get underneath the Chrysler Town & Country and pull the exposed front section of the front parking brake cable. Pull this backwards and have your helper place the locking pliers on the cable.

    2

    Put the equalizer onto the front parking brake cable by placing the cable through the equalizer or curved metal plate. Reattach this in the correct position for the automatic adjuster mechanism to readjust the parking brake cables.

    3

    Install the other cables, called the left rear and immediate parking brake, sticking out by the front parking brake cable. Place these into the equalizer and connect by hand.

    4

    Take off the locking pliers. This makes the parking brake automatic adjuster put the right amount of tension on all three of the brake cables.

    5

    Press on the brake pedal and then release the brake pedal one time. This sets the automatic adjuster to finish adjusting all of the parking brake cables.

How to Replace Passat Front Brakes

How to Replace Passat Front Brakes

Your Volkswagen Passat's brake pads are made of frictional material to absorb the heat generated during the braking process. Over time and with enough use, the brake pad material lining will wear off, and the front brake pads will require replacement. This is best done with both wheels' brake pads replaced at the same time. This repair procedure is relatively simple and can be done at home with the proper tools and personal protective wear.

Instructions

    1

    Uncap the brake fluid reservoir. Remove two-thirds of the fluid with a turkey baster. Recap the reservoir.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the front wheels with a tire iron. Raise the front end with a jack and support it on jack stands. Remove the lug nuts and the wheels.

    3

    Spray brake system cleaner on the caliper and rotor. Wipe the brake dust off of the sprayed areas with shop rags. Start with one side of the brakes and use the other side as a reference.

    4

    Hold the guide pins with an open-end wrench while unscrewing the upper and lower bolts of the caliper with a box wrench.

    5

    Remove the caliper and suspend it from the strut coil spring with a piece of wire.

    6

    Take out the inner and outer pads from the caliper mounting bracket.

    7

    Inspect the piston dust boot for wear or damage. Inspect the piston for brake fluid leaks. If either component appears damaged, replace the caliper.

    8

    Attach a brake bleeding kit to the bleeder screw. Loosen the bleeder screw with a wrench then depress the caliper piston into the caliper bore with a large C-clamp. Let excess brake fluid spill into the kit's container. Tighten the bleeder screw when the piston has retracted and remove the brake bleeding kit.

    9

    Insert the new inner and outer pads into the caliper mounting bracket.

    10

    Install the caliper. Insert the new mounting bolts and torque them to 22 foot-pounds with a torque wrench while holding the guide pins in place with the open-end wrench.

    11

    Repeat Steps 3 through 10 for the other front wheel's brake pads.

    12

    Depress the brake pedal once you've finished replacing the brake pads and the calipers are installed. Pump the brakes until the pads engage with the rotors and the pedal feels firm.

    13

    Remount the wheels then finger-tighten the lug nuts.

    14

    Remove the jack stands and lower the Passat's front end to the ground with the jack. Torque the lug nuts to 89 foot-pounds with the torque wrench.

    15

    Fill the brake fluid reservoir if necessary.

How to Remove a Brake Rotor on a Mitsubishi Eclipse 2003

How to Remove a Brake Rotor on a Mitsubishi Eclipse 2003

The 2003 Mitsubishi Eclipse is equipped with all-wheel anti-lock disc brakes. Older models were fitted with disc brakes in the front with drum brakes in the rear. The addition of rear disc brakes means a higher level of braking performance, and has led to a substantial decrease in stopping distance while adding more control for the driver during braking. When the brake rotors are found to be warped or scored, remove the discs for resurfacing or replacement.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Eclipse on a flat surface, away from passing traffic. Lift the hood by pulling the hood release under the dashboard.

    2

    Remove the master cylinder cap. The master cylinder is on the driver's side or the engine compartment, capped by a white lid.

    3

    Loosen the lug nuts on the wheel that has the rotor that is to be removed. Use the tire iron included in the vehicle maintenance kit for the Mitsubishi. You can find the maintenance kit in the trunk of the Eclipse, stowed with the spare tire.

    4

    Lift the vehicle and support it with jack stands near the target wheel.

    5

    Remove the lug nuts by hand. Take the wheel from the wheel bolts and lay it flat on the ground with the rim facing skyward.

    6

    Remove the caliper slide bolts with a 13 mm socket and ratchet. The two bolts are located on the side of the caliper facing away from you.

    7

    Pull the caliper from the caliper bracket and rest it onto the steering arm above the brake assembly. Do not allow the caliper to hang by the brake line.

    8

    Remove the two bolts on the backside of the caliper bracket. Use a 15 mm socket and ratchet to remove the two bolts and pull the bracket from the rotor.

    9

    Tap the center section of the rotor with a hammer to loosen the grip of the wheel bolts. Spray lubricant on the rotor to aid in extracting the disc from the Eclipse. Pull the rotor from the vehicle.

    10

    Take the new rotor from the packaging and spray the surface with brake cleaner. Wipe the excess cleaner from the rotor with a towel before placing it onto the wheel bolts.

    11

    Put the rotor on the wheel bolts with the center section (called the top hat section) facing away from the vehicle.

    12

    Return the caliper bracket to the rotor and replace the two bolts on the backside of the bracket with the 15 mm socket and ratchet.

    13

    Return the caliper onto the caliper bracket and screw in the two caliper bolts with the 13 mm socket and ratchet.

    14

    Place the wheel back over the brake assembly and screw on the lugs by hand.

    15

    Remove the jack stands and lower the Eclipse's tires to the ground with the jack.

    16

    Tighten the lug nuts with the tire iron and return the tire iron and jack to the trunk.

    17

    Check the master cylinder container and add brake fluid as necessary.

Kamis, 05 Maret 2009

How to Replace the Front Brakes on a 2003 Toyota Corolla

How to Replace the Front Brakes on a 2003 Toyota Corolla

The Toyota Corolla was first introduced in the United States in 1968 after a two-year production run in Japan. The 2003 Toyota Corolla was equipped with a 1.8-liter, in-line, 4-cylinder engine, that was capable of producing 130-horsepower and 125 pound-feet of torque. The 2003 Corolla was produced with disc brakes in the front and drum brakes in the rear of the car. The front disc brake system on the 2003 Toyota Corolla consists of the calipers, pads and rotors.

Instructions

Front Brake Removal

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the Corolla with a tire iron. Place wheel chocks behind both rear tires on the Corolla. Lift the front end of the Corolla using a 2-ton jack or a jack with a greater capacity. Place jack stands beneath the inner sub-frame rails, which are located on the inside end of the lower control arms. Spin the lug nuts completely off the car, and remove the front wheel and tire assemblies from the Corolla.

    2

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Turn the bolts counterclockwise to remove them from the caliper. Insert a small pry bar or large slotted screwdriver between the caliper and the rotor, and pry the caliper halfway off of the rotor.

    3

    Insert the pry bar or screwdriver into the hole in the back side of the caliper sticking the tip between the rotor and the pad on the inside of the rotor. Pry the pad off of the rotor with the pry bar until you have compressed the caliper piston as far as it will go. Remove the caliper from the car completely by hand, and rest it on the lower control arm.

    4

    Install a brake hose clamp or needle-nose pliers onto the rubber hose, between the caliper and the frame of the Corolla. The closer you set the clamp to the caliper end of the hose will lessen the amount of brake bleeding in the installation process. Remove the banjo bolt that holds the brake line to the back of the caliper, using a three-eighths-inch ratchet and socket. Remove the brake line from the back of the caliper, and remove the caliper from the Corolla completely.

    5

    Remove the caliper mounting bracket bolts from behind the brake rotor using a three-eighths-inch drive ratchet and socket. Turn the bolts counterclockwise until they can be removed by hand. Remove the caliper mounting bracket completely from the Corolla, then remove the brake rotor by hand from the car.

Front Brake Installation

    6

    Lubricate the wheel hub mounting surface from which the rotor came off of. Use certified grease rated for use with disc brakes. A light film is all that is needed on the hub mounting surface. Reinstall the brake rotor onto the wheel hub by hand, and tighten a wheel lug nut onto the face of the rotor to hold it in place.

    7

    Install the caliper mounting bracket onto the Corolla, and tighten the bolts using a three-eighths-inch drive torque wrench and socket. Torque the bolts between 70 and 90 foot-pounds of torque, or between 840 to 1,080 inch-pounds of torque. Install the brake pads into the caliper mounting bracket, and lubricate the backing plate or shim plates on the pads with caliper grease. This will help assure that your brakes do not squeak when you complete the installation. Make sure the anti-rattle clips are on the caliper bracket prior to installing the pads.

    8

    Install the brake line into the rear of the new caliper, making sure that the two copper washers are in between the line and the caliper. Insert the banjo bolt through the line end and into the caliper. Tighten the banjo bolt or line bolt down between 15 and 25 foot-pounds of torque using a ratchet and socket.

    9

    Install the new brake caliper over the pads and caliper bracket. Insert the caliper bolts through the caliper and into the caliper bracket. Tighten the caliper bolts between 25 and 30 foot-pounds (300 to 360 inch-pounds) of torque, using a three-eighths-inch drive torque wrench and socket.

    10

    Repeat steps 2 through 5 of the removal process, and the entire installation process to complete the second side of the Corolla. Leave the wheels off of the vehicle.

Front Brake Bleeding

    11

    Have an assistant sit in the driver's seat of the Corolla. Open the hood, and remove the brake fluid reservoir cap. Fill the brake reservoir with DOT 4 brake fluid, then replace the cap.

    12

    Kneel next to one of the Corolla's front calipers. Ask your assistant to attempt to pump the brakes. If she pumps the brakes several times and gets no pedal back pressure, instruct her to remove her foot from the brake completely. Open the bleeder screw one full turn on the back of the caliper using an open-end wrench. Ask your assistant to push the brake pedal slowly to the the floor of the vehicle and hold it.

    13

    Tighten the brake bleeder closed. Ask your assistant to pump the brake pedal and hold the pedal once the back pressure builds up. Using verbal signals like "Up" for the pedal being pumped up and "Down" for the pedal being to the floor, is a great tool to use while bleeding the brakes. Open the bleeder screw one full turn when your assistant says "Up". Close the bleeder screw when your assistant says "Down". Repeat this step four to five times on one side of the Corolla, or until you stop hearing a hissing noise or seeing air pockets come out of the brake line on the particular side of the vehicle you are working on.

    14

    Repeat steps 1 through 3 of this process to bleed the brakes on the second side of the Corolla. Do not forget to add brake fluid to the reservoir every few times you have the brakes pumped up. The object of this entire process is to remove the air pockets from the brake lines and replace them with brake fluid.

    15

    Install the wheels on the Corolla only after you have ensured that both side's calipers have been bled thoroughly. Tighten the wheel lug nuts onto the Corolla between 85 and 100 foot-pounds of torque using a certified torque wrench. Raise the Corolla off of the jack stands and remove the jack stands. Lower the Corolla, and double-check your wheel torque.