Kamis, 31 Desember 2009

How to Remove the Rear Brake Calipers on a 2004 Sonata

How to Remove the Rear Brake Calipers on a 2004 Sonata

Hyundai first introduced the Sonata in 1989. The 2004 Sonata came with a choice of a 2.4-liter, in-line four-cylinder or 2.7-liter, dual overhead cam V-6 engine. Some of the safety and handling features on the 2004 Sonata were independent front suspension, a multi-link independent rear suspension, anti-lock brakes and four-wheel disc brakes. The disc brakes on the rear of the Hyundai Sonata include the rotors, caliper brackets, calipers and body-to-caliper brakes lines.

Instructions

    1

    Use a tire iron to loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels. Place wheel chocks in front of the front two tires. Lift the rear of the Sonata using a floor jack with 2-ton or greater capacity. Set jack stands beneath the rear suspension arms, just on the backside of the wheel and tire assembly. Remove the lug nuts completely, then remove the rear wheels.

    2

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts from the backside of the caliper, which faces inward toward the wheel well. Use a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket to remove the bolts until you can pull them out of the brake assembly by hand.

    3

    Insert the tip of a pry bar along the top of the rotor, in between the rotor and caliper. Push the handle of the pry bar upward to push the caliper off the rotor. Repeat this prying motion until you have completely removed the caliper from the brake assembly. Set the removed caliper on top of the suspension arm, just behind the brake dust plate.

    4

    Place a brake hose clamp or needle-nose vise grips onto the rubber rear brake line, between the caliper and the frame of the Sonata. Keep in mind that the closer you place the clamp or vise grips to the caliper end of the hose, the less brake bleeding you will have to do when you replace the caliper.

    5

    Remove the caliper line hold-down bolt off the rear of the caliper, using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. The hold-down bolt goes through the line fixture and into the caliper. Removing the bolt will allow the brake line to come free of the back of the caliper. Remove the caliper completely from the vehicle and set it into a drain pan, as a certain amount of brake fluid will want to escape the now-opened caliper.

    6

    Repeat steps 2 through 5 to remove the rear caliper on the second side of the Sonata. Remember to place the removed caliper in a drain pan so you don't pollute the environment with brake fluid.

How to Remove the ABS Sensor on a 1995 Chevy Camaro

The ABS sensor on the 1995 Chevy Camaro measures the speed of each wheel. This allows the ABS braking system to apply the proper amount of braking force to each wheel. As you drive your Camaro and press the brake pedal, the ABS sensor sends the wheel speeds to the ABS braking system. The ABS system then applies the proper amount of braking force to each wheel rotor. This prevents the brakes from locking up, bringing the Camaro to a safe stop. Replacing a wheel's ABS sensor should take about an hour.

Instructions

    1

    Park the 1995 Chevy Camaro on level ground and engage the emergency brake.

    2

    Move to the wheel that needs the ABS sensor replaced. Loosen the lug nuts from the wheel with a tire tool. Position the jack under the Camaro and jack it up high enough to fit the jack stand under the jacking points. Lower the Camaro onto the stand and leave the jack in place.

    3

    Remove all of the lug nuts from the wheel with the tire tool. Pull the wheel off the hub and place it aside.

    4

    Locate the ABS sensor on the back side of the wheel hub assembly. The end of the sensor is pointing toward the rear brake rotor. Unplug the electrical connector from the ABS sensor. Note how far the end of the sensor is from the back side of the brake rotor.

    5

    Unscrew the single mounting bolt that is holding the ABS sensor in place with a ratchet and a socket. Pull the sensor out of the back side of the wheel hub assembly. Wipe off any dirt or grease from around the ABS sensor hole.

    6

    Insert the new sensor through the back of the wheel hub assembly until the end of the ABS sensor is the same distance from the back side of the brake rotor as the old sensor. Wipe off any dirt or grease from the end of the ABS sensor.

    7

    Screw the single mounting bolt back into the ABS sensor mount. Tighten the bolt with the ratchet and socket. Plug the electrical connector back into the ABS sensor plug.

    8

    Slide the wheel back onto the wheel hub and screw the lug nuts back onto the lugs. Jack the 1995 Chevy Camaro back up and remove the jack stand. Pull the jack out from under the Camaro. Finish tightening all of the lug nuts with the tire tool.

How to Remove Rust From a Brake Rotor

You car's brake rotors are among the easiest parts to rust because of their dark, dank location. Even common car care like washing will cause rust to quickly build up. It's no problem to remove rust that can interfere with the brake operation. Any rust along the edges, however, can be more difficult, depending on how much rust has developed.

Instructions

    1

    Apply the brakes while driving. This is really all you should need to do; while the rust can easily build up, it will come off when the rotor rubs against the pads. You can slam on the brakes once or twice to remove excessive rust, but make sure you're in an empty lot where it's safe.

    2

    Clean the brakes with an aerosol cleaner, using a drip pan to catch all the liquid residue, and wipe the rotor clean with a rag. Brake cleaner works best, since it also evaporates quickly. Don't use oil like WD-40 unless you can wipe all of it off, since lubricated brakes won't work very well.

    3

    Scrub the rotors with something abrasive if any rust remains. Apply the brake cleaner again, and scrub the rusted area thoroughly with steel wool or a wire brush.

    4

    Use a liquid cleaning agent on excessive rust. The cleaning agent usually comes in concentrate form and must be mixed with a gallon or so of water. This is the most difficult option since you'll need to disconnect the rotor from the car and submerge it in a container of the solution.

Rabu, 30 Desember 2009

How to Change Brakes on a 2001 Windstar Van

Changing the brakes on your 2001 Ford Windstar can be a rewarding experience because it is a good way to learn more about your minivan and save money in the process. If you plan to change your own brakes, you should have a basic understanding of car repair and you should feel confident that you can install the new brakes correctly. Improperly installed brakes could cause an accident and injury to you and others.

Instructions

    1

    Secure the 2001 Ford Windstar off the ground on jack stands or a lift. Remove the wheel retaining nuts with a lug wrench and remove the front wheels from the minivan.

    2

    Remove the reservoir cap from the master cylinder. Siphon half the fluid out of the reservoir. Use a turkey baster to siphon the fluid out.

    3

    Remove the disc brake caliper guide pins that secure the caliper to the anchor plate. The guide pins have threads and a hex nut. Use a socket to loosen the guide pins and then pull them out of the anchor plate and caliper.

    4

    Lift the disc brake caliper off the anchor plate and position it of to the side. Remove the brake pads from the anchor plate and throw them away.

    5

    Remove the "push on" nut from the wheel stud with a pair of needle-nose pliers. There is only one push on nut.

    6

    Pull the rotor straight off the wheel and then slide the new rotor onto the wheel.

    7

    Push the replacement nut onto one of the wheel studs to hold the rotor in place.

    8

    Place a wooden block and a C-clamp over the hydraulic piston bore and push the piston into the bore.

    9

    Place the brake pads against the anchor plate and then slide the caliper onto the anchor plate. Secure it with the guide pins. Tighten the pins between 23 foot-pounds and 38 foot-pounds.

    10

    Repeat the process with the other front disc brake. Place the wheels back onto the front of the Windstar and secure them with the lug wrench and wheel retaining nuts.

    11

    Top off the master cylinder reservoir with DOT5 brake fluid and then place the cap back on.

    12

    Place the wheels back onto the Windstar and secure them with the wheel retaining nuts and lug wrench. Remove the minivan from the jack stands or lift.

How to Change a Brake Light Switch

How to Change a Brake Light Switch

Brake lights have been an important safety feature on automobiles since the early twentieth century. Automakers are also required to install high mounted brake lights in addition to the normal right-hand and left-hand brake lights. All three of these brake lights are actuated by a switch that is mounted near the brake pedal in the passenger compartment on most vehicles. If all of your brake lights stop working at once, chances are you have a faulty brake light switch.

Instructions

Brake Light Switch Replacement for Newer Cars (1990 and Later Models)

    1

    Locate the brake light switch, which will be mounted near the pivot point of the brake pedal underneath the dashboard. Disconnect the wiring harness plug from the brake light switch by pressing in on the tabs on each side of the plug, then pull the plug outwards. Push the wiring harness out of the way.

    2

    Rotate the brake light switch in a counterclockwise direction. Pull the switch straight out of the mounting bracket and discard it.

    3

    Push down on the brake pedal with one hand as you insert the tabs of the new brake light switch into the mounting hole on the bracket with the other hand. Let go of the brake pedal until it comes back up to its resting spot.

    4

    Rotate the brake light switch clockwise until it clicks into place. Plug the wiring harness into the new brake light switch until it snaps into place.

Brake Light Switch Replacement for Older Cars (1989 and Earlier Models)

    5

    Locate the brake light switch on the brake pedal under the dashboard. Lift up on the tabs on the wiring harness plug, and pull the plug from the brake light switch.

    6

    Pull the metal U-shaped retaining clip from the brake switch mounting stud on the upper part of the brake pedal with a pair of pliers and set it aside. Slide the brake light switch towards the rear of the vehicle and away from the mounting stud, then discard it.

    7

    Slide a new brake light switch over the mounting stud on the brake pedal.

    8

    Slide the retaining clip back over the end of the mounting stud until it locks into place.

    9

    Plug the wiring harness back into the brake light switch.

Selasa, 29 Desember 2009

History of the Automobile Brake System

History of the Automobile Brake System

Newton determined that an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted on by a force. When an automobile is in motion, a force has to be applied to stop its motion. This stopping action is accomplished by the braking system. Like many technologies, automobile brakes have been improved upon and have developed over the years. Although the goal of stopping the car remains the same, the method by which this is accomplished is more advanced today.

Wooden Block Brake

    The first braking systems involved a lever and a block of wood. This system was used for automobiles with steel rimmed wheels. The driver would pull on a lever which would press a block of wood against the wheels, slowing the car. This system was efficient and worked well, but was no longer workable when the rubber tire was introduced. At that point, some other type of braking system had to be explored.

Mechanical Drum Brake

    In the early 1900s, the mechanical drum brake was introduced. This brake system involved a "single flexible stainless-steel band, wrapped around a drum on the rear axle".When the driver engaged the brake, the band would apply pressure to the drum and the car would stop. The first drum brakes were external. This was a problem because they were exposed to the elements and did not last very long. Brakes had to be replaced fairly often. The band would also often unwrap on hills. This issue was addressed by putting the brake shoes, the part that applied the pressure to slow the car, inside of the drum.

Hydraulic Drum Brake

    In 1918 the hydraulic drum brake was invented by Malcolm Lougheed. This system uses hydraulic fluid to apply the pressure to stop the car. When the driver engages the brake, hydraulic fluid is pushed through a series of tubes to the brake drum. This fluid pushes the brakes shoes against the drum's interior linings. This would then slow the car. Drum breaks are still in use today and their design has just been enhanced over time. However, the biggest difficulty with drum brakes is the heat. The heat builds up and does not have a way to dissipate, thus eventually warping the brake and causing vibration.

Disc Brake

    Another technology that was patented in the early 1900s was the disc brake. Disc brakes are made from iron. These discs are "'squeezed' by the braking pads to bring the vehicle to a halt. These brake pads are squeezed by a caliper which is pressured by the hydraulic fluid. Initially the brake pads did not have any lining. When the two pieces of metal came in contact, there was a terrible noise. Asbestos was used for lining in both disc braking systems and drum braking systems, and this substantially helped improve performance.

Anti-Lock Brakes (ABS)

    A modification to braking systems, anti-lock brakes is a safety feature which helps prevent the brakes from locking up. Speed sensors in the car help to determine if a wheel is going to lock up. Then a series of hydraulic valves limit or reduce the braking on that wheel. This enables to driver to maintain control of the car and it prevents the car from going into a spin.

Reasons for Brake Failure

The process of braking in an automobile takes place when a hydraulic brake line applies pressure to brake pads that press against brake rotors and slow tire movement. Brake failure occurs when variables cause this process to malfunction. It's important to be aware of any signs that may indicate brake failure in your vehicle.

Brake Pad Failure

    One cause of brake failure is the overheating of brake pads due to excessive use of the brake pedal. Pull over and give your pads a 5-minute breather if you think they're overheating. They'll be safe to drive on once they are cooled down. Also you want to make sure to have a mechanic take a look at your brake pads each time a tire is changed, since brake pads due wear down over time. Make sure to replace your brake pads at once if you're hearing a hard squealing sound when you apply pressure to your brakes, because that may mean the pad is gone.

Insufficient Amounts of Brake Fluid

    Hydraulic brake fluid contains special chemical compounds that keep your car's hydraulic brake system running smoothly. If this fluid level is off, brake failure could result. Make sure to check your car's fluid levels once a month. A common way to tell if your car's brake fluid level is running low is if you have to pump your brakes several times in order to stop. The brake fluid tank should always be full of fluid; if the level drops even a little bit, your safety is in jeopardy. Brake fluid can be purchased anywhere car products are sold.

Parts Failure

    Your vehicle's braking system is composed of many different parts such as drums, pads, calipers, rotors and brake lines that can fail at anytime. If you notice anything unusual such as vibrating, squealing or the pedal falling to the floor of the car, make sure to immediately have it looked at by a licensed professional.

Senin, 28 Desember 2009

Troubleshooting Electric Trailer Brakes

Troubleshooting Electric Trailer Brakes

For electric trailer brakes to work, the trailer has to be connected to a towing vehicle that has an electric brake controller. When the driver of the towing vehicle steps on the brake, it sends a signal to the controller, which in turn sends a signal to the trailer brake. After that, a magnet is energized and causes a chain reaction through the brake drum and brake shoes which slows the trailer.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the wheel and tire and inspect the brake shoes and springs if your brakes have been making loud or unusual noises. Check for worn-out brake shoes and missing and broken springs. Also, inspect the brakes' electromagnet for uneven wear.

    2

    Inspect the trailer break-away switch if the brakes won't release or seem to spontaneously release on their own. The break-away switch is the mechanism that applies the brake if the trailer get disconnected from the vehicle towing it. Sometimes the switch can become accidentally activated during trailer use.

    3

    Examine the brake controller settings if the brakes brake too hard under light pressure, or if they brake lightly under heavy pressure. Conduct a visual inspection of the settings to verify that the controller actually has power and activates when the brake pedal is pushed. Then check the controller's adjustment sliders or knobs to see if the settings are correct or if they have somehow been thrown off.

    4

    Have someone hold down the brake pedal and check the trailer connector for power. If there's no power, then the problem could be the wiring between the connector and brake controller. Check the wires for corrosion or other damage.

How to Remove the Front Rotors on a 2004 Ford F 550 4X4?

The 2004 Ford F550 4X4 pickup was one of Ford's largest trucks, capable of pulling huge loads. These trucks have heavy-duty components, including the brakes, which have to stop a lot of mass. The rotors on these trucks wear down over time, and when it comes time to change the brake pads, the rotors should be removed for replacement or to be turned. First, you have to remove the old rotors, which should take 30 minutes.

Instructions

    1

    Slide the jack underneath the front axle. Lift up the front axle of the truck using the jack and set the axle down on the heavy-duty jack stands so that the front wheels are off of the ground. Unbolt the wheels using the tire iron and lift them off of the hubs.

    2

    Unbolt the brake caliper anchor plate from the backside of the steering knuckle using the -inch ratchet and socket. Carefully lift it off of the rotor and set it down onto a jack stand so the caliper's weight is supported completely.

    3

    Hold the face of the rotor with both hands. Pull the rotor straight off of the hub and away from the front axle.

Minggu, 27 Desember 2009

How to Change the Rear Brake Pads on a VW Passat

Brake pads are an important part of your Volkswagen Passat's braking system. They are the replaceable friction pads that pinch the brake disc or drum when the brakes are applied. You should replace the brake pads before they wear beyond a quarter inch or risk damaging your Passat's brake discs.

Instructions

Remove the old Brake Pads

    1

    Park your car on a level surface. If you have a stick shift car make sure the car is in gear. Do not set the parking brake. Place blocks in front of the front tires so the car does not move while you are working on it.

    2

    Open the hood of your car and locate the master cylinder. If necessary, remove brake fluid until the level in the container is less than half full. A turkey baster is a good tool for this. Put the brake fluid in the plastic container and dispose of it the way you dispose of motor oil.

    3

    Raise the rear end of your car with your car jack. Remove the rear tire or wheel assembly.

    4

    Remove the parking brake cable from the back of the caliper. Use the pliers to remove the cable clip (restraining clip).

    5

    Use the socket wrench to remove the upper mounting bolt from the caliper. If the upper guide pin moves while you do this, use a back-up wrench to hold the upper guide pin.

    6

    Rotate the caliper downward, pivoting it on the lower caliper bolt. Remove the inner and outer brake pads from the caliper.

Install the new Brake Pads

    7

    Turn the caliper piston clockwise to retract it into the caliper housing. Insert the new brake pads into the caliper.

    8

    Swing the caliper upward and into place. Apply a thin coat of thread locking compound to the bolt and use the socket wrench to tighten the bolt to 271 inch lb. (35 Nm).

    9

    Reattach the parking brake cable to the caliper.

    10

    Replace the tire wheel assembly. Lower the car to the ground.

    11

    Pump the brake pedal a few times to seat the brake pads. Do this before trying to move your car.

    12

    Add fluid to the master cylinder container to replace any you removed before you removed the old brake pads.

    13

    Season the brake pads by making only gentle stops when you are driving for the first week after you install the new brake pads. Try not to do any hard stopping when you are seasoning the brakes.

Jumat, 25 Desember 2009

Silverado Disc Brake Rotor Removal

The Chevrolet Silverado pickup uses a hydraulic caliper to apply friction to a rotor, braking the truck. The disc-shaped rotor is prone to wearing out as its material thins, or becoming glazed or warped because of misuse or cheap construction. These problems are solved by removing (and replacing) the rotor, which can take the average backyard mechanic about 30 minutes to complete.

Preparation

    Access to the disc brakes is restricted by the wheel and tire, so you must remove them. Jack up the Silverado by placing the jack head onto a frame rail and pumping the lever until the wheel is in the air. Remove the wheel by turning the lug nuts counterclockwise, then pulling the wheel free from the hub. Inspect the brakes for damage or debris. Remove the ABS adapter plug from the caliper socket if required.

Caliper

    The caliper has two pads that it holds against the rotor, and you can take off the entire apparatus by turning the two mount bolts in the back of the caliper counterclockwise. They are hex-head bolts, but some models of Silverado may require a special socket. Once the caliper's mount bolts are off, the unit slides off of the rotor. The pads can fall out immediately if they are badly worn; other times the pads will require you to pry them slightly with a screwdriver to release them. Place the caliper on the control arm, or tie it up to the arm. Don't leave the caliper dangling by the brake lines.

Rotor

    Most models of Silverado disc rotors will pull away from the hub at this time, but four-wheel-drive models will require you to loosen the spindle nut first. This nut, sometimes called a hub nut, is in the center of the rotor and turns counterclockwise for removal. Once the nut is off, the rotor pulls easily away from the hub. Age and corrosion may necessitate some prying with a screwdriver, but typically the rotor is not bound to the hub in any way other than the spindle nut.

Kamis, 24 Desember 2009

Drum vs. Disk Brakes

Drum vs. Disk Brakes

Besides the engine, which makes the car go, the most important component of an automobile is its brakes. The brakes are what makes your car stop and are a vital aspect in the everyday operation of the vehicle. Just like other automobile components, brake technology has evolved over the years. Early cars used drum brakes on all four wheels to stop the vehicle. Drum brakes have since been replaced by more efficient disk brakes, but drum brakes can still be found on the rear wheels of some cars.

Design

    Backing plate and brake shoes of a drum brake
    Backing plate and brake shoes of a drum brake

    A drum disc consists of three components: the backing plate, the brake shoes and the brake drum. The backing plate connects the brake system to the axle of the vehicle and holds the brake shoes in place. The brake drum is then placed on top of the backing plate, with the brake shoes inside. A disk brake also has three components and works similarly. There is the brake disc, which connects to the wheel and axle; the brake pads; and the calipers, which hold the brake pads.

Function

    Both brake systems work on the basis of friction to stop the vehicle. When brake force is applied to a drum brake, the brake shoes apply friction to the brake drum, slowing down the vehicle. When brake force is applied to a disk brake, the calipers clamp closed, applying the brake pads to the rotor to slow the vehicle down.

Heat

    Where these two systems differ is how they handle heat. The drum brake is an internal system, with the brake pads being held inside of the brake drum. As such, it is easy for heat to build up inside the unit. When heat builds up, the brakes fade and loose their stopping power. Disk brakes, on the other hand, are more exposed. This allows for the brake disc and pads to cool much easier and for the brakes to hold their stopping power.

Stopping Power

    All things being equal, disk brakes do not provide significantly better stopping power in dry conditions than drum brakes. Up to 70 percent of a vehicle's stopping power goes to the front wheels, so a car with drums in the rear will not vary greatly from a car with disks in the rear. They do have the advantage when it comes to heat build up, so high performance cars will rely exclusively on disk brakes. Another area where disk brakes have an advantage is in wet weather.

Cost

    The main reason that drum brakes are still in use is because of cost. They are much cheaper to manufacture than disk brakes. Also, drum brakes can double as a parking break, further reducing the cost of production of a vehicle. With disk brakes on all four wheels, manufacturers have to build a separate parking brake in the brake rotor, adding to its cost.

Rabu, 23 Desember 2009

How to Clean ABS Sensors

If your anti-lock brake (ABS) light is on and you have already ruled out serious mechanical problems, it could be that your ABS sensors are dirty. If enough dirt builds up on the sensors it will trip the lights. This will effectively undermine the warning light's purpose and you may be left unaware if serious problems to occur with your anti-lock brakes.

Instructions

    1

    Purchase a repair manual for your year, make and model of car. Chilton is a popular producer of repair manuals for the home mechanic but there are others on the market. Choose one with plenty of pictures as each make and model of car is different.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts on the tire that has the ABS sensors behind them. Jack the car up and place jack stands under the car.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts and the tire and set aside. Turn the steering wheel so that the tires face opposite from the side you are working on.

    4

    Refer to the repair manual to locate your ABS sensor. Remove the bolts that attach it to the car. There is usually more than one bolt holding the sensor in place so make sure to remove them all.

    5

    Use the towel and water to remove the dirt from the sensor once it is free. if your sensor is particularly dirty use the soft bristle brush to scrub it gently.

    6

    Reverse the above steps to reattach your ABS sensor. place the tire back on the car and tighten the lug nuts before lowering it with the jack.

How to Retract the Rear Disc Brake Caliper on a 1996 VW Passat

The 1996 Volkswagen Passat was equipped with a 2.0-liter in-line four-cylinder engine in the base model. A 1.9-liter four-cylinder turbo diesel and a 2.8-ltier V-6 were optional engines for the 1996 Passat. The Passat was available with four-wheel disc brakes. Removing the rear brake calipers to retract the caliper piston requires removal of other brake parts. The 1996 Passat rear calipers have a rotating piston that twists inward and outward.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the rear wheel bolts on the Passat, using a tire iron. Raise the rear of the car with a jack. Place jack stands at both ends of the rear axle beam, about six inches inward from the rear wheels. Lower the Passat onto the jack stands. Remove the rear wheel bolts from both wheels, then remove the rear wheels.

    2

    Spray both caliper bleeder screws on the rear caliper with aerosol penetrating spray. Allow the spray to set for 10 to 15 minutes. Remove the small bleeder screw rubber caps, if equipped.

    3

    Lie beneath the rear of the Passat on one side. Remove the hold-down nut from the parking brake swivel lever, using a ratchet and socket. Disconnect the swivel and parking brake from the brake caliper. Place a drain pan beneath the brake assembly you are working on. Open the bleeder screw clockwise, with an open-end wrench.

    4

    Insert a caliper piston rotation tool against the caliper piston. Make sure you are using the correct fittings on the piston by attempting to turn the piston by hand. If the tool is locked into the piston and you cannot turn it by hand, you have the correct side of the tool. Install a ratchet and six-inch extension onto the rotating tool. Turn the caliper piston clockwise until it is completely retracted into the caliper body and hold it tight with the ratchet. Tighten the bleeder screw snug, using your open-end wrench.

    5

    Place the caliper onto the brake assembly. Install the caliper mounting bolts and tighten them to 25 foot-pounds. Use a 1/2-inch-drive torque wrench and socket to tighten the bolts. Install the parking brake swivel lever and tighten the nut with a ratchet and socket.

    6

    Install the rear wheels onto the Passat when you are finished performing your brake work. Insert a straight awl or punch through the wheel lug hole into the hub to line up the wheel bolt holes. Install the wheel bolt holes, removing the awl to install the final bolt. Tighten the bolts snug with a tire iron. Read the outer head of the lug bolt for the size, which is either an M12 x 1.5 or a M14 x 1.5 . Raise the car off the stands and remove them.

    7

    Lower the Passat to the ground. Tighten the rear wheel bolts to 81 foot-pounds, if the bolts are M12 x 1.5 bolts. Tighten the rear wheel bolts to 89 foot-pounds of torque if the bolts are M14 x 1.5 bolts. Use your torque wrench and a wheel nut socket to tighten the bolts.

Brake System Problems

Brake System Problems

Knowing the signs of brake problems is an important part of driving a vehicle. As one of the most vital and frequently-used parts of a vehicle, brake systems often require repair or replacement and should never be neglected.

Low Pedal

    A common sign of a brake system problem is a low or spongy brake pedal, which may indicate that the shoe adjusters on the rear drum brake are sticking. A simple adjustment of the brake drum may fix this problem temporarily, but if the adjusters are not replaced or cleaned, the problem is likely to return as brake wear continues.

Pedal Pulsation

    A pulsating brake pedal is a warning sign that the brake rotor needs to be resurfaced or replaced and is the result of uneven brake wear. Most brake repair shops are able to resurface rotors by using a rotor lathe machine.

Scraping and Squealing

    Brakes that make a scraping sound are usually an indication that there is metal-to-metal contact in the brake system and that brake pads or rotors are worn out. Squealing brakes are likely an indication of vibrations made between the brake's calipers and brake pads. Both of these problems require replacement of the parts involved.

Selasa, 22 Desember 2009

How to Replace the Brakes on a 1992 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme

How to Replace the Brakes on a 1992 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme

The 1992 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme came equipped with a four-wheel disc brake system; anti-lock brakes were optional. Replacing the brakes on the Cutlass is similar to replacing them on other General Motors vehicles equipped with the same brake system. It requires a special tool to compress the caliper piston into the caliper housing when replacing the rear brakes. Special care must be taken to prevent sludge buildup from entering, and clogging, the anti-lock brake system's modulator valve assembly when compressing the caliper pistons.

Instructions

Front Brakes

    1

    Set the parking brake. Place wheel chocks in front of and behind the rear wheels to prevent movement of the car while you are working. Loosen the lug nuts on the front wheels slightly using a lug wrench. Lift the front of the car with a floor jack until the front wheels are off the ground. Place jack stands under the front of the car. Remove the lug nuts and place them along with the wheels out of the work area.

    2

    Remove the two 3/8-inch Allen-head slide bolts that attach the caliper to the caliper bracket using a 3/8-inch Allen socket and ratchet. Lift the caliper off the rotor and hang it on the front strut using a piece of heavy gauge wire or coat hanger.

    3

    Remove the two T-60 Torx bolts that attach the caliper bracket to the steering knuckle, using a Torx socket and ratchet and lift the bracket, along with the brake pads, off the rotor. Slide the rotor off the hub assembly.

    4

    Slide the new rotor onto the hub assembly and secure it with one of the lug nuts. Remove the old brake pads from the caliper bracket and slip the new brake pads onto the caliper bracket. Place the caliper bracket and pads over the rotor and bolt the bracket to the steering knuckle using the Torx bolts previously removed. Squeeze the pads together until both pads contact the rotor surface.

    5

    Open the bleeder screw on top of the caliper using an 8 mm wrench. Push the caliper piston into the caliper housing using a C-clamp. Close the bleeder screw and release the clamp. Slip the caliper into place over the brake pads and rotor and install the slide pins.

    6

    Reinstall the front wheels. Lift the car off the stands, remove the stands and lower the car to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts one more time using a lug wrench. Push the brake pedal several times, to expand the caliper piston, before driving.

Rear Brakes

    7

    Use wheel chocks, a floor jack, and jack stands to raise and support the rear of the vehicle as described in Section 1. Remove the rear wheels.

    8

    Remove the two 15 mm slide pin bolts using a wrench. Pry the caliper up and off the rear brake rotor. Slide the old rotor off the rear hub assembly.

    9

    Slip the caliper piston tool into the caliper and line up the two small pins on the tool with the notches in the piston. Turn the large nut on the tool by hand until the tool expands tightly against the caliper housing. Compress the caliper piston into the caliper housing by turning the large nut on the tool counterclockwise with a 1-inch wrench while simultaneously turning the 15 mm bolt on the tool clockwise with a 15 mm wrench.

    10

    Slide the new rotor onto the hub assembly and secure it with a lug nut. Position the new pads into place over the rotor. Slip the caliper over the pads and install the 15 mm slide pin bolts.

    11

    Install the wheels and lower the car to the ground as previously described. Pump the brake pedal several times before driving.

Tundra Brake Assembly

Tundra Brake Assembly

Performing the replacement process for a Tundra pickup trucks front brakes involves and requires familiarity with automotive hydraulic brake systems. The Tundra truck model utilizes a disc brake system in the front and a drum brake system on the back wheels. As a result, the home mechanic not only needs to be able to remove the wheel and hub, he also needs to understand how to handle the fluid adjustments and repair of the rotor, caliper and brake pad.

Instructions

Preparation Work

    1

    Apply a lug nut or socket wrench to the lug nuts that hold the wheels onto the car. Loosen these nuts with the car still resting full-weight on the ground. Continue loosening until the nuts can be spun by hand, but do not remove them.

    2

    Use a vehicle jack to raise one side of the truck, working on one wheel at a time. Place a jack stand underneath for safety and to prevent the truck from falling if the stand fails.

    3

    Remove the tire lug nuts and pull the tire off the hub. Locate the brake caliper on the internal rotor attached to the axle hub. Loosen the bottom, or lower, bolt securing the caliper in place. Use pliers to pull out the safety clip wires in the brake pad pins. Pull the pins out and set them aside.

    4

    Position the loose brake caliper so that you can loosen the wire springs on the top of the brake pads. Remove the wire springs and pull out the pad parts (brake pads, support plates, shims and pad wear indicators). Keep them in the order of assembly they came out with so you know how to reinsert them later.

    5

    Suction out 50 percent of the old brake fluid with a brake fluid pump after connecting it to the caliper hose.

Installation of the Brake Pads

    6

    Insert new brake pad parts in the same order that you removed them in the preparation process. Insert these parts by hand into the caliper assembly, pushing them in place until they are in the correct position.

    7

    Insert the brake pad pins again into the caliper and secure them with the safety wires. Reattach the securing wire springs at the upper part of the brake pad assembly. Reposition the brake caliper back downward onto the rotor again.

    8

    Lower and hold the caliper on the rotor and reinsert the lower position bolt. Tighten the bolt with a socket wrench or crescent wrench.

    9

    Re-install the tire, spin the lug nuts back on, and lower the wheel to the ground. Remove the jack stands and lift and tighten the lug nuts to keep the wheel in place.

    10

    Add brake fluid into the now half-empty brake system by pouring new brake fluid into the master cylinder container. Press the brake foot pedal multiple times until the pads push against the wheel rotor properly. Close up the cylinder and perform the same brake pad work on the other front brake and wheel to finish the front end.

How to Remove the Brake Rotor from a 2000 Cadillac Eldorado

How to Remove the Brake Rotor from a 2000 Cadillac Eldorado

A 2000 Cadillac Eldorado uses a disc brake system on all four corners to stop the car, although the front brakes do the bulk of the work. The disc part of the system--also known as a brake rotor--is what the brake pads are clamped to via the caliper. Over time, both the pads and rotors wear down, and they will need to be maintained. Maintenance on a rotor is turning or replacing them, but first you have to remove them.

Instructions

Front rotors

    1

    Lift up the car using the jack and set jack stands on all four corners. Then remove all of the wheels using the tire iron and set them to the side.

    2

    Unbolt the brake caliper from the front steering knuckle using the ratchet, then lift it up off of the rotor. Suspend the caliper from the front suspension using the wire and pliers, making sure there is no tension on the brake line.

    3

    Lift the rotor off of the hub on the steering knuckle. If the rotor seems stuck, hammer it from the back with the mallet.

Rear brake discs

    4

    Unbolt the brake caliper assembly from the rotor and rear suspension using the 3/8-inch ratchet and socket.

    5

    Wrap the wire around the rear suspension and twist it through the caliper, then twist the wire to itself using the pliers to support the caliper and prevent it from hanging on the brake line.

    6

    Slide the rotor off of the wheel hub.

Senin, 21 Desember 2009

How to Replace Rear Disc Brakes in a VW Beetle

The rear disc brakes on a VW Beetle are one of the easiest braking systems to replace. A novice mechanic can replace the Beetle's rear disc brakes in a couple of hours. Read further to learn how.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the rear of the Beetle off the ground with a car jack. Support it on all sides with jack stands. Keep children and animals out of the vicinity when you replace the brakes.

    2

    Remove the rear wheels and tires from the car. Use a torque wrench and loosen the lug nuts. Take the assemblies off and set them aside, face up, to prevent damage.

    3

    Disconnect the parking brake cable by taking the clip off the caliper. Secure the guide pin using a wrench and take out the upper caliper mounting bolt. Rotate the caliper downwards and take out the old brake pads.

    4

    Rotate the piston clockwise to retreat it into the bore. Fasten the new brake pads to the pad carrier and hook it to the caliper with a self-locking bolt. If a self-locking bolt isn't available, apply a thread locking compound to a regular bolt. Torque the bolts to 271 in. lb.

    5

    Secure the hand brake cable to the caliper. Verify that it operates properly and adjust if necessary.

    6

    Replace the wheels on the Beetle. Lower the car to the ground and pump the brakes to seat the pistons and brake pads.

How to Change Brake Pads on a 1995 Ford Taurus

The 1995 Ford Taurus came equipped with front disc brake pads and either rear brake pads or rear brake shoes (drum brakes). In any event, replacing the front or rear pads is a similar procedure except for one definitive difference. The rear caliper piston requires a special tool to compress it into its bore. Attempting to compress the piston like you would the front would damage the piston and/or the tool.

Instructions

    1

    Remove half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder inside the engine compartment after parking the 1995 Taurus on a flat, paved surface suitable for lifting the vehicle.

    2

    Apply the parking brake if you're replacing the front brake pads; however, do not apply the parking brake if replacing the rear.

    3

    Break the lug nuts loose 1/4 turn counterclockwise on the tires on which you intend to replace the brake pads, using the lug wrench.

    4

    Lift the Taurus with the car jack, then support it safely onto the jack stands. Remove the lug nuts and tires.

    5

    Remove the upper and lower caliper mounting bolts with a hand wrench.

    6

    Pry the caliper and pad assembly off the integral knuckle with a standard screwdriver or small pry bar, then support the caliper on the coil spring from a caliper hook.

    7

    Pry the outboard pad from the caliper using the screwdriver or pry bar. Pull the inboard pad from the caliper piston to remove it.

    8

    Compress the caliper piston inward using the 4-inch C-clamp. Twist the rear calipers clockwise with a caliper reset tool, ratchet and extension.

    9

    Clean the edges of the integral knuckle where the backing plates of the pads sit against with a wire bristled brush.

    10

    Apply a coat of lubricant (supplied in the pad replacement box) to the mating surface of the knuckle-to-pad backing plates.

    11

    Install the inboard pad into the caliper piston.

    12

    Install the outboard pad to the outer edge of the caliper.

    13

    Replace the caliper and pad assembly into the integral knuckle over the rotor. Align the guide bolts into their respective holes and tighten.

    14

    Replace the wheels and lug nuts. Tighten the lug nuts snugly, then lower the Taurus to the ground by reversing the lifting procedure.

    15

    Torque the lug nuts in a star pattern with the torque wrench and socket to 100 foot-pounds.

    16

    Make sure the cover to the master cylinder is in place, then pump the brake pedal until it feels firm. Remove the cover to the master cylinder to check and add brake fluid, if necessary.

Replacing a 1996 Honda Accord Brake Rotor

Replacing a 1996 Honda Accord Brake Rotor

Your Honda Accord's brake pads press against the rotors when the brakes are applied. A rotor is made of iron due to its ability to absorb heat. Over time and use, this component wears with scoring, cracking, warping or fading, and will require servicing or replacement. Replacing the brake rotors is a fairly extensive procedure, but it can be done at home with the right tools.

Instructions

Removing the Brake Caliper

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on each wheel with a tire iron. Raise the Accord with a jack and support it on jack stands. Remove the lug nuts. Work on one wheel at a time so that you will have an assembled brake system on the car to reference while working.

    2

    Remove the brake line and fitting with a socket wrench. Plug the fitting with a piece of tubing and carefully set it aside.

    3

    Unscrew the caliper bracket bolts and the mounting bolts with the wrench. Remove the caliper assembly and secure it with a piece of wire.

Removing the Old Brake Rotor

    4

    Remove the ABS speed sensor wire harness alongside the steering knuckle with the wrench. Unbolt and remove the sensor from the knuckle. Carefully set aside the sensor together with its connecting wire.

    5

    Unscrew the large drive-axle hub nut with a large socket and wrench. Hold a pry bar between the two wheel studs to keep everything still when loosening the hub.

    6

    Remove the cotter pin in the lower ball joint stud and castle nut. Turn the nut counterclockwise with the wrench to loosen the nut but do not remove it. Use a two-jaw puller to detach the lower control arm from the steering knuckle.

    7

    Move the knuckle/hub portion out from under your Accord and separate the drive-axle by pushing it through the assembly, exposing the end of the drive-axle. You may need to knock the hub loose with a rubber or brass mallet.

    8

    Hang a wire around the drive-axle end to prevent the inner CV joint from sagging.

    9

    Unbolt and remove the retaining bolts behind the hub assembly on the steering knuckle with the wrench. Remove the hub assembly.

    10

    Remove the mounting bolts that hold the rotor and hub together with a socket wrench. Hold the pry bar between two of the studs to keep the assembly from turning while unbolting it. Separate the hub and rotor.

Installing the New Rotor

    11

    Reassemble the new brake rotor with the hub in the reverse order of disassembly noted in Step 7 above. Reinstall the hub/new rotor assembly by reversing the procedure in Step 6 above. Slightly tighten all bolts in both steps with the socket wrench.

    12

    Torque the hub/rotor assembly bolts on the steering knuckle to 33 foot-pounds then torque the bolts that secure the hub to the rotor to 40 foot-pounds with a torque wrench. Reassemble the knuckle/hub components and the drive-axle by reversing Steps 3 through 5. Be sure to use a new cotter pin for the castle nut on the lower ball joint.

    13

    Reinstall the large drive-axle hub nut. Lower the car to the ground with the jack then use the torque wrench to tighten the hub nut to 134 foot-pounds.

    14

    Depress the caliper piston into the bore with the C-clamp before reinstalling the caliper; torque the caliper mounting bolts to 54 foot-pounds and the caliper bracket bolts to 80 foot-pounds. Reinstall the brake line and fitting with the socket wrench.

    15

    Pump the brake pedal several times to release the piston into the caliper prior to driving.

    16

    Repeat all of the above steps for the remaining brake/rotor assemblies. When finished, remount the wheels and finger-tighten the lug nuts. Remove the jack stands and lower the Accord to the ground then torque the lug nuts to 80 foot-pounds with the torque wrench.

How to Fix Dragging Brakes

How to Fix Dragging Brakes

Dragging brakes cause excess fuel consumption and eventual brake failure. If you feel that your steering is pulling, your car is driving sluggishly or it is hard to maintain control on the road, you may have dragging brakes. Good brakes are essential for basic road safety, so make sure you solve this problem completely before getting back on the road.

Instructions

    1

    Check the parking brake first and make sure you are not driving with it on. Driving with the parking brake on mimics the feel of dragging brakes and can damage your car in the same way.

    2

    Check the drum brakes, which are located in the rear of the car. The drum brakes are connected to a system of tubing that links the brakes to the master cylinder. If the springs seem broken or retracted, you have to replace them.

    3

    Remove the brake drum with a partner. Lift the back wheels of the car up with a jack. Oil the drum with penetrating oil to loosen it. Stick a crowbar underneath the brake drum on one side, and have your partner hit it off with a hammer. Pry and hammer until the drum falls off. This destroys the drum. Replace it with a new one.

    4

    Slip the new drum on. Shake it back and forth to test how loose it is. If it moves more than an inch to either side, take off the drum and tighten the star wheel. The star wheel is at the bottom of the brake and has a jagged outer edge. It can be tightened by turning it downwards with a wrench. Do this until the drum only moves slightly when you slip it on.

    5

    Check the emergency brake cable, which may be sticking, freezing or corroded. Completely disassemble your drum brake, taking off the drum and springs that hold the shoe in place with your hands. Unhook the spring clip with a screwdriver. This is the piece that holds the brake to the brake shoe. Make sure not to lose this piece, as it is small. The cable will now be sticking out. If it's corroded, rusty or frozen, pull it out with pliers and replace it with a new one.

How to Change the Brake Pads on a Cavalier

How to Change the Brake Pads on a Cavalier

Replacing the front brake pads in a Chevy Cavalier will be more frequent than replacing the rear brake shoes. The front brakes compensate for 75 percent braking power for the front-wheel drive vehicle. The Cavalier was introduced by GM Motors in 1982, and production stopped on it in 2005. The procedure to replace the front pads can be done by the average weekend mechanic.

Instructions

    1

    Apply the parking brake on a flat and hard surface and then release the interior hood release latch.

    2

    Open the hood, remove the master cylinder cover and remove 2/3 of the brake fluid with a brake fluid baster. Discard the old fluid. This will make room inside the master cylinder when it's time to compress the front caliper pistons.

    3

    Remove the hubcaps (if applicable) and then loosen the front wheel nuts 1/8 of a turn counterclockwise.

    4

    Lift the Cavalier with the vehicle jack and support it safely onto jack stands placed under the front frame rails.

    5

    Remove the wheel nuts and wheels.

    6

    Remove the two caliper mounting bolts using a 3/8-inch hex head wrench or a ratchet with a 3/8-inch hex head ratchet adapter. Remove the sleeves as well.

    7

    Pry the caliper and pad assembly off of the rotor using the slotted screwdriver and then hang the caliper to the front strut coil spring by bending the wire coat hanger into a makeshift hook.

    8

    Pry the outboard pad dowels off of the caliper housing using the slotted screwdriver.

    9

    Pull the inboard pad retaining clips out of the caliper piston.

    10

    Compress the piston of the caliper by squeezing it in with a pair of extra large channel locks.

    11

    Inspect the rotor for any visible signs of surface damage. If necessary, replace the rotor.

    12

    Apply a light coat of silicone lubricant (supplied in the replacement brake pad set) to the flat edges (upper and lower) of the caliper anchor where the backing plates of the pads contact.

    13

    Install the inboard pad first into the caliper piston and then install the outboard pad by clipping the dowels onto the caliper housing.

    14

    Replace the caliper and pad assembly over the rotors.

    15

    Apply a light coat of the silicone lubricant to the sleeves and smooth surface of the caliper mounting bolts and then align them in through the caliper and onto the knuckle. Tighten the bolts.

    16

    Replace the wheel and wheel nuts and tighten the nuts to 100 foot-pounds when the Cavalier is sitting on the ground. Repeat the pad replacement procedure for the other side.

    17

    Pump the foot brake pedal until it feels firm and then refill the master cylinder with brake fluid after the Cavalier has been lowered and before test driving.

Minggu, 20 Desember 2009

How to Remove a Master Cylinder Push Rod

The brake pedal in a vehicle is connected to the brake master cylinder by a pushrod. When the brake pedal is depressed, the pushrod drives the master cylinder piston inward, which forces the brake fluid outward through the brake lines and to the brakes on all four wheels. After removal of the master cylinder for repair or replacement, the pushrod must be removed so that it can be reused in the replacement master cylinder.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the pushrod retaining bolt and nut from the brake pedal with a socket and ratchet. The pushrod is attached to the upper end of the brake pedal under the dashboard. Place the hardware aside for reuse.

    2

    Open the hood, and locate the brake master cylinder, which is usually mounted to the firewall on the driver's side. Remove the master cylinder reservoir cap. Remove the brake fluid from the reservoir with a syringe.

    3

    Spray penetrating fluid to the brake line fittings at the base of the master cylinder. Twist the fittings off with a tubing wrench once the fluid has soaked in for a few minutes. Observe the brake-light wiring connector on the master cylinder to determine how it should be removed. Remove the connector from the master cylinder by squeezing or lifting a release tab (if equipped) and pulling the connector straight out.

    4

    Remove the master cylinder retaining bolts from the firewall with a socket and ratchet. Remove the master cylinder from the vehicle, and place it in a vice.

    5

    Pull the pushrod straight out of the master cylinder by hand. Use a pair of locking pliers if the pushrod is stubborn, but do not damage the pushrod if you plan on reusing it.

How to Cut Rotors

How to Cut Rotors

Cutting the rotors when performing disc brake service on a vehicle is not quite as common as it used to be. While many old-school mechanics still swear by cutting rotors for every brake job, manufacturing companies like GM do not always agree. Replacement rotor pricing has come down the past few years, so replacing rotors is sometimes more of a viable option. Turning, cutting, resurfacing or truing (all different terms for the same task) rotors has to be done on a bench brake lathe or on the hub of a vehicle with an on-car brake lathe. Because of cost, the bench brake lathe is much more common in repair shops.

Instructions

    1

    Put on safety glasses and then place a bell clamp face first on the arbor of the brake lathe for hubless rotors. These are more common now than hubbed rotors.

    2

    Brake the tension spring inside the cup of the bell clamp and then match up a centering cone that will fit inside the center of the rotor.

    3

    Place the rotor on the arbor with the front or top of the rotor facing away from the brake lathe. Sit the center of it onto the centering cone and then place a bell clamp onto the arbor. This time, have the bell clamp cup facing the center hub of the rotor.

    4

    Place an adapter on the arbor for spacing until the arbor is filled with enough room to accommodate the concave/convex washer and arbor nut. Once near the end, place the concave/convex spacing washer on the arbor and the arbor nut. Most bench brake lathes employ reverse threads on the arbor tips and nuts. This means you'll tighten the nut in a counterclockwise manner and loosen it in a clockwise manner. Tighten the nut the lathe wrench until it secures the components on the arbor.

    5

    Wrap the silencer band around the circumference of the rotor. Make sure the band will not come into contact with the cutting blades in any spot.

    6

    Make sure the rear lateral arm (for drum resurfacing) is back off all the way and then locked. Turn the handwheel until the arm is all the way back. Locate the finger locks for the arm up on top of the arm and turn them clockwise to secure it.

    7

    Unlock the rotor cutting arm (if locked) by turning the finger locks counterclockwise and then turn the handwheel to align the cutting blades over the rotor. If necessary, adjust the measurement wheels to fit the cutting blades over the rotor.

    8

    Turn the lathe on and then adjust the outer measuring wheel until the outside cutting blade contacts the rotor. Do the same for the inside blade. Back the blade adjusters off slightly and turn the handwheel to move down the entire surface of the rotor plate. Be careful not to cut into the surface of the center hub of the rotor.

    9

    Retighten the blade adjusters and then turn each measuring wheel about 3/1000 to make a cut on a the blade. Place the lathe on high speed to start and then put the arm gear into position. This will allow the arm to move along the surface of the rotor.

    10

    Continue on high speed cuts (making sure you're not taking off too much material) until the surface of the rotor is clean and moving in between 2/1000 and 3/1000 of measurement each time you reset the cut. On the final cut of the rotor, turn the lathe down to low speed and make a slow cut.

Sabtu, 19 Desember 2009

How to Replace the Brake Pads on a 2004 Ford F-150

How to Replace the Brake Pads on a 2004 Ford F-150

A 2004 Ford F150 truck has what is known as four-wheel disc brakes. Always make sure you change both pads on each wheel and on both wheels of an axle when replacing the brake pads. Usually the front brake pads wear out faster than the rear brake pads, oftentimes twice as fast. This is because the front brakes bear the brunt of stopping the vehicle. You can perform your own brake inspection about every other time you change your oil.

Instructions

    1

    Block the front of the rear wheels to keep the truck from rolling forward while you work on it.

    2

    Loosen up but do not remove the front wheel lug nuts using the lug wrench.

    3

    Place the floor jack under the front end of the truck and jack it up. Slip two jack stands under the truck, one next to each wheel. Using the floor jack, lower the truck onto the stands and then remove the floor jack.

    4

    Select a wheel to work on and remove all of its lug nuts and the wheel. Put on a face mask to protect you from noxious fumes and particulates. Slide a drip pan under the brakes and spray them generously with brake cleaner. The dirt and grime will drip off of the brakes and into the drip pan.

    5

    Use the socket wrench set to open the brake caliper bolts. Remove the brake caliper by lifting up and off the rotor. Pull off the old brake pads and throw them away.

    6

    Spray some brake cleaner on the caliper and lube the caliper with white lithium grease.

    7

    Put the new pads in the same position as the old pads. Put the caliper down over the rotor and tighten the bolts onto the calipers with the socket wrench set.

    8

    Put on the wheel and lug nuts and tighten the lug nuts with your hands.

    9

    Repeat the same brake pad replacement procedure for the wheel on the other side of the axle.

    10

    Put the floor jack back under the front of the truck and lift up the front end of the truck. Remove the jack stands and lower the truck with the floor jack. Tighten the lug nuts to 140 foot-pounds with the torque wrench.

    11

    Repeat the procedure with the rear wheels, if needed.

Jumat, 18 Desember 2009

How to Change a 2001 Mazda 626's Front Brake Pads

How to Change a 2001 Mazda 626's Front Brake Pads

Changing the front brake pads on a 2001 Mazda 626 will allow for greater stopping power and decreased stopping distance. The front brakes take on about 85 percent of all of the pressure when it comes to stopping your car. Replacing the front pads when they wear ensures a safer ride. The materials needed for this project are available at any auto parts store. Replacement should take no more than three hours if you're an auto maintenance novice.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the front of the vehicle. Set jack stands underneath the control arms on both sides of the vehicle. Remove the wheels from the car with a tire iron.

    2

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts on the back of the caliper using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket.

    3

    Slide the caliper halfway off the brake assembly. Wedge a flathead screwdriver between the back of the rotor and the back brake pad. Pry the screwdriver inward, toward the wheel well, to compress the brake caliper completely.

    4

    Remove the brake caliper and set it on top of the lower control arm or tie rod end. Do not let the brake caliper hang freely. Doing so can damage the rubber brake hose or the caliper brake hose fitting.

    5

    Remove the old brake pads. Lubricate the outer tips of the new brake pads' metal backing plate with brake lube or caliper grease. Insert the new pads into the caliper mounting bracket. The caliper mounting bracket is the bracket that wraps around the brake rotor and holds the caliper and brake pads in position.

    6

    Lubricate the rear side of the brake pad backing plates with brake lube or caliper grease. Lubricating these plates will remove initial brake dust particles and reduce the chances of brake squeal or squeak.

    7

    Slide the compressed brake caliper over the new pads. Lubricate the caliper mounting bolts with brake lube or caliper grease. Lubricating these bolts will allow the caliper to slide in and out easier, and allow for even brake wear on both sides of the rotor. Tighten the brake caliper mounting bolts between 65 to 80 foot-pounds of torque. Use an extension bar over your ratchet for added torque if necessary. Spray the entire brake assembly down with brake parts cleaner to remove grease from fingerprints and excess brake lube or grease.

    8

    Repeat Steps 2 through 7 to replace the other set of brake pads. Leave the other side of the vehicle in tact while performing the first replacement so that you may have a visual reference on how the brakes should look when completely reassembled.

    9

    Reinstall wheels when the other side of the car is complete. Torque wheel nuts between 85 to 100 foot-pounds of torque. Use a torque bar or torque wrench if it is available. Lower the vehicle.

    10

    Pump the brake pedal repeatedly until you have a solid brake pedal. Perform this step before attempting to start the car.

How to Remove the Brake Drums on a 2002 Chrysler PT Cruiser

The rear drum brakes on the PT Cruiser provide about 30 percent of the stopping power for the car. Because most of the load goes to the front end during braking, the rear shoes and drums do not wear nearly as fast as the front pads. That does not mean they should be neglected: Remove the drums regularly and inspect the condition of the drums and shoes. Removing the drums requires only the removal of the wheel to access the drums.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the rear lug nuts on your PT Cruiser with a lug wrench. Do not remove them completely or the car will become unstable on its wheels.

    2

    Raise the rear of your PT Cruiser with a jack until the wheels are off the ground. Position a set of jack stands under the rear of the frame and lower the jack until the car is securely sitting on the stands.

    3

    Remove the lug nuts from the rear wheel studs and pull the tires off the car. Set the tires and lug nuts aside for reuse later.

    4

    Locate the brake drum retaining clip on the wheel stud. There will be one on each drum if they have never been off the car before. Pry the retaining clip off the wheel stud with a flat screwdriver and discard the clip. Its only use is to hold the drum in place during the manufacturing process.

    5

    Grasp the drum with your hands and slide the brake drum straight off the wheel studs. Repeat the process on the opposite side of the car if you are removing both drums.

Kamis, 17 Desember 2009

How to Remove Sentra Brake Rotors

If your Nissan Sentra feels like it lurches or wobbles when the brakes are applied, the problem could be its rotors. The brake rotors are the smooth metal discs that the brakes squeeze in order to bring the vehicle to a stop. If these rotors develop cracks or "hot spots" or become uneven, it can affect braking performance and the smoothness of your ride when the brakes are applied. If you'd like to remove the rotors on your Sentra, it only takes about 15 minutes per wheel.

Instructions

    1

    Park the Sentra on a level surface where you have plenty of room to work.

    2

    Place the jack underneath a solid part of the auto frame in either the front or back. If you're removing multiple rotors, you should only attempt to remove both front rotors or both rear rotors at the same time. Pump the jack until the car is high enough to get the jack stands underneath.

    3

    Slide two jack stands under the solid sections of the frame on opposite sides of the car. Slowly ease the pressure on the jack to lower the car onto the jack stands.

    4

    Use a tire iron to remove all of the lug nuts from each wheel you want to work on. When the lug nuts have been removed, grab the tire with both hands and pull it straight out toward you to remove it.

    5

    Examine the brake calipers on each rotor you want to remove. The calipers are clamp-shaped components that hug the rotor on both sides. You should see two bolts holding the two halves of each caliper together. Gently loosen these bolts until you can pull the calipers off of the rotors. Take extreme care here, as some Sentra calipers contain ceramic components that can break if they're handled too roughly. Also, don't let the calipers dangle by their connected brake lines after you pull them off.

    6

    Tie a piece of twine around each caliper and then tie the other end around any solid component under the car so that the caliper is supported. This will ease any stress on the brake line.

    7

    Pull the brake rotors straight toward you off the wheel hubs just as you did with the tires.

How to Change a Ford Taurus Rear Brake Rotor

How to Change a Ford Taurus Rear Brake Rotor

The Taurus has been a long-lived mid-sized sedan in the Ford Motor Company. It has front disc brakes, while the rear brakes may be drum or disc. Unlike the front rotors, the rear rotors are solid plated without cooling vents. Because the rear disc brakes only provide 30 percent of the braking power, they don't get as hot as the front brakes and do not require cooling vents.

Instructions

    1

    Remove 1/3 of the brake fluid from the master cylinder, using the new hand pump. Pump the fluid into a tin can and then dispose of it. Replace the master cylinder cover before proceeding.

    2

    Make sure that the Taurus is in gear and the parking brake is not set. You will not be able to remove the rear calipers if you set the parking brake.

    3

    Loosen the wheel nuts of the rear tires 1/8 of a turn, with the tire iron wrench, and then lift the rear of the Taurus with a jack and safely support the car on jack stands.

    4

    Finish removing the wheel nuts, and then remove the tires.

    5

    Remove the caliper bolts, with a ratchet and a suitable socket.

    6

    Pry the caliper off of the pads and rotor with a slotted screwdriver. There is no need to remove the parking brake connection from the caliper. Support the caliper to the rear strut coil spring with a caliper hook, out of the way.

    7

    Remove the pads from the caliper bracket, noting how they are positioned in the bracket. If you're not replacing the pads, then you'll need to install them in the same position that they were removed from. Remove the caliper bracket bolts, with a ratchet and suitable socket, and set the bracket aside.

    8

    Use the slotted screwdriver to pry off the two rotor retaining rings located on the lug studs if present. You do not need to reuse them.

    9

    Remove the rotor from the wheel hub. If the rotor is stuck to the hub by rust, then spray penetrating lubricant around the circumference of the rotor-to-hub connection and allow it to soak in for a few minutes. Use a hammer to strike the flat hub of the rotor, but not the plate surface where the pads contact. Strike the hub of the rotor in different positions if it's stubborn. Spray more penetrating lubricant if necessary, and continue to strike it with the hammer until it breaks free.

    10

    Clean the front face of the wheel hub with a piece of emery cloth to remove any visible rust. Clean around the edges of the hub flange as well.

    11

    Spray the new rotor with brake cleaner spray to clean off the sticky rust-preventative coating. Be sure to spray both sides, including on the back of the hub mating surface of the rotor. Wipe the rotor dry with a clean shop rag.

    12

    Replace the caliper bracket and tighten the bolts to 120- to 130-foot pounds, with the torque wrench and socket.

    13

    Replace the pads in the caliper bracket in their respective positions.

    14

    Use the caliper reset tool and suitable adapter to turn the caliper piston clockwise into the caliper piston bore until it's fully seated. Place the caliper over the pads and rotor; align the caliper bolts into the caliper and knuckle connection. Tighten the bolts to 35-foot pounds, using the torque wrench and socket.

    15

    Repeat this procedure for the other side. Rotors and pads should always be replaced in sets. Replace the wheels and wheel nuts and then tighten them to 100-foot pounds with the torque wrench and socket. Torque the wheel nuts in a star pattern once the Taurus is back on the ground.

    16

    Pump the brake pedal several times to extend the caliper pistons back out of the bore and seat them against the surface of the rotor. After this step, recheck the brake fluid and add new brake fluid if necessary. Test drive the Taurus for proper braking operation.

Selasa, 15 Desember 2009

Troubleshooting Ford Taurus Anti-Lock Brakes

The 1990 through 1995 Ford Taurus came equipped with the Teves Mark 4 four wheel anti-lock brake system. This system was replaced in 1996 with the more compact Bosch 5.0 four wheel ABS system. Both systems control the front wheels independently and the rear wheels in tandem, and troubleshooting them is identical.

Testing with Scan Tools

    Testing these anti-lock brake systems begins with a scan tool. It tells you where to start troubleshooting. The codes stored in the ABS computer indicate which sensor or circuit in the system has a problem. Datastream mode will allow you to see if the sensors are working, or not supplying the signal needed by the computer to control the system.

    ABS-capable scan tools are available at your local auto parts store, and these days, troubleshooting many systems requires one. Look for one capable of interfacing your Taurus' ABS system.

    There are two tests available with the scan tool. First, read trouble codes. This test will tell you which code(s) are stored in the computer's memory, and a description of the circuit or component that has the failure.

    The datastream allows you to monitor the sensor signals as you drive the car. Scroll down to see the wheel speed sensor readings and drive. All four sensors should read roughly the same, and rise and fall steadily with the vehicle's speed.

Wheel Speed Sensor Testing

    The most common cause of wheel speed sensor failures in the Taurus are contamination by metal particles from the brake system. If a trouble code for a sensor comes up, make removing and cleaning the sensor of metal the first thing you do. This will eliminate most failures here. The next test is a resistance test. Check for resistance at the sensor itself by measuring with an ohm meter. The sensor should have some resistance but be low. If a sensor has zero resistance or infinite resistance, replace it.

Modulator Valve Assembly Testing

    The modulator valve assembly contains the solenoid valves that the computer opens and closes to control brake pressure at the wheels. To test those valves , unplug the electrical connector, and do a resistance check at each solenoid valve. Again, as with the wheel speed sensor, there will be some resistance. If a solenoid is found to have no resistance or infinite resistance, replace it.

Senin, 14 Desember 2009

DIY Jeep Brakes

DIY Jeep Brakes

Jeep models and products have changed over the 50 years of the company's existence, but the basic principle of braking systems has changed very little. Most Jeeps have a front disk, rear drum brake system, with modern models having four wheel disk, and older Jeeps using four wheel drum style brakes. Changing the brakes will take the average backyard mechanic about 30 minutes per brake.

Front Brakes

    In the mid-1970s, Jeep rolled out front disk rotors with pads and calipers, which apply friction to stop the Jeep better than the previous drum system. The Jeep retained rear drums until the mid-1990s, when all four disk brakes were introduced. Repair of the disk brakes involves removing the front wheel by jacking up the frame rail and turning the lug nuts counterclockwise, then taking the caliper off of the rotor by unbolting the two mount bolts at the rear of the caliper. The rotor design has changed over the model years, with the addition of a spindle nut and sealed front wheel bearings. With the rotor off, it can be resurfaced and replaced, followed by the caliper and wheel. New pads should be applied whenever the rotor is changed, so that they mate well. Worn pads and a new rotor do not mate well.

Rear Brakes

    The drum style brakes that were on the rear axle of older-model Jeeps can be removed in a similar fashion. Jack up the wheel, remove it, and then remove the large drum that covers the brake shoes and assembly. Later models have rear disk brakes, which still incorporate a drum system within their rotors, because calipers cannot be cable-operated. The shoes can be removed by levering off the main springs with a screwdriver or brake tool, then turning the primary spring bolt in the center of each shoe counterclockwise. The shoe slides out toward the front of the assembly. For the rotor/drum combination, remove the rotor as described in section 1, then remove the shoes mounted onto the hub. The rotor/drum combo is actually a double-sided friction surface, and should be replaced rather than resurfaced. Resurface the drum-only style, and replace the springs and drum in the reverse order of removal.

Purging

    Typically after the brakes have been replaced or repaired, it is normal to "bleed" the brake lines by opening the master cylinder (under the hood on the driver's side firewall), and continuously pouring in DOT-3 brake fluid with the bleeder nipples opened one at a time. This is usually a two-person job, as someone needs to press the brake pedal while someone else pours the fluid. The bleeder nipples are located on the back of each caliper and on the back of each drum brake assembly (at the top, near the wheel cylinder). Turn them counterclockwise to open, clockwise to close. The fluid should be poured until the stream coming out of the nipple is golden yellow and bubble-free. Once the lines are bled, close the nipples tightly and top off the master cylinder to the correct level.

Minggu, 13 Desember 2009

How to Remove Honda Brake Drums

The rear drum brakes on your Honda can be very stubborn to remove. On many models, the drums are pressed onto the rear wheel hub and cannot be removed by hand. The brake drums need to be removed before you can perform any work on the rear brakes, or if you need to replace the drums due to damage or excessive wear. This only applies to the rear brakes, because the front brakes use a caliper and disc system on the Honda vehicles. Replacement drums from your Honda are available from the dealer or through most auto parts stores if yours need replacement.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels of your Honda using a lug wrench or a socket and breaker bar. Do not remove the lug nuts from the wheel studs yet, or the car will become unstable.

    2

    Raise the rear of the car with a jack and support it with a set of jack stands. Remove the lug nuts then remove the wheels from the car.

    3

    Locate the two threaded holes on the face of the brake drum. On almost all Honda models, these holes will accept a 12-millimeter bolt. Thread the bolts into the two holes and turn them clockwise with a socket and ratchet.

    4

    Work back and forth between the bolts, tightening them in even amounts. The bolts will slowly push the brake drum out and off the hub. Do not let the drum fall to the ground when it comes off the hub. Remove the bolts from the brake drum before you reinstall it on the hub.

How to Replace Rear Disc Brakes in a Pontiac Grand Am

Like many other high-powered cars, the Pontiac Grand Am may have disc brakes in the front and rear. Disc brakes provide more efficient stopping power than drum brakes. If your Grand Am has rear disc brakes, read further to learn how to replace them.

Instructions

    1

    Remove approximately two-thirds of the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir to prevent overflow. Use a syringe or suction gun to siphon the brake fluid. Empty it into an approved sealed container and dispose of it according to your state's regulations.

    2

    Raise the Pontiac Grand Am off the ground with a car jack. Support the vehicle on all sides with jack stands. Keep children and animals away from the car while replacing the rear disc brakes.

    3

    Loosen the lug nuts with a torque wrench. Remove the wheels and set them aside face up to prevent damage.

    4

    Disconnect the caliper from the steering knuckle and hang it from the Grand Am's frame with mechanical wire. Push on the outer edge of the outboard brake pad to release the dowels and remove the brake pad from the bottom of the caliper. Pull the inboard brake pads out of the caliper.

    5

    Install the inboard brake pad in the caliper by engaging the brake pad's spring clip onto the caliper piston. Fasten the outboard brake pad into the end of the caliper by snapping the mounting dowels into place.

    6

    Lay the caliper on the steering knuckle and position it over the rotor. Replace the mounting bolts and sleeves then torque them to 23 feet or pounds.

    7

    Replace the rear wheels on the Pontiac Grand Am. Lower the car to the ground. Pump the brake pedal to seat the brake pads. Replace the brake fluid to bring it up to the proper level.

Sabtu, 12 Desember 2009

How to Fix Suburban Brakes

Poor brakes can cause serious problems, even on large vehicles like the Chevy Suburban. You need to get your brakes fixed as soon as possible. The number-one cause of bad brakes on any vehicle is worn-down brake pads. Replacing the pads easily solves this problem. If worn pads are not replaced quickly, however, they can lead to more serious damage on the brake assembly, forcing you to replace larger parts like the brake discs.

Instructions

    1

    Drain about ..." of the brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir using a proper siphoning tool. Raise and support the front or rear end of the Suburban on jack stands, loosening the lug nuts first. Block the wheels on the other end, then remove the wheels on the raised end.

    2

    Wash the entire brake disc and caliper with an aerosol brake-system cleaner, placing a pan underneath to catch the residue. Don't use a petroleum-based cleaner.

    3

    Press the brake caliper's piston into the caliper using a C-clamp. Do this slowly and a bit at a time and watch the master cylinder's fluid level to make sure it doesn't overflow. You must remove the bleed screw first for a Suburban with anti-lock brakes.

    4

    Disconnect the caliper from the brake disc. Disconnect the hose from the caliper by removing its inlet-fitting bolt and plug the hole. Remove the bolts mounting the caliper bracket to the disc with an open-end wrench to detach the caliper.

    5

    Inspect the condition of the brake disc. If there are deep grooves in the disc (as a result of worn, neglected brake pads), replace the disc.

    6

    Remove the lower bolt mounting the caliper to the bracket and pivot the caliper up to reach the brake pads. On the rear brakes of a Suburban 1500 model, you must hold the caliper slide pin with one wrench while loosening the mounting bolt with another.

    7

    Remove the inner and outer brake pads from the caliper. Remove and inspect the upper and lower pad retainers from the mounting bracket. Reinstall them if they are in good condition; replace them if they are cracked or distorted.

    8

    Apply an anti-squeal compound to the back end of your replacement pads and let it set for a few minutes. Install the new inner and outer brake pads to the caliper.

    9

    Reinstall the brake caliper in reverse order of removal, using a new sealing washer when connecting the brake hose to the caliper. Replace the wheels and lower the vehicle once you've replaced the pads on both wheels. Repeat for the other end of the Suburban and refill the master cylinder when completely finished.

Jumat, 11 Desember 2009

How to Do a Brake Job on 2000 Dodge Ram 1500

How to Do a Brake Job on 2000 Dodge Ram 1500

The brake system on the 2000 Dodge Ram 1500 includes the brake pads, brake rotors and the brake calipers. Each of these brake components work together so that the Dodge Ram can come to a safe and secure stop. The brake caliper is the brake component that presses the inner and outer brake pads against the sides of the rotors. When the brake pads have been fully pressed to the sides of the moving rotors, the friction of the brake pads against the brake rotors is what stops the truck.

Instructions

    1

    Park the 2000 Dodge Ram 1500 in a safe area that has a level surface.

    2

    Loosen the lug nuts from the front passenger side wheel with the tire tool.

    3

    Move to the driver-side front wheel and loosen the lug nuts with the tire tool.

    4

    Jack up the front of the 2000 Dodge Ram 1500 with a floor jack. Then, place the car stands underneath the proper jacking points. Lower the front of the Dodge Ram onto the car stands and leave the jack sitting in the upright position.

    5

    Unscrew the lug nuts from the front passenger-side wheel with the tire tool. Pull the wheel and place it flat down.

    6

    Move to the driver-side front wheel and unscrew the lug nuts from the wheel with the tire tool. Pull the wheel off and place it flat down.

    7

    Locate the opening on the top of the driver-side brake rotor. Slide the pry bar between the outer brake pad and the rotor. Pry the outer brake pad until the caliper becomes loose enough to pull off the brake rotor.

    8

    Loosen and remove the two caliper pin bolts on the back side of the brake caliper with a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and a 3/8-inch drive socket.

    9

    Pull the brake caliper off the brake rotor and secure it to the lower control arm behind the wheel hub assembly with the bungee strap.

    10

    Pull the inner brake pad out. Slide the C-clamp into the caliper facing the outer brake pad. The, turn the C-clamp clockwise and compress the outer brake pad to the caliper cylinder until the cylinder has fully retracted into the caliper.

    11

    Unscrew the C-clamp and pull it out of the caliper. Then, pull the outer brake pad out of the brake caliper. Install the replacement brake pads along with any other brake pad accessories.

    12

    Remove the bungee strap and hang the brake caliper back on the side of the rotor. Screw the two mounting bolts into the back side of the caliper. Tighten the bolts tight with the ratchet and socket. Then, pull the wheel and lug nuts back on. Tighten the lug nuts with the tire tool.

    13

    Follow the same steps as outlined above to replace the brake pads on the front passenger-side wheel. Replace the front wheels and lower the truck to the ground. Tighten the lug nuts

    14

    Move to the rear of the truck, lift it up and support it on jack stands. Replace the brake pads in the rear as you did the front. Replace the wheels, lower the truck and tighten the lug nuts.

    15

    Crank the 2000 Dodge Ram 1500 and pump the brake pedal a few times to seat the new brake pads. Turn the engine off.

Kamis, 10 Desember 2009

Brake Master Cylinder Repair Instructions

Brake Master Cylinder Repair Instructions

An automotive master cylinder takes the input of the brake pedal and uses it to push hydraulic fluid out to the wheel cylinders and brake calipers. After the master cylinder is replaced the brakes need to be bled to remove air from the system. If air is trapped in the brake lines it will lessen the amount of force the master cylinder applies to the brakes.

Removing the Master Cylinder

    Begin by siphoning as much of the brake fluid out of the master cylinder as possible. Brake fluid will strip the paint off metal so be careful not to allow brake fluid to come in contact with any painted surfaces on the vehicle.

    Disconnect the hydraulic lines from the master cylinder. Disconnect the pushrod from the brake pedal. Remove the two bolts that connect the master cylinder to the power booster. Remove the master cylinder from the vehicle.

    Depending on the make and model of the vehicle you're servicing you may have to remove components from the old master cylinder and transfer them to the new one. Follow the guidelines listed in the vehicle's service manual.

Installing the Master Cylinder

    Position the brake master cylinder against the power booster and reconnect the bolts that secure it. Reconnect the pushrod from the brake pedal. Reconnect the hydraulic lines to the master cylinder. Fill the master cylinder with fresh hydraulic fluid.

Bleeding the Brake Lines

    Bleeding the brake lines is the process by which air is forced out of the hydraulic system, and should be done any time a brake system component is removed or the brake lines are disconnected.

    Begin by making sure the vehicle is parked on a level surface and the master cylinder is topped off. Do not allow the master cylinder to empty during this process. That would allow more air to enter the hydraulic circuit.

    Lift the vehicle and support with jack stands underneath the frame or axles. Remove the wheels and tires. You will need to locate the bleeder screw on each wheel cylinder/brake caliper. On drum brakes the bleeder screw is usually located on the inboard side of the brake backing plate. On disc brakes the bleeder screw is normally near the fitting where the brake line attaches to the caliper.

    Start with the wheel closest to the master cylinder; on most cars this will be the front left wheel. Fit a length of clear plastic tubing over the bleeder screw and place the other end in a jar with brake fluid in the bottom. Make sure the end of the hose in the jar is covered with brake fluid at all times.

    Have an assistant operate the brake pedal. Have the assistant pump the brake pedal a few times and then hold it down. Open the bleeder screw, and watch as the fluid leaks out. You are looking for air bubbles in the line.

    Close the screw and repeat the process until fluid comes out of the line with no air bubbles. Then continue around to the right front wheel, then the left rear wheel and finally the right rear wheel. After all the brakes have been bled you can reinstall the wheels and tires and lower the vehicle.

How to Remove the Front Caliper of an Oldsmobile Aurora

The brake calipers on the Oldsmobile Aurora press the brake pads against the spinning disc, or rotor, to slow or stop the vehicle. Over time, those calipers can wear or sustain damage, leading to uneven or poor braking. To avoid potential braking problems, inspect, and replace if necessary, the calipers when changing the brake pads.

Instructions

    1

    Remove two-thirds of the brake fluid from the master cylinder using a turkey baster or siphon pump. The master cylinder is located on the driver's side rear of the engine compartment and has a large plastic reservoir atop it.

    2

    Loosen, but do not remove, the lug nuts on the front wheels with a tire iron. Lift the front of the Aurora with the jack and support it with jack stands. Remove the lug nuts completely and take off the wheels.

    3

    Thread two of the lug nuts on the wheel studs loosely to keep the rotor on the hub once the caliper has been removed.

    4

    Use the socket and ratchet to remove the bolts that hold the brake line to the caliper. Remove the brake line from the caliper, which fits over the rotor like a clamp. Plug the hose with the shop rag to avoid fluid loss.

    5

    Place the C-clamp over the caliper with one end on the face of the piston. Compress the caliper piston into the bore by turning the handle on the C-clamp inward. Place a thin piece of cardboard over the face of the piston to prevent surface damage.

    6

    Remove the caliper mounting bolts with a ratchet and socket. Remove the caliper from the mounting bracket.

How to Adjust ABS Brakes in a Jetta

The ABS brakes in a Jetta are self-adjusting for the most part. However, part of the adjustment requires that you go through a manual process so that the brakes are adjusted properly. The brake pad material must be properly bed into the brake rotor surface. If the brakes are not adjusted properly, the pad material will not sit flush against the rotor surface, it may "bite" into the surface of the rotor, or hot spots may develop on the rotor surface, causing uneven rotor and pad wear.

Instructions

    1

    Go to an open road and bring the Jetta up to 40 miles per hour.

    2

    Press on the brakes with firm, but not hard, pressure until the Jetta slows to 10 miles per hour. Do not stop.

    3

    Speed back up to 40 miles per hour and repeat the braking process to 10 miles per hour. Repeat this several times, and make sure that you do not stop between braking cycles.

    4

    Park the Jetta and let the car cool off for 20 minutes. The brakes should be properly adjusted, your ABS should have set the ABS parameters it needs, and the pads should be properly bed into the rotor surface.

Rabu, 09 Desember 2009

How to Adjust the Emergency Brake on a 2005 Chevy Cavalier

How to Adjust the Emergency Brake on a 2005 Chevy Cavalier

You can adjust the emergency brake on your 2005 Chevy Cavalier yourself to save you time and money. The parking brake helps to keep stress off of the Cavalier's transmission while it is in park. It also is used as the backup brake system in the event of brake failure. The cables in the Chevy stretch out over time, and the slack needs to be taken up in order for the emergency brake to function properly.

Instructions

    1

    Lift up on the emergency brake lever five notches.

    2

    Place wheel chocks in front of and behind the front wheels of your Cavalier. Lift up the rear of the vehicle with a jack and slide jack stands underneath and next to each of the rear wheels.

    3

    Look under the center point of the vehicle for a threaded rod with an adjustment nut attached to it. Hold the rod in place with one hand and tighten the nut with a wrench with the other hand.

    4

    Test the adjustment by spinning one of the rear wheels backwards. It should be difficult to spin. When you try to spin it forward, it should lock.

    5

    Disengage the emergency brake and test the rear wheels, making sure they spin freely.

    6

    Raise the vehicle up, remove the jack stands, lower the vehicle with the jack and remove the wheel chocks.

Selasa, 08 Desember 2009

How Do I Remove the Brake Cable on a Ford Ranger?

How Do I Remove the Brake Cable on a Ford Ranger?

The Ford Ranger uses a front disc and rear drum braking system. The parking brake system pushes the rear brake shoes outward to contact the drums through a pedal and a series of cables, which activate the shoes. These cables can also activate the brakes in the event of a total failure of the hydraulic system; this is why they are sometimes called emergency brakes. The cables must be replaced when they do not operate freely.

Instructions

Front Brake Cable

    1

    Release the parking brake pedal completely. Jack up the Ranger, and support it with jack stands. From under the vehicle, grasp the center brake cable and pull down about 4 inches. Place the 5/32-inch drill bit into the cable through the brake control as a pin to hold the cable loose. Remove the left front inner fender apron.

    2

    Disconnect the front parking brake cable and conduit from the intermediate cable by pushing the cable into the slotted opening and sliding the ball end out. Remove the front brake cable from the brackets that hold it by loosening the bolts. Remove the two bolts holding the parking brake control (pedal) in place. Remove the parking brake control with the front brake cable and conduit attached.

    3

    Remove the front brake cable and conduit from the control by loosening the jam nut. Compress the front brake cable to the control clip, and remove the front cable and conduit from the brake control. Pull the cable and conduit free from the vehicle.

Rear Brake Cables

    4

    Remove both rear wheels and brake drums. Disconnect the intermediate brake cable from the left rear brake cable by compressing the cable into the intermediate connector and sliding it out through the opening. Separate the left and right rear brake cables at the cable equalizer. This is a piece of metal that holds both cables so that they apply equally.

    5

    Remove both left and right rear brake cables from the brackets and retainers holding them to the vehicle frame by loosening any bolts that hold the brackets. At the top of the axle, they are held directly to hydraulic brake lines by clips. Disconnect the parking brake cable from the parking brake lever at the rear wheel brake assembly, by compressing the cable end in and sliding it out from the lever.

    6

    Compress the retainer fingers on the rear brake cable conduits at each wheel, and slide the conduit and cable out from the rear brake backing plate. Both rear cables should be completely removed from the vehicle at this time. Remove the intermediate cable by loosening the bolts holding the brackets to the cable conduit, and removing the conduit and cable from the vehicle.